ResearchPad - cell-motility https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Regulation of cell growth and migration by miR-96 and miR-183 in a breast cancer model of epithelial-mesenchymal transition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7836 Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women, and has the second highest mortality rate. Over 90% of all cancer-related deaths are due to metastasis, which is the spread of malignant cells from the primary tumor to a secondary site in the body. It is hypothesized that one cause of metastasis involves epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). When epithelial cells undergo EMT and transition into mesenchymal cells, they display increased levels of cell proliferation and invasion, resulting in a more aggressive phenotype. While many factors regulate EMT, microRNAs have been implicated in driving this process. MicroRNAs are short noncoding RNAs that suppress protein production, therefore loss of microRNAs may promote the overexpression of specific target proteins important for EMT. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of miR-96 and miR-183 in EMT in breast cancer. Both miR-96 and miR-183 were found to be downregulated in post-EMT breast cancer cells. When microRNA mimics were transfected into these cells, there was a significant decrease in cell viability and migration, and a shift from a mesenchymal to an epithelial morphology (mesenchymal-epithelial transition or MET). These MET-related changes may be facilitated in part by the regulation of ZEB1 and vimentin, as both of these proteins were downregulated when miR-96 and miR-183 were overexpressed in post-EMT cells. These findings indicate that the loss of miR-96 and miR-183 may help facilitate EMT and contribute to the maintenance of a mesenchymal phenotype. Understanding the role of microRNAs in regulating EMT is significant in order to not only further elucidate the pathways that facilitate metastasis, but also identify potential therapeutic options for preventing or reversing this process.

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<![CDATA[The adipokine vaspin is associated with decreased coronary in-stent restenosis <i>in vivo</i> and inhibits migration of human coronary smooth muscle cells <i>in vitro</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7692 Percutaneous coronary intervention represents the most important treatment modality of coronary artery stenosis. In-stent restenosis (ISR) is still a limitation for the long-term outcome despite the introduction of drug eluting stents. It has been shown that adipokines directly influence vessel wall homeostasis by influencing the function of endothelial cells and arterial smooth muscle cells. Visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin vaspin was recently identified as a member of serine protease inhibitor family and serveral studies could demonstrate a relation to metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate a role of vaspin in the development of in-stent restenosis in vivo and on migration of smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells in vitro.MethodsWe studied 85 patients with stable coronary artery disease who underwent elective and successful PCI with implatation of drug eluting stents. Blood samples were taken directly before PCI. Vaspin plasma levels were measured by specific ELISA. ISR was evaluated eight months later by coronary angiography. Human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) migration was analyzed by an in-vitro migration assay with different concentrations (0.004ng/mL up to 40ng/mL) of vaspin as well as by an scratch assay. For proliferation an impedance measurement with specialiced E-Plates was performed.ResultsDuring the follow up period, 14 patients developed ISR. Patients with ISR had significantly lower vaspin plasma levels compared to patients without ISR (0.213 ng/ml vs 0.382 ng/ml; p = 0.001). In patients with plasma vaspin levels above 1.35 ng/ml we could not observe any restenosis. There was also a significant correlation of plasma vaspin levels and late lumen loss in the stented coronary segments. Further we could demonstrate that vaspin nearly abolishes serum induced migration of HCASMC (100% vs. 9%; p<0.001) in a biphasic manner but not migration of HUVEC. Proliferation of HCASMC and HUVEC was not modulated by vaspin treatment.ConclusionWe were able to show that the adipokine vaspin selectively inhibits human coronary SMC migration in vitro and has no effect on HUVEC migration. Vaspin had no effect on proliferation of HUVEC which is an important process of the healing of the stented vessel. In addition, the occurrence of ISR after PCI with implantation of drug eluting stents was significantly associated with low vaspin plasma levels before intervention. Determination of vaspin plasma levels before PCI might be helpful in the identification of patients with high risk for development of ISR after stent implantation. In addition, the selective effects of vaspin on smooth muscle cell migration could potentially be used to reduce ISR without inhibition of re-endothelialization of the stented segment. ]]> <![CDATA[A mathematical model coupling polarity signaling to cell adhesion explains diverse cell migration patterns]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be0154

Protrusion and retraction of lamellipodia are common features of eukaryotic cell motility. As a cell migrates through its extracellular matrix (ECM), lamellipod growth increases cell-ECM contact area and enhances engagement of integrin receptors, locally amplifying ECM input to internal signaling cascades. In contrast, contraction of lamellipodia results in reduced integrin engagement that dampens the level of ECM-induced signaling. These changes in cell shape are both influenced by, and feed back onto ECM signaling. Motivated by experimental observations on melanoma cells lines (1205Lu and SBcl2) migrating on fibronectin (FN) coated topographic substrates (anisotropic post-density arrays), we probe this interplay between intracellular and ECM signaling. Experimentally, cells exhibited one of three lamellipodial dynamics: persistently polarized, random, or oscillatory, with competing lamellipodia oscillating out of phase (Park et al., 2017). Pharmacological treatments, changes in FN density, and substrate topography all affected the fraction of cells exhibiting these behaviours. We use these observations as constraints to test a sequence of hypotheses for how intracellular (GTPase) and ECM signaling jointly regulate lamellipodial dynamics. The models encoding these hypotheses are predicated on mutually antagonistic Rac-Rho signaling, Rac-mediated protrusion (via activation of Arp2/3 actin nucleation) and Rho-mediated contraction (via ROCK phosphorylation of myosin light chain), which are coupled to ECM signaling that is modulated by protrusion/contraction. By testing each model against experimental observations, we identify how the signaling layers interact to generate the diverse range of cell behaviors, and how various molecular perturbations and changes in ECM signaling modulate the fraction of cells exhibiting each. We identify several factors that play distinct but critical roles in generating the observed dynamic: (1) competition between lamellipodia for shared pools of Rac and Rho, (2) activation of RhoA by ECM signaling, and (3) feedback from lamellipodial growth or contraction to cell-ECM contact area and therefore to the ECM signaling level.

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<![CDATA[Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 attenuates PDGF-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration via the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc0e7

Background and objectives

Resolvin D1 (RvD1) is a specialized pro-resolving lipid mediator that has been previously shown to attenuate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, a key process in the development of intimal hyperplasia. We sought to investigate the role of the cAMP/PKA pathway in mediating the effects of the aspirin-triggered epimer 17R-RvD1 (AT-RvD1) on VSMC migration.

Methods

VSMCs were harvested from human saphenous veins. VSMCs were analyzed for intracellular cAMP levels and PKA activity after exposure to AT-RvD1. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced migration and cytoskeletal changes in VSMCs were observed through scratch, Transwell, and cell shape assays in the presence or absence of a PKA inhibitor (Rp-8-Br-cAMP). Further investigation of the pathways involved in AT-RvD1 signaling was performed by measuring Rac1 activity, vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation and paxillin translocation. Finally, we examined the role of RvD1 receptors (GPR32 and ALX/FPR2) in AT-RvD1 induced effects on VSMC migration and PKA activity.

Results

Treatment with AT-RvD1 induced a significant increase in cAMP levels and PKA activity in VSMCs at 5 minutes and 30 minutes, respectively. AT-RvD1 attenuated PDGF-induced VSMC migration and cytoskeletal rearrangements. These effects were attenuated by the PKA inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMP, suggesting cAMP/PKA involvement. Treatment of VSMC with AT-RvD1 inhibited PDGF-stimulated Rac1 activity, increased VASP phosphorylation, and attenuated paxillin localization to focal adhesions; these effects were negated by the addition of Rp-8-Br-cAMP. The effects of AT-RvD1 on VSMC migration and PKA activity were attenuated by blocking ALX/FPR2, suggesting an important role of this G-protein coupled receptor.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that AT-RvD1 attenuates PDGF-induced VSMC migration via ALX/FPR2 and cAMP/PKA. Interference with Rac1, VASP and paxillin function appear to mediate the downstream effects of AT-RvD1 on VSMC migration.

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<![CDATA[Basic-hydrophobic sites are localized in conserved positions inside and outside of PH domains and affect localization of Dictyostelium myosin 1s]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N22a75ef6-e90e-4024-a784-04a6c3f7cabb

Myosin 1s have critical roles in linking membranes to the actin cytoskeleton via direct binding to acidic lipids. Lipid binding may occur through PIP3/PIP2-specific PH domains or nonspecific ionic interactions involving basic-hydrophobic (BH) sites but the mechanism of myosin 1s distinctive lipid targeting is poorly understood.  Now we show that PH domains occur in all Dictyostelium myosin 1s and that the BH sites of Myo1A, B, C, D, and F are in conserved positions near the β3/β4 loops of their PH domains. In spite of these shared lipid-binding sites, we observe significant differences in myosin 1s highly dynamic localizations. All myosin 1s except Myo1A are present in macropinocytic structures but only Myo1B and Myo1C are enriched at the edges of macropinocytic cups and associate with the actin in actin waves.  In contrast, Myo1D, E, and F are enclosed by the actin wave.  Mutations of BH sites affect localization of all Dictyostelium myosin 1s. Notably, mutation of the BH site located within the PH domains of PIP3-specific Myo1D and Myo1F completely eradicates membrane binding. Thus, BH sites are important determinants of motor targeting and may have a similar role in the localization of other myosin 1s.

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<![CDATA[Protein kinase A activity is regulated by actomyosin contractility during cell migration and is required for durotaxis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4ef4644c-8e90-4dac-b83a-06b30ea9a9a7

Dynamic subcellular regulation of protein kinase A (PKA) activity is important for the motile behavior of many cell types, yet the mechanisms governing PKA activity during cell migration remain largely unknown. The motility of SKOV-3 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells has been shown to be dependent both on localized PKA activity and, more recently, on mechanical reciprocity between cellular tension and extracellular matrix rigidity. Here, we investigated the possibility that PKA is regulated by mechanical signaling during migration. We find that localized PKA activity in migrating cells rapidly decreases upon inhibition of actomyosin contractility (specifically, of myosin ATPase, Rho kinase, or myosin light-chain kinase activity). Moreover, PKA activity is spatially and temporally correlated with cellular traction forces in migrating cells. Additionally, PKA is rapidly and locally activated by mechanical stretch in an actomyosin contractility-dependent manner. Finally, inhibition of PKA activity inhibits mechanically guided migration, also known as durotaxis. These observations establish PKA as a locally regulated effector of cellular mechanotransduction and as a regulator of mechanically guided cell migration.

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<![CDATA[FAP57/WDR65 targets assembly of a subset of inner arm dyneins and connects to regulatory hubs in cilia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N30920b2d-c76b-4f95-93a1-9e22e032be60

Ciliary motility depends on both the precise spatial organization of multiple dynein motors within the 96 nm axonemal repeat and the highly coordinated interactions between different dyneins and regulatory complexes located at the base of the radial spokes. Mutations in genes encoding cytoplasmic assembly factors, intraflagellar transport factors, docking proteins, dynein subunits, and associated regulatory proteins can all lead to defects in dynein assembly and ciliary motility. Significant progress has been made in the identification of dynein subunits and extrinsic factors required for preassembly of dynein complexes in the cytoplasm, but less is known about the docking factors that specify the unique binding sites for the different dynein isoforms on the surface of the doublet microtubules. We have used insertional mutagenesis to identify a new locus, IDA8/BOP2, required for targeting the assembly of a subset of inner dynein arms (IDAs) to a specific location in the 96 nm repeat. IDA8 encodes flagellar-associated polypeptide (FAP)57/WDR65, a highly conserved WD repeat, coiled coil domain protein. Using high resolution proteomic and structural approaches, we find that FAP57 forms a discrete complex. Cryo-electron tomography coupled with epitope tagging and gold labeling reveal that FAP57 forms an extended structure that interconnects multiple IDAs and regulatory complexes.

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<![CDATA[cdc37 is essential for JNK pathway activation and wound closure in Drosophila]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc2491b43-d323-47b3-9a09-66f117f326b3

Wound closure in the Drosophila larval epidermis mainly involves nonproliferative, endocyling epithelial cells. Consequently, it is largely mediated by cell growth and migration. We discovered that both cell growth and migration in Drosophila require the cochaperone-encoding gene cdc37. Larvae lacking cdc37 in the epidermis failed to close wounds, and the cells of the epidermis failed to change cell shape and polarize. Likewise, wound-induced cell growth was significantly reduced, and correlated with a reduction in the size of the cell nucleus. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, which is essential for wound closure, was not typically activated in injured cdc37 knockdown larvae. In addition, JNK, Hep, Mkk4, and Tak1 protein levels were reduced, consistent with previous reports showing that Cdc37 is important for the stability of various client kinases. Protein levels of the integrin β subunit and its wound-induced protein expression were also reduced, reflecting the disruption of JNK activation, which is crucial for expression of integrin β during wound closure. These results are consistent with a role of Cdc37 in maintaining the stability of the JNK pathway kinases, thus mediating cell growth and migration during Drosophila wound healing.

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<![CDATA[ADP-ribosylation factor–like 4A interacts with Robo1 to promote cell migration by regulating Cdc42 activation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c973a1ad5eed0c484964fee

Cell migration is a highly regulated event that is initiated by cell membrane protrusion and actin reorganization. Robo1, a single-pass transmembrane receptor, is crucial for neuronal guidance and cell migration. ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf)–like 4A (Arl4A), an Arf small GTPase, functions in cell morphology, cell migration, and actin cytoskeleton remodeling; however, the molecular mechanisms of Arl4A in cell migration are unclear. Here, we report that the binding of Arl4A to Robo1 modulates cell migration by promoting Cdc42 activation. We found that Arl4A interacts with Robo1 in a GTP-dependent manner and that the Robo1 amino acid residues 1394–1398 are required for this interaction. The Arl4A-Robo1 interaction is essential for Arl4A-induced cell migration and Cdc42 activation but not for the plasma membrane localization of Robo1. In addition, we show that the binding of Arl4A to Robo1 decreases the association of Robo1 with the Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein srGAP1. Furthermore, Slit2/Robo1 binding down-regulates the Arl4A-Robo1 interaction in vivo, thus attenuating Cdc42-mediated cell migration. Therefore, our study reveals a novel mechanism by which Arl4A participates in Slit2/Robo1 signaling to modulate cell motility by regulating Cdc42 activity.

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<![CDATA[Advances in geometric techniques for analyzing blebbing in chemotaxing Dictyostelium cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1522d5eed0c48467ae3b

We present a technical platform that allows us to monitor and measure cortex and membrane dynamics during bleb-based chemotaxis. Using D. discoideum cells expressing LifeAct-GFP and crawling under agarose containing RITC-dextran, we were able to simultaneously visualize the actin cortex and the cell membrane throughout bleb formation. Using these images, we then applied edge detect to generate points on the cell boundary with coordinates in a coordinate plane. Then we fitted these points to a curve with known x and y coordinate functions. The result was to parameterize the cell outline. With the parameterization, we demonstrate how to compute data for geometric features such as cell area, bleb area and edge curvature. This allows us to collect vital data for the analysis of blebbing.

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<![CDATA[On the influence of cannabinoids on cell morphology and motility of glioblastoma cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75a3d5eed0c4843cff4f

The mechanisms behind the anti-tumoral effects of cannabinoids by impacting the migratory activity of tumor cells are only partially understood. Previous studies demonstrated that cannabinoids altered the organization of the actin cytoskeleton in various cell types. As actin is one of the main contributors to cell motility and is postulated to be linked to tumor invasion, we tested the following hypothesizes: 1) Can cannabinoids alter cell motility in a cannabinoid receptor dependent manner? 2) Are these alterations associated with reorganizations in the actin cytoskeleton? 3) If so, what are the underlying molecular mechanisms? Three different glioblastoma cell lines were treated with specific cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 agonists and antagonists. Afterwards, we measured changes in cell motility using live cell imaging and alterations of the actin structure in fixed cells. Additionally, the protein amount of phosphorylated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), focal adhesion kinases (FAK) and phosphorylated FAK (pFAK) over time were measured. Cannabinoids induced changes in cell motility, morphology and actin organization in a receptor and cell line dependent manner. No significant changes were observed in the analyzed signaling molecules. Cannabinoids can principally induce changes in the actin cytoskeleton and motility of glioblastoma cell lines. Additionally, single cell motility of glioblastoma is independent of their morphology. Furthermore, the observed effects seem to be independent of p44/42 MAPK and pFAK pathways.

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<![CDATA[Nuclear position relative to the Golgi body and nuclear orientation are differentially responsive indicators of cell polarized motility]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca31d5eed0c48452a8a8

Cell motility is critical to biological processes from wound healing to cancer metastasis to embryonic development. The involvement of organelles in cell motility is well established, but the role of organelle positional reorganization in cell motility remains poorly understood. Here we present an automated image analysis technique for tracking the shape and motion of Golgi bodies and cell nuclei. We quantify the relationship between nuclear orientation and the orientation of the Golgi body relative to the nucleus before, during, and after exposure of mouse fibroblasts to a controlled change in cell substrate topography, from flat to wrinkles, designed to trigger polarized motility. We find that the cells alter their mean nuclei orientation, in terms of the nuclear major axis, to increasingly align with the wrinkle direction once the wrinkles form on the substrate surface. This change in alignment occurs within 8 hours of completion of the topographical transition. In contrast, the position of the Golgi body relative to the nucleus remains aligned with the pre-programmed wrinkle direction, regardless of whether it has been fully established. These findings indicate that intracellular positioning of the Golgi body precedes nuclear reorientation during mouse fibroblast directed migration on patterned substrates. We further show that both processes are Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) mediated as they are abolished by pharmacologic ROCK inhibition whereas mouse fibroblast motility is unaffected. The automated image analysis technique introduced could be broadly employed in the study of polarization and other cellular processes in diverse cell types and micro-environments. In addition, having found that the nuclei Golgi vector may be a more sensitive indicator of substrate features than the nuclei orientation, we anticipate the nuclei Golgi vector to be a useful metric for researchers studying the dynamics of cell polarity in response to different micro-environments.

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<![CDATA[Modeling Edar expression reveals the hidden dynamics of tooth signaling center patterning]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c65dcd2d5eed0c484dec2fa

When patterns are set during embryogenesis, it is expected that they are straightly established rather than subsequently modified. The patterning of the three mouse molars is, however, far from straight, likely as a result of mouse evolutionary history. The first-formed tooth signaling centers, called MS and R2, disappear before driving tooth formation and are thought to be vestiges of the premolars found in mouse ancestors. Moreover, the mature signaling center of the first molar (M1) is formed from the fusion of two signaling centers (R2 and early M1). Here, we report that broad activation of Edar expression precedes its spatial restriction to tooth signaling centers. This reveals a hidden two-step patterning process for tooth signaling centers, which was modeled with a single activator–inhibitor pair subject to reaction–diffusion (RD). The study of Edar expression also unveiled successive phases of signaling center formation, erasing, recovering, and fusion. Our model, in which R2 signaling center is not intrinsically defective but erased by the broad activation preceding M1 signaling center formation, predicted the surprising rescue of R2 in Edar mutant mice, where activation is reduced. The importance of this R2–M1 interaction was confirmed by ex vivo cultures showing that R2 is capable of forming a tooth. Finally, by introducing chemotaxis as a secondary process to RD, we recapitulated in silico different conditions in which R2 and M1 centers fuse or not. In conclusion, pattern formation in the mouse molar field relies on basic mechanisms whose dynamics produce embryonic patterns that are plastic objects rather than fixed end points.

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<![CDATA[Oncogenic KSHV-encoded interferon regulatory factor upregulates HMGB2 and CMPK1 expression to promote cell invasion by disrupting a complex lncRNA-OIP5-AS1/miR-218-5p network]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b524dd5eed0c4842bc621

Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), a highly disseminated tumor of hyperproliferative spindle endothelial cells, is the most common AIDS-associated malignancy caused by infection of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). KSHV-encoded viral interferon regulatory factor 1 (vIRF1) is a viral oncogene but its role in KSHV-induced tumor invasiveness and motility remains unknown. Here, we report that vIRF1 promotes endothelial cell migration, invasion and proliferation by down-regulating miR-218-5p to relieve its suppression of downstream targets high mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) and cytidine/uridine monophosphate kinase 1 (CMPK1). Mechanistically, vIRF1 inhibits p53 function to increase the expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) and DNA methylation of the promoter of pre-miR-218-1, a precursor of miR-218-5p, and increases the expression of a long non-coding RNA OIP5 antisense RNA 1 (lnc-OIP5-AS1), which acts as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of miR-218-5p to inhibit its function and reduce its stability. Moreover, lnc-OIP5-AS1 increases DNA methylation of the pre-miR-218-1 promoter. Finally, deletion of vIRF1 from the KSHV genome reduces the level of lnc-OIP5-AS1, increases the level of miR-218-5p, and inhibits KSHV-induced invasion. Together, these results define a novel complex lnc-OIP5-AS1/miR-218-5p network hijacked by vIRF1 to promote invasiveness and motility of KSHV-induced tumors.

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<![CDATA[Aspects of intradermal immunization with different adjuvants: The role of dendritic cells and Th1/Th2 response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b26a6d5eed0c484289df6

Intradermal (i.d.) application of vaccine is promising way how to induce specific immune response against particular pathogens. Adjuvants, substances added into vaccination dose with the aim to increase immunogenicity, play important role in activation of dendritic cells with subsequent activation of lymphocytes. They can, however, induce unwanted local reactions. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of i.d. administration of model antigen keyhole limped hemocyanine alone or with different adjuvants–aluminium hydroxide and oil-based adjuvants—on local histopathological reaction as well as dendritic cell activation at the site of administration and local cytokine and chemokine response. This was assessed at 4 and 24 hours after application. Selection of the adjuvants was based on the fact, that they differently enhance antibody or cell-mediated immunity. The results showed activation of dendritic cells and both Th1 and Th2 response stimulated by oil-based adjuvants. It was associated with higher expression of set of genes, incl. chemokine receptor CCR7 or Th1-associated chemokine CXCL10 and cytokine IFNγ. Application of the antigen with aluminium hydroxide induced higher expression of Th2-associated IL4 or IL13. On the other hand, both complete and incomplete Freund´s adjuvants provoked strong local reaction associated with influx of neutrophils. This was accompanied with high expression of proinflammatory IL1 or neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL8. Surprisingly, similarly strong local reaction was detected also after application of aluminium hydroxide-based adjuvant. The best balanced local reaction with sufficient activation of immune cells was detected after application of oil-based adjuvants Montanide and Emulsigen.

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<![CDATA[Inferring statistical properties of 3D cell geometry from 2D slices]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df30ad5eed0c484580bba

Although cell shape can reflect the mechanical and biochemical properties of the cell and its environment, quantification of 3D cell shapes within 3D tissues remains difficult, typically requiring digital reconstruction from a stack of 2D images. We investigate a simple alternative technique to extract information about the 3D shapes of cells in a tissue; this technique connects the ensemble of 3D shapes in the tissue with the distribution of 2D shapes observed in independent 2D slices. Using cell vertex model geometries, we find that the distribution of 2D shapes allows clear determination of the mean value of a 3D shape index. We analyze the errors that may arise in practice in the estimation of the mean 3D shape index from 2D imagery and find that typically only a few dozen cells in 2D imagery are required to reduce uncertainty below 2%. Even though we developed the method for isotropic animal tissues, we demonstrate it on an anisotropic plant tissue. This framework could also be naturally extended to estimate additional 3D geometric features and quantify their uncertainty in other materials.

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<![CDATA[The tumor suppressor p53 can promote collective cellular migration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df35cd5eed0c4845811ac

Loss of function of the tumor suppressor p53 is known to increase the rate of migration of cells transiting the narrow pores of the traditional Boyden chamber assay. Here by contrast we investigate how p53 impacts the rate of cellular migration within a 2D confluent cell layer and a 3D collagen-embedded multicellular spheroid. We use two human carcinoma cell lines, the bladder carcinoma EJ and the colorectal carcinoma HCT116. In the confluent 2-D cell layer, for both EJ and HCT cells the migratory speeds and effective diffusion coefficients for the p53 null cells were significantly smaller than in p53-expressing cells. Compared to p53 expressers, p53-null cells exhibited more organized cortical actin rings together with reduced front-rear cell polarity. Furthermore, loss of p53 caused cells to exert smaller traction forces upon their substrates, and reduced formation of cryptic lamellipodia. In the 3D multicellular spheroid, loss of p53 consistently reduced collective cellular migration into surrounding collagen matrix. As regards the role of p53 in cellular migration, extrapolation from the Boyden chamber assay to other cellular microenvironments is seen to be fraught even in terms of the sign of the effect. Together, these paradoxical results show that the effects of p53 on cellular migration are context-dependent.

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<![CDATA[Extracellular vesicles from Kaposi Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lymphoma induce long-term endothelial cell reprogramming]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e941d5eed0c48496fae8

Extracellular signaling is a mechanism that higher eukaryotes have evolved to facilitate organismal homeostasis. Recent years have seen an emerging interest in the role of secreted microvesicles, termed extracellular vesicles (EV) or exosomes in this signaling network. EV contents can be modified by the cell in response to stimuli, allowing them to relay information to neighboring cells, influencing their physiology. Here we show that the tumor virus Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) hijacks this signaling pathway to induce cell proliferation, migration, and transcriptome reprogramming in cells not infected with the virus. KSHV-EV activates the canonical MEK/ERK pathway, while not alerting innate immune regulators, allowing the virus to exert these changes without cellular pathogen recognition. Collectively, we propose that KSHV establishes a niche favorable for viral spread and cell transformation through cell-derived vesicles, all while avoiding detection.

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<![CDATA[OpenCASA: A new open-source and scalable tool for sperm quality analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4b7f54d5eed0c484841137

In the field of assisted reproductive techniques (ART), computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems have proved their utility and potential for assessing sperm quality, improving the prediction of the fertility potential of a seminal dose. Although most laboratories and scientific centers use commercial systems, in the recent years certain free and open-source alternatives have emerged that can reduce the costs that research groups have to face. However, these open-source alternatives cannot analyze sperm kinetic responses to different stimuli, such as chemotaxis, thermotaxis or rheotaxis. In addition, the programs released to date have not usually been designed to encourage the scalability and the continuity of software development. We have developed an open-source CASA software, called OpenCASA, which allows users to study three classical sperm quality parameters: motility, morphometry and membrane integrity (viability) and offers the possibility of analyzing the guided movement response of spermatozoa to different stimuli (useful for chemotaxis, thermotaxis or rheotaxis studies) or different motile cells such as bacteria, using a single software. This software has been released in a Version Control System at Github. This platform will allow researchers not only to download the software but also to be involved in and contribute to further developments. Additionally, a Google group has been created to allow the research community to interact and discuss OpenCASA. For validation of the OpenCASA software, we analysed different simulated sperm populations (for chemotaxis module) and evaluated 36 ejaculates obtained from 12 fertile rams using other sperm analysis systems (for motility, membrane integrity and morphology modules). The results were compared with those obtained by Open-CASA using the Pearson’s correlation and Bland-Altman tests, obtaining a high level of correlation in all parameters and a good agreement between the different used methods and the OpenCASA. With this work, we propose an open-source project oriented to the development of a new software application for sperm quality analysis. This proposed software will use a minimally centralized infrastructure to allow the continued development of its modules by the research community.

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<![CDATA[Golgin-160 and GMAP210 play an important role in U251 cells migration and invasion initiated by GDNF]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59feb7d5eed0c484135327

Gliomas are the most common malignant tumors of the brain and are characteristic of severe migration and invasion. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes glioma development process. However, the regulatory mechanisms of promoting occurrence and development of glioma have not yet been clearly elucidated. In the present study, the mechanism by which GDNF promotes glioma cell migration and invasion through regulating the dispersion and location of the Golgi apparatus (GA) is described. Following GDNF treatment, a change in the volume and position of GA was observed. The stack area of the GA was enlarged and it was more concentrated near the nucleus. Golgin-160 and Golgi microtubule-associated protein 210 (GMAP210) were identified as target molecules regulating GA positioning. In the absence of either golgin-160 or GMAP210 using lentivirus, the migration and invasion of U251 cells were decreased, while it was increased following GDNF. It was also found that the GA was decreased in size and dispersed following golgin-160 or GMAP210 knockdown, as determined by GA green fluorescence assay. Once GDNF was added, the above phenomenon would be twisted, and the concentrated location and volume of the GA was restored. In combination, the present data suggested that the regulation of the position and size of the GA by golgin-160 and GMAP210 play an important role in U251 cell migration and invasion.

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