ResearchPad - cell-migration https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Circular RNA hsa_circ_0072309 inhibits non-small cell lung cancer progression by sponging miR-580-3p]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9229 Objective: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) continues to top the list of cancer mortalities worldwide. Early diagnosis and therapeutic interventions targeting NSCLC is becoming the world’s significant challenge. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are emerging as a group of potential cancer biomarkers.

Materials and methods: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was employed to examine the expression of circ_0072309 in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8), wound healing and Transwell assays were used to analyze cell proliferation, migration and invasion in A549 and H1299 cells. The relationship between circ_0072309 and miR-580-3 was analyzed by Luciferase reporter and RNA pull down assays.

Results: We screened circ_0072309 from Gene Expression Omnibus and found that circ_0072309 was lowly expressed in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. The transfection of circ_0072309-overexpressing vector significantly suppressed the cell proliferation, migration and invasion in A549 and H1299 cells. We predicted that miR-580-3p is a target of circ_0072309 by using publicly available bioinformatic algorithms Circinteractome tool and confirmed that circ_0072309 directly bound to miR-580-3p. Furthermore, the addition of miR-580-3p mitigated the blockage of cell proliferation, migration and invasion induced by circ_0072309.

Conclusions: These data showed that circ_0072309 inhibits the progression of NSCLC progression via blocking the expression of miR-580-3p. These findings revealed the anti-tumor role of circ_0072309 during the development of NSCLC and provided a novel diagnostic biomarker and potential therapy for NSCLC.

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<![CDATA[MiR-139-5p influences hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion and proliferation capacities via decreasing SLITRK4 expression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9224 The microRNA, miR-139-5p, has been proved to play important roles in regulating tumor progression, including prostate cancer, osteosarcoma, esophageal cancer, and so on, but its correlation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) still remains unclear. Here we found that hsa-miR-139-5p (miR-139-5p) was decreased in HCC samples compared with normal liver tissues, and a lower expression of miR-139-5p was connected to a poorer prognosis. Mechanism study indicated that a decreased/increased miR-139-5p could increase/decrease HCC cells invasion and proliferation capacities via increasing SLITRK4 expression, what’s more, the reverse assays also confirmed the conclusion when we knocked down SLITRK4 in the miR-139-5p low-expression cells. Luciferase assay confirmed that miR-139-5p could directly bind to the 3′UTR of SLITRK4 mRNA to regulate its expression. Together, these findings show the importance of miR-139-5p/SLITRK4 pathway in HCC growth and progression and may provide new targets for us to better arrange the progression of HCC.

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<![CDATA[Regulation of cell growth and migration by miR-96 and miR-183 in a breast cancer model of epithelial-mesenchymal transition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7836 Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women, and has the second highest mortality rate. Over 90% of all cancer-related deaths are due to metastasis, which is the spread of malignant cells from the primary tumor to a secondary site in the body. It is hypothesized that one cause of metastasis involves epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). When epithelial cells undergo EMT and transition into mesenchymal cells, they display increased levels of cell proliferation and invasion, resulting in a more aggressive phenotype. While many factors regulate EMT, microRNAs have been implicated in driving this process. MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs that suppress protein production, therefore loss of microRNAs may promote the overexpression of specific target proteins important for EMT. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of miR-96 and miR-183 in EMT in breast cancer. Both miR-96 and miR-183 were found to be downregulated in post-EMT breast cancer cells. When microRNA mimics were transfected into these cells, there was a significant decrease in cell viability and migration, and a shift from a mesenchymal to an epithelial morphology (mesenchymal-epithelial transition or MET). These MET-related changes may be facilitated in part by the regulation of ZEB1 and vimentin, as both of these proteins were downregulated when miR-96 and miR-183 were overexpressed in post-EMT cells. These findings indicate that the loss of miR-96 and miR-183 may help facilitate EMT and contribute to the maintenance of a mesenchymal phenotype. Understanding the role of microRNAs in regulating EMT is significant in order to not only further elucidate the pathways that facilitate metastasis, but also identify potential therapeutic options for preventing or reversing this process.

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<![CDATA[The adipokine vaspin is associated with decreased coronary in-stent restenosis <i>in vivo</i> and inhibits migration of human coronary smooth muscle cells <i>in vitro</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7692 Percutaneous coronary intervention represents the most important treatment modality of coronary artery stenosis. In-stent restenosis (ISR) is still a limitation for the long-term outcome despite the introduction of drug eluting stents. It has been shown that adipokines directly influence vessel wall homeostasis by influencing the function of endothelial cells and arterial smooth muscle cells. Visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin vaspin was recently identified as a member of serine protease inhibitor family and serveral studies could demonstrate a relation to metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate a role of vaspin in the development of in-stent restenosis in vivo and on migration of smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells in vitro.MethodsWe studied 85 patients with stable coronary artery disease who underwent elective and successful PCI with implatation of drug eluting stents. Blood samples were taken directly before PCI. Vaspin plasma levels were measured by specific ELISA. ISR was evaluated eight months later by coronary angiography. Human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) migration was analyzed by an in-vitro migration assay with different concentrations (0.004ng/mL up to 40ng/mL) of vaspin as well as by an scratch assay. For proliferation an impedance measurement with specialiced E-Plates was performed.ResultsDuring the follow up period, 14 patients developed ISR. Patients with ISR had significantly lower vaspin plasma levels compared to patients without ISR (0.213 ng/ml vs 0.382 ng/ml; p = 0.001). In patients with plasma vaspin levels above 1.35 ng/ml we could not observe any restenosis. There was also a significant correlation of plasma vaspin levels and late lumen loss in the stented coronary segments. Further we could demonstrate that vaspin nearly abolishes serum induced migration of HCASMC (100% vs. 9%; p<0.001) in a biphasic manner but not migration of HUVEC. Proliferation of HCASMC and HUVEC was not modulated by vaspin treatment.ConclusionWe were able to show that the adipokine vaspin selectively inhibits human coronary SMC migration in vitro and has no effect on HUVEC migration. Vaspin had no effect on proliferation of HUVEC which is an important process of the healing of the stented vessel. In addition, the occurrence of ISR after PCI with implantation of drug eluting stents was significantly associated with low vaspin plasma levels before intervention. Determination of vaspin plasma levels before PCI might be helpful in the identification of patients with high risk for development of ISR after stent implantation. In addition, the selective effects of vaspin on smooth muscle cell migration could potentially be used to reduce ISR without inhibition of re-endothelialization of the stented segment. ]]> <![CDATA[Effect of celecoxib in treatment of burn-induced hypermetabolism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndeaf5b05-2afc-45be-92c0-1480786a5c1f Background: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of prostanoid biosynthesis. Under pathologic conditions, COX-2 activity can produce reactive oxygen species and toxic prostaglandin metabolites that exacerbate injury and metabolic disturbance. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of Celecoxib (the inhibitor of COX-2) treatment on lipolysis in burn mice.

Methods: One hundred male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into sham group, burn group, celecoxib group, and burn with celecoxib group (25 mice in each group). Thirty percent total body surface area (TBSA) full-thickness injury was made for mice to mimic burn injuries. Volume of oxygen uptake (VO2), volume of carbon dioxide output (VCO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), energy expenditure (EE), COX-2 and uncoupled protein-1 (UCP-1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) were measured for different groups.

Results: Adipose tissue (AT) activation was associated with the augmentation of mitochondria biogenesis, and UCP-1 expression in isolated iBAT mitochondria. In addition, VO2, VCO2, EE, COX-2, and UCP-1 expression were significantly higher in burn group than in burn with celecoxib group (P<0.05).

Conclusion: BAT plays important roles in burn injury-induced hypermetabolism through its morphological changes and elevating the expression of UCP-1. Celecoxib could improve lipolysis after burn injury.

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<![CDATA[Tripartite motif containing 35 contributes to the proliferation, migration, and invasion of lung cancer cells <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf9f428bd-7fc2-4f06-9f50-5d826c45a0ed The tripartite motif (TRIM) family is a family of proteins with highly conserved domains. Previous researches have suggested that the members of TRIM family proteins played a crucial role in cancer development and progression. Our study explored the relationship between TRIM35 and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The study showed that the expression of TRIM35 was increased in NSCLC samples, and patients with high expression of TRIM35 had a poor clinical prognosis. Overexpression of TRIM35 in NSCLC cell line H460 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, knockdown of TRIM35 produced an opposite result in A549 and H1299 cell lines. In vivo study further confirmed that overexpression of TRIM35 promoted tumor formation. The RNA-seq analysis suggested that TRIM35 might promote lung cancer proliferation, migration, and invasion by regulating cancer-associated functions and signaling pathways. Hence, we identified TRIM35 played a significant role in tumoral growth and was a potential diagnosis and prognosis target for lung cancer.

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<![CDATA[A mathematical model coupling polarity signaling to cell adhesion explains diverse cell migration patterns]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be0154

Protrusion and retraction of lamellipodia are common features of eukaryotic cell motility. As a cell migrates through its extracellular matrix (ECM), lamellipod growth increases cell-ECM contact area and enhances engagement of integrin receptors, locally amplifying ECM input to internal signaling cascades. In contrast, contraction of lamellipodia results in reduced integrin engagement that dampens the level of ECM-induced signaling. These changes in cell shape are both influenced by, and feed back onto ECM signaling. Motivated by experimental observations on melanoma cells lines (1205Lu and SBcl2) migrating on fibronectin (FN) coated topographic substrates (anisotropic post-density arrays), we probe this interplay between intracellular and ECM signaling. Experimentally, cells exhibited one of three lamellipodial dynamics: persistently polarized, random, or oscillatory, with competing lamellipodia oscillating out of phase (Park et al., 2017). Pharmacological treatments, changes in FN density, and substrate topography all affected the fraction of cells exhibiting these behaviours. We use these observations as constraints to test a sequence of hypotheses for how intracellular (GTPase) and ECM signaling jointly regulate lamellipodial dynamics. The models encoding these hypotheses are predicated on mutually antagonistic Rac-Rho signaling, Rac-mediated protrusion (via activation of Arp2/3 actin nucleation) and Rho-mediated contraction (via ROCK phosphorylation of myosin light chain), which are coupled to ECM signaling that is modulated by protrusion/contraction. By testing each model against experimental observations, we identify how the signaling layers interact to generate the diverse range of cell behaviors, and how various molecular perturbations and changes in ECM signaling modulate the fraction of cells exhibiting each. We identify several factors that play distinct but critical roles in generating the observed dynamic: (1) competition between lamellipodia for shared pools of Rac and Rho, (2) activation of RhoA by ECM signaling, and (3) feedback from lamellipodial growth or contraction to cell-ECM contact area and therefore to the ECM signaling level.

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<![CDATA[Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 attenuates PDGF-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration via the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc0e7

Background and objectives

Resolvin D1 (RvD1) is a specialized pro-resolving lipid mediator that has been previously shown to attenuate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, a key process in the development of intimal hyperplasia. We sought to investigate the role of the cAMP/PKA pathway in mediating the effects of the aspirin-triggered epimer 17R-RvD1 (AT-RvD1) on VSMC migration.

Methods

VSMCs were harvested from human saphenous veins. VSMCs were analyzed for intracellular cAMP levels and PKA activity after exposure to AT-RvD1. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced migration and cytoskeletal changes in VSMCs were observed through scratch, Transwell, and cell shape assays in the presence or absence of a PKA inhibitor (Rp-8-Br-cAMP). Further investigation of the pathways involved in AT-RvD1 signaling was performed by measuring Rac1 activity, vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation and paxillin translocation. Finally, we examined the role of RvD1 receptors (GPR32 and ALX/FPR2) in AT-RvD1 induced effects on VSMC migration and PKA activity.

Results

Treatment with AT-RvD1 induced a significant increase in cAMP levels and PKA activity in VSMCs at 5 minutes and 30 minutes, respectively. AT-RvD1 attenuated PDGF-induced VSMC migration and cytoskeletal rearrangements. These effects were attenuated by the PKA inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMP, suggesting cAMP/PKA involvement. Treatment of VSMC with AT-RvD1 inhibited PDGF-stimulated Rac1 activity, increased VASP phosphorylation, and attenuated paxillin localization to focal adhesions; these effects were negated by the addition of Rp-8-Br-cAMP. The effects of AT-RvD1 on VSMC migration and PKA activity were attenuated by blocking ALX/FPR2, suggesting an important role of this G-protein coupled receptor.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that AT-RvD1 attenuates PDGF-induced VSMC migration via ALX/FPR2 and cAMP/PKA. Interference with Rac1, VASP and paxillin function appear to mediate the downstream effects of AT-RvD1 on VSMC migration.

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<![CDATA[20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 as agent for the treatment of LMN-CRC via regulating epithelial–mesenchymal transition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne3e5a7ad-0f4a-4d4f-84d5-8b078cd3bce9

Abstract

The lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer (LMN-CRC) seriously threatens the prognosis of patients. Chemotherapy, as the most common treatment, results in severe bone marrow suppression. 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 (SGRh2), a major effective constituent of ginseng, has demonstrated therapeutic effects on a variety of diseases, including some tumours. SGRh2 treatment had no effect on other organs. Therefore, ginsenosides are considered a safe and effective antineoplastic drug. However, the effects of SGRh2 on LMN-CRC remain unknown. The present study investigated the potential effect of SGRh2 on LMN-CRC in vitro and in vivo. SW480 and CoLo205 cell lines were treated with SGRh2. SGRh2 dose-dependently decreased CRC cell proliferation by CCK-8, colony formation and Edu assays. The Transwell and scratch assays revealed that SGRh2 inhibits the migratory and invasive abilities of CRC cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the results of Western blotting revealed that SGRh2 decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP9. In terms of the underlying mechanisms, SGRh2 regulates CRC metastasis by affecting epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), which significantly up-regulated epithelial biomarkers (E-cadherin) and down-regulated mesenchymal biomarkers (N-cadherin and vimentin) and EMT transcriptional factors (Smad-3, Snail-1, and Twist-1). In vivo, SGRh2 significantly inhibited LMN-CRC without affecting other normal organs. Immunohistochemical results showed that SGRh2 treats LMN-CRC by regulating EMT. These results demonstrate that SGRh2 has therapeutic potential for LMN-CRC.

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<![CDATA[The role of HOPX in normal tissues and tumor progression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc638654d-59cb-4265-9a9a-263a54a45f49

Abstract

The homeodomain-only protein homeobox (HOPX) as the smallest homeodomain protein, lacks certain conserved residues required for DNA binding. Through our literature search, we reviewed the current understandings of HOPX in normal tissues and tumor progression. HOPX was initially identified as a critical transcription factor in various normal tissues, which interacted with serum response factor (SRF) or other substance to regulate normal physiological function. However, HOPX is at a low expression or methylation level in tumors. These data indicated that HOPX may play a very important role in regulating differentiation phenotype and tumor suppressive function. We predicted the prognosis of HOPX in tumors from TCGA database and discussed the downstream genes of HOPX. To understand how HOPX is involved in the mechanisms between physical and pathological conditions could lead to novel therapeutic strategies for treatment.

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<![CDATA[BCYRN1 is correlated with progression and prognosis in gastric cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N283072aa-97c8-46ba-955a-6fa3edfad2f3

Abstract

Long non-coding RNA brain cytoplasmic RNA 1 (BCYRN1) has been found to play an important role in tumorigenesis of a variety of tumors including gastric cancer (GC). However, the prognostic significance and molecular mechanism of BCYRN1 was still unknown in GC. In the present study, we found BCYRN1 expression was dramatically elevated in GC tissues and cell lines, and positively associated with tumor depth, lymph node metastasis and clinical stage in patients with GC. Moreover, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses demonstrated that high BCYRN1 expression was independent prognostic factor for overall survival in GC patients. In lncRNA-microRNA interactome database, we found that there were putative binding sites between BCYRN1 and miR-204-5p. Furthermore, we confirmed that down-regulation of BCYRN1 inhibited GC cell proliferation, migration and invasion through directly up-regulated miR-204-5p expression. In conclusion, BCYRN1 acts as a promising prognostic predictor in GC patients and regulated GC cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration and invasion through targeting miR-204-5p.

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<![CDATA[Oncogenic KSHV-encoded interferon regulatory factor upregulates HMGB2 and CMPK1 expression to promote cell invasion by disrupting a complex lncRNA-OIP5-AS1/miR-218-5p network]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b524dd5eed0c4842bc621

Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), a highly disseminated tumor of hyperproliferative spindle endothelial cells, is the most common AIDS-associated malignancy caused by infection of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). KSHV-encoded viral interferon regulatory factor 1 (vIRF1) is a viral oncogene but its role in KSHV-induced tumor invasiveness and motility remains unknown. Here, we report that vIRF1 promotes endothelial cell migration, invasion and proliferation by down-regulating miR-218-5p to relieve its suppression of downstream targets high mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) and cytidine/uridine monophosphate kinase 1 (CMPK1). Mechanistically, vIRF1 inhibits p53 function to increase the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and DNA methylation of the promoter of pre-miR-218-1, a precursor of miR-218-5p, and increases the expression of a long non-coding RNA OIP5 antisense RNA 1 (lnc-OIP5-AS1), which acts as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of miR-218-5p to inhibit its function and reduce its stability. Moreover, lnc-OIP5-AS1 increases DNA methylation of the pre-miR-218-1 promoter. Finally, deletion of vIRF1 from the KSHV genome reduces the level of lnc-OIP5-AS1, increases the level of miR-218-5p, and inhibits KSHV-induced invasion. Together, these results define a novel complex lnc-OIP5-AS1/miR-218-5p network hijacked by vIRF1 to promote invasiveness and motility of KSHV-induced tumors.

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<![CDATA[Inferring statistical properties of 3D cell geometry from 2D slices]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df30ad5eed0c484580bba

Although cell shape can reflect the mechanical and biochemical properties of the cell and its environment, quantification of 3D cell shapes within 3D tissues remains difficult, typically requiring digital reconstruction from a stack of 2D images. We investigate a simple alternative technique to extract information about the 3D shapes of cells in a tissue; this technique connects the ensemble of 3D shapes in the tissue with the distribution of 2D shapes observed in independent 2D slices. Using cell vertex model geometries, we find that the distribution of 2D shapes allows clear determination of the mean value of a 3D shape index. We analyze the errors that may arise in practice in the estimation of the mean 3D shape index from 2D imagery and find that typically only a few dozen cells in 2D imagery are required to reduce uncertainty below 2%. Even though we developed the method for isotropic animal tissues, we demonstrate it on an anisotropic plant tissue. This framework could also be naturally extended to estimate additional 3D geometric features and quantify their uncertainty in other materials.

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<![CDATA[The tumor suppressor p53 can promote collective cellular migration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df35cd5eed0c4845811ac

Loss of function of the tumor suppressor p53 is known to increase the rate of migration of cells transiting the narrow pores of the traditional Boyden chamber assay. Here by contrast we investigate how p53 impacts the rate of cellular migration within a 2D confluent cell layer and a 3D collagen-embedded multicellular spheroid. We use two human carcinoma cell lines, the bladder carcinoma EJ and the colorectal carcinoma HCT116. In the confluent 2-D cell layer, for both EJ and HCT cells the migratory speeds and effective diffusion coefficients for the p53 null cells were significantly smaller than in p53-expressing cells. Compared to p53 expressers, p53-null cells exhibited more organized cortical actin rings together with reduced front-rear cell polarity. Furthermore, loss of p53 caused cells to exert smaller traction forces upon their substrates, and reduced formation of cryptic lamellipodia. In the 3D multicellular spheroid, loss of p53 consistently reduced collective cellular migration into surrounding collagen matrix. As regards the role of p53 in cellular migration, extrapolation from the Boyden chamber assay to other cellular microenvironments is seen to be fraught even in terms of the sign of the effect. Together, these paradoxical results show that the effects of p53 on cellular migration are context-dependent.

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<![CDATA[Extracellular vesicles from Kaposi Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lymphoma induce long-term endothelial cell reprogramming]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e941d5eed0c48496fae8

Extracellular signaling is a mechanism that higher eukaryotes have evolved to facilitate organismal homeostasis. Recent years have seen an emerging interest in the role of secreted microvesicles, termed extracellular vesicles (EV) or exosomes in this signaling network. EV contents can be modified by the cell in response to stimuli, allowing them to relay information to neighboring cells, influencing their physiology. Here we show that the tumor virus Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) hijacks this signaling pathway to induce cell proliferation, migration, and transcriptome reprogramming in cells not infected with the virus. KSHV-EV activates the canonical MEK/ERK pathway, while not alerting innate immune regulators, allowing the virus to exert these changes without cellular pathogen recognition. Collectively, we propose that KSHV establishes a niche favorable for viral spread and cell transformation through cell-derived vesicles, all while avoiding detection.

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<![CDATA[Golgin-160 and GMAP210 play an important role in U251 cells migration and invasion initiated by GDNF]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59feb7d5eed0c484135327

Gliomas are the most common malignant tumors of the brain and are characteristic of severe migration and invasion. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes glioma development process. However, the regulatory mechanisms of promoting occurrence and development of glioma have not yet been clearly elucidated. In the present study, the mechanism by which GDNF promotes glioma cell migration and invasion through regulating the dispersion and location of the Golgi apparatus (GA) is described. Following GDNF treatment, a change in the volume and position of GA was observed. The stack area of the GA was enlarged and it was more concentrated near the nucleus. Golgin-160 and Golgi microtubule-associated protein 210 (GMAP210) were identified as target molecules regulating GA positioning. In the absence of either golgin-160 or GMAP210 using lentivirus, the migration and invasion of U251 cells were decreased, while it was increased following GDNF. It was also found that the GA was decreased in size and dispersed following golgin-160 or GMAP210 knockdown, as determined by GA green fluorescence assay. Once GDNF was added, the above phenomenon would be twisted, and the concentrated location and volume of the GA was restored. In combination, the present data suggested that the regulation of the position and size of the GA by golgin-160 and GMAP210 play an important role in U251 cell migration and invasion.

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<![CDATA[Metformin exhibited anticancer activity by lowering cellular cholesterol content in breast cancer cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa614d5eed0c484cabde5

Metformin, a widely prescribed anti-diabetic drug, shows anticancer activity in various cancer types. Few studies documented that there was a decreased level of LDL and total cholesterol in blood serum of metformin users. Based on these views, this study aimed to determine if metformin exhibits anticancer activity by alleviating cholesterol level in cancer cells. The present study found that treatment of breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells with metformin significantly decreased cholesterol content with concomitant inhibition of various cholesterol regulatory genes (e.g., HMGCoR, LDLR and SREBP1). Metformin decreased cell viability, migration and stemness in metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. Similarly, metformin treatment suppressed expressions of anti-apoptotic genes BCL2 and Bcl-xL, and mesenchymal genes vimentin, N-cadherin, Zeb1 and Zeb2 with simultaneous enhancement of apoptotic caspase 3 and Bax, and epithelial genes E-cadherin and keratin 19 expressions, confirming an inhibitory effect of metformin in tumorigenesis. Similar to metformin, depletion of cholesterol by methyl beta cyclodextrin (MBCD) diminished cell viability, migration, EMT and stemness in breast cancer cells. Moreover, metformin-inhibited cell viability, migration, colony and sphere formations were reversed back by cholesterol treatment. Similarly, cholesterol treatment inverted metformin-reduced several gene expressions (e.g., Bcl-xL, BCL2, Zeb1, vimentin, and BMI-1). Additionally, zymography data demonstrated that cholesterol upregulated metformin-suppressed MMP activity. These findings suggested that metformin revealed anticancer activity by lowering of cholesterol content in breast cancer cells. Thus, this study, for the first time, unravelled this additional mechanism of metformin-mediated anticancer activity.

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<![CDATA[Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) reduces hepatocyte growth factor-induced migration of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via S1P receptor 2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0ac7d5eed0c484426a8d

A bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), acts extracellularly as a potent mediator, and is implicated in the progression of various cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). S1P exerts its functions by binding to five types of specific receptors, S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1), S1PR2, S1PR3, S1PR4 and S1PR5 on the plasma membrane. However, the exact roles of S1P and each S1PR in HCC cells remain to be clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effect of S1P on the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced migration of human HCC-derived HuH7 cells, and the involvement of each S1PR. S1P dose-dependently reduced the HGF-induced migration of HuH7 cells. We found that all S1PRs exist in the HuH7 cells. Among each selective agonist for five S1PRs, CYM5520, a selective S1PR2 agonist, significantly suppressed the HGF-induced HuH7 cell migration whereas selective agonists for S1PR1, S1PR3, S1PR4 or S1PR5 failed to affect the migration. The reduction of the HGF-induced migration by S1P was markedly reversed by treatment of JTE013, a selective antagonist for S1PR2, and S1PR2- siRNA. These results strongly suggest that S1P reduces the HGF-induced HCC cell migration via S1PR2. Our findings may provide a novel potential of S1PR2 to therapeutic strategy for metastasis of HCC.

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<![CDATA[Paxillin phosphorylation at serine 273 and its effects on Rac, Rho and adhesion dynamics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a1919463d7e428027f887

Focal adhesions are protein complexes that anchor cells to the extracellular matrix. During migration, the growth and disassembly of these structures are spatiotemporally regulated, with new adhesions forming at the leading edge of the cell and mature adhesions disassembling at the rear. Signalling proteins and structural cytoskeletal components tightly regulate adhesion dynamics. Paxillin, an adaptor protein within adhesions, is one of these proteins. Its phosphorylation at serine 273 (S273) is crucial for maintaining fast adhesion assembly and disassembly. Paxillin is known to bind to a GIT1-βPIX-PAK1 complex, which increases the local activation of the small GTPase Rac. To understand quantitatively the behaviour of this system and how it relates to adhesion assembly/disassembly, we developed a mathematical model describing the dynamics of the small GTPases Rac and Rho as determined by paxillin S273 phosphorylation. Our model revealed that the system possesses bistability, where switching between uninduced (active Rho) and induced (active Rac) states can occur through a change in rate of paxillin phosphorylation or PAK1 activation. The bistable switch is characterized by the presence of memory, minimal change in the levels of active Rac and Rho within the induced and uninduced states, respectively, and the limited regime of monostability associated with the uninduced state. These results were validated experimentally by showing the presence of bimodality in adhesion assembly and disassembly rates, and demonstrating that Rac activity increases after treating Chinese Hamster Ovary cells with okadaic acid (a paxillin phosphatase inhibitor), followed by a modest recovery after 20 min washout. Spatial gradients of phosphorylated paxillin in a reaction-diffusion model gave rise to distinct regions of Rac and Rho activities, resembling polarization of a cell into front and rear. Perturbing several parameters of the model also revealed important insights into how signalling components upstream and downstream of paxillin phosphorylation affect dynamics.

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<![CDATA[CDKN1B/p27 is localized in mitochondria and improves respiration-dependent processes in the cardiovascular system—New mode of action for caffeine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b49cacb463d7e33e4eac05d

We show that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B)/p27, previously known as a cell cycle inhibitor, is also localized within mitochondria. The migratory capacity of endothelial cells, which need intact mitochondria, is completely dependent on mitochondrial p27. Mitochondrial p27 improves mitochondrial membrane potential, increases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content, and is required for the promigratory effect of caffeine. Domain mapping of p27 revealed that the N-terminus and C-terminus are required for those improvements. Further analysis of those regions revealed that the translocation of p27 into the mitochondria and its promigratory activity depend on serine 10 and threonine 187. In addition, mitochondrial p27 protects cardiomyocytes against apoptosis. Moreover, mitochondrial p27 is necessary and sufficient for cardiac myofibroblast differentiation. In addition, p27 deficiency and aging decrease respiration in heart mitochondria. Caffeine does not increase respiration in p27-deficient animals, whereas aged mice display improvement after 10 days of caffeine in drinking water. Moreover, caffeine induces transcriptome changes in a p27-dependent manner, affecting mostly genes relevant for mitochondrial processes. Caffeine also reduces infarct size after myocardial infarction in prediabetic mice and increases mitochondrial p27. Our data characterize mitochondrial p27 as a common denominator that improves mitochondria-dependent processes and define an increase in mitochondrial p27 as a new mode of action of caffeine.

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