ResearchPad - cell-transplantation https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Safety of tunneled central venous catheters in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell recipients with severe primary immunodeficiency diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14693 Tunneled central venous catheters (TCVCs) provide prolonged intravenous access for pediatric patients with severe primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, little is known about the epidemiology and clinical significance of TCVC-related morbidity in this particular patient group. We conducted the retrospective analysis of patients with severe PID who received percutaneous landmark-guided TCVC implantation prior to HSCT. We analyzed 92 consecutive TCVC implantations in 69 patients (median [interquartile range] age 3.0 [0–11] years) with severe combined immune deficiency (n = 39, 42.4%), chronic granulomatous disease (n = 17, 18.4%), and other rare PID syndromes (n = 36, 39.2%). The median length of TCVC observation was 144.1 (85.5–194.6) days with a total of 14,040 catheter days at risk (cdr). The overall rate of adverse events during catheter insertion was 17.4% (n = 16) and 25.0% during catheter dwell period (n = 23, catheter risk [CR] per 1000 cdr = 1.64). The most common complication was TCVC-related infection with an overall prevalence of 9.8% (n = 9, CR = 0.64), followed by late dislocation (n = 6, 6.5%, CR = 0.43), early dislocation (n = 4, 4.3%) and catheter dysfunction (n = 4, 4.3%, CR = 0.28). TCVCs are safe in children with severe PID undergoing HSCT with relatively low rates of TCVC-related infection.

]]>
<![CDATA[Characterization of limbal explant sites: Optimization of stem cell outgrowth in <i>in vitro</i> culture]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14624 Simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) and cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET) are proven techniques for treating limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). However, the precise regions that are most suitable for preparing explants for transplantation have not been identified conclusively. Accordingly, this in vitro study aimed at determining ideal sites to be selected for tissue harvest for limbal stem cell culture and transplantation. We evaluated cell outgrowth potential and the expression of stem cell markers in cultures from 48 limbal explants from five cadaveric donors. The limbal explants were generated from the three specific sites: Lcor (located innermost and adjacent to the cornea), Lm (middle limbus), and Lconj (located outermost adjacent to the conjunctiva). We found that explants from the Lconj and Lm sites exhibited higher growth potential than those from the Lcor site. Transcript encoding the stem cell marker and p63 isoform, ΔNp63, was detected in cells from Lm and Lconj explants; expression levels were slightly, though significantly (p-value < 0.05), higher in Lm than in Lconj, although expression of ΔNp63α protein was similar in cells from all explants. Differential expression of ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily G Member 2 (ABCG2) did not reach statistical significance. Immunohistochemistry by indirect immunofluorescence analysis of limbus tissue revealed that the basal layer in explant tissue from Lconj and Lm contained markedly more stem cells than found in Lcor explant tissue; these findings correlate with a higher capacity for growth. Collectively, our findings suggest that explants from the Lconj and Lm sites should be selected for limbal cell expansion for both CLET and SLET procedures. These new insights may guide surgeons toward specific limbal sites that are most suitable for stem cell culture and transplantation and may ultimately improve treatment outcomes in the patients with LSCD.

]]>
<![CDATA[Pre-transplant testosterone and outcome of men after allogeneic stem cell transplantation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11043 Testosterone is an important determinant of endothelial function and vascular health in men. As both factors play a role in mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT), we retrospectively evaluated the impact of pre-transplant testosterone levels on outcome in male patients undergoing alloSCT. In the discovery cohort (n=346), an impact on outcome was observed only in the subgroup of patients allografted for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (n=176, hereafter termed ‘training cohort’). In the training cohort, lower pre-transplant testosterone levels were significantly associated with shorter overall survival (OS) [hazard ratio (HR) for a decrease of 100 ng/dL: 1.11, P=0.045]. This was based on a higher hazard of non-relapse mortality (NRM) (cause-specific HR: 1.25, P=0.013), but not relapse (cause-specific HR: 1.06, P=0.277) in the multivariable models. These findings were replicated in a confirmation cohort of 168 male patients allografted for AML in a different center (OS, HR: 1.15, P=0.012 and NRM, cause-specific HR: 1.23; P=0.008). Next, an optimized cut-off point for pre-transplant testosterone was derived from the training set and evaluated in the confirmation cohort. In multivariable models, low pre-transplant testosterone status (<250 ng/dL) was associated with worse OS (hazard ratio 1.95, P=0.021) and increased NRM (cause-specific HR 2.68, P=0.011) but not with relapse (cause-specific HR: 1.28, P=0.551). Our findings may provide a rationale for prospective studies on testosterone/androgen assessment and supplementation in male patients undergoing alloSCT for AML.

]]>
<![CDATA[Regeneration of esophagus using a scaffold-free biomimetic structure created with bio-three-dimensional printing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c1978d5eed0c484b4d71e

Various strategies have been attempted to replace esophageal defects with natural or artificial substitutes using tissue engineering. However, these methods have not yet reached clinical application because of the high risks related to their immunogenicity or insufficient biocompatibility. In this study, we developed a scaffold-free structure with a mixture of cell types using bio-three-dimensional (3D) printing technology and assessed its characteristics in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into rats. Normal human dermal fibroblasts, human esophageal smooth muscle cells, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were purchased and used as a cell source. After the preparation of multicellular spheroids, esophageal-like tube structures were prepared by bio-3D printing. The structures were matured in a bioreactor and transplanted into 10-12-week-old F344 male rats as esophageal grafts under general anesthesia. Mechanical and histochemical assessment of the structures were performed. Among 4 types of structures evaluated, those with the larger proportion of mesenchymal stem cells tended to show greater strength and expansion on mechanical testing and highly expressed α-smooth muscle actin and vascular endothelial growth factor on immunohistochemistry. Therefore, the structure with the larger proportion of mesenchymal stem cells was selected for transplantation. The scaffold-free structures had sufficient strength for transplantation between the esophagus and stomach using silicon stents. The structures were maintained in vivo for 30 days after transplantation. Smooth muscle cells were maintained, and flat epithelium extended and covered the inner surface of the lumen. Food had also passed through the structure. These results suggested that the esophagus-like scaffold-free tubular structures created using bio-3D printing could hold promise as a substitute for the repair of esophageal defects.

]]>
<![CDATA[Treatment with mononuclear cell populations improves post-infarction cardiac function but does not reduce arrhythmia susceptibility]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1496d5eed0c48467a361

Background

Clinical and experimental data give evidence that transplantation of stem and progenitor cells in myocardial infarction could be beneficial, although the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. Ventricular tachyarrhythmia is the most frequent and potentially lethal complication of myocardial infarction, but the impact of mono nuclear cells on the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia is still not clear.

Objective

We aimed to characterize the influence of splenic mononuclear cell populations on ventricular arrhythmia after myocardial infarction.

Methods

We assessed electrical vulnerability in vivo in mice with left ventricular cryoinfarction 14 days after injury and intramyocardial injection of specific subpopulations of mononuclear cells (MNCs) (CD11b-positive cells, Sca-1-positive cells, early endothelial progenitor cells (eEPCs)). As positive control group we used embryonic cardiomyocytes (eCMs). Epicardial mapping was performed for analysing conduction velocities in the border zone. Left ventricular function was quantified by echocardiography and left heart catheterization.

Results

In vivo pacing protocols induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) in 30% of non-infarcted mice. In contrast, monomorphic or polymorphic VT could be evoked in 94% of infarcted and vehicle-injected mice (p<0.01). Only transplantation of eCMs prevented post-infarction VT and improved conduction velocities in the border zone in accordance to increased expression of connexin 43. Cryoinfarction resulted in a broad aggravation of left ventricular function. All transplanted cell types augmented left ventricular function to a similar extent.

Conclusions

Transplantation of different MNC populations after myocardial infarction improves left ventricular function similar to effects of eCMs. Prevention of inducible ventricular arrhythmia is only seen after transplantation of eCMs.

]]>
<![CDATA[Regeneration-associated cell transplantation contributes to tissue recovery in mice with acute ischemic stroke]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c64489dd5eed0c484c2ea22

Various cell-based therapeutic strategies have been investigated for vascular and tissue regeneration after ischemic stroke. We have developed a novel cell population, called regeneration-associated cells (RACs), by quality- and quantity-controlled culture of unfractionated mononuclear cells. RACs were trans-arterially injected into 10-week-old syngeneic male mice at 1, 3, 5 or 7 days after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to determine the optimal timing for administration in terms of outcome at day 21. Next, we examined the effects of RACs injection at day 1 after MCAO on neurological deficits, infarct volume, and mediators of vascular regeneration and anti-inflammation at days 7 and 21. Infarct volume at day 21 was significantly reduced by transplantation of RACs at day 1 or 3. RACs injected at day 1 reduced the infarct volume at day 7 and 21. Angiogenesis and anti-inflammatory mediators, VEGF and IL-10, were increased at day 7, and VEGF was still upregulated at day 21. We also observed significantly enhanced ink perfusion in vivo, tube formation in vitro, and definitive endothelial progenitor cell colonies in colony assay. These results suggest that RAC transplantation in MCAO models promoted significant recovery of neural tissues through intensified anti-inflammatory and angiogenic effects.

]]>
<![CDATA[Real-world treatment outcomes in multiple myeloma: Multicenter registry results from Finland 2009-2013]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c117be2d5eed0c48469ac69

Outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) have improved with the advent of novel therapies, however, real-world evidence of outcomes in clinical practice is scarce. We conducted a multi-center registry study to build a reliable picture of treatment and patient outcomes in Finland. The aim of this study was also to understand any methodological challenges in assessing treatment outcomes using disease registry data. Methods: We carried out a retrospective, observational study using data from the national Finnish Hematology Registry (FHR) to provide real-world evidence of outcomes for all adult patients diagnosed with and treated for MM between 2009–2013 at one of the six regional hospitals, with at least six months of recorded follow-up. Patients were identified within the FHR by applying eligibility criteria of a diagnosis of MM and verifiable records of medical treatment and lines of treatment during the study period. Patients receiving allogenic stem cell transplantation were excluded from the cohort, as were individuals who only had monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance diagnosis and patients who had not initiated treatment during this period. Kaplan Meier curves were used to calculate overall survival and time to next treatment. Stratification was carried out by drug status (conventional/novel) and by autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) status. Results: A total of 321 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this study. Overall survival (OS) was longest in patients who received first-line novel therapy and ASCT (median not reached during 60-month follow-up) versus 46.2 months for novel first-line therapy without ASCT and 25.6 months for first-line conventional therapy without ASCT. Similarly, median time to next treatment were 33.9 months, 12.6 months and 7.8 months, respectively. Conclusions: The adoption of novel treatments in MM in Finland has had substantial impact on patient outcomes. Given the reality of complex treatment combinations for MM and relatively low patient numbers, assessing individual treatment effectiveness will require substantial cohort sizes and advanced, collaborative analytics on an international scale.

]]>
<![CDATA[Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is most often fatal and is affected by graft source, conditioning regimen toxicity, and engraftment kinetics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c2d86d5eed0c484464364

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a frequently fatal complication with no standard therapy. Although significant changes in supportive and intensive care measures for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have been made over the past decades, the impact of these changes on the incidence and outcome of patients with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage has not been examined. We analyzed 1228 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2008-2015 at the University of Minnesota to study the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage developed in 5% of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, at a median of 30 days (range +3 to +168 days) after transplantation. The incidence of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage was significantly greater in recipients of umbilical cord blood than peripheral blood or bone marrow grafts (HR: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.16-3.74; P=0.01). In multivariate analysis, delayed neutrophil engraftment or primary graft failure was a risk factor for diffuse alveolar hemorrhage following peripheral blood or bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HR: 5.51, 95% CI: 1.26-24; P=0.02) and delayed platelet engraftment was associated with significantly increased diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in umbilical cord blood transplant recipients (HR: 6.96, 95% CI: 2.39-20.29; P<0.05). Myeloablative regimens including total body irradiation were also risk factors for diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (HR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.03-3.13, P=0.05) in both peripheral blood or bone marrow and umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HR: 1.87, 95% CI: 0.95-3.71). Patients with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage had an inferior 6-month treatment-related mortality (HR: 6.09, 95% CI: 4.33-8.56, P<0.01) and 2-year overall survival (HR: 4.16, 95% CI: 3.06-5.64; P<0.01) using either graft source. The etiology of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is multifactorial, involving lung injury influenced by high-dose total body irradiation, graft source, and delayed engraftment or graft failure. The survival of patients with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains poor. Clinical interventions or experimental studies (e.g., cell expansion for umbilical cord blood transplants or thrombopoietin use) that modulate these risk factors may limit the incidence and improve the outcomes of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.

]]>
<![CDATA[Impact of IFN lambda 3/4 single nucleotide polymorphisms on the cytomegalovirus reactivation in autologous stem cell transplant patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b603633463d7e4090b7ce22

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection represents one of the main cause mortality after Stem Cell Transplantation. Recently, a protective effect of the T allele of rs12979860 IL28B Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) against CMV infection in the allogenic stem cell transplantation was suggested. We investigate whether the rs12979860 IL28B SNP and the relative rs368234815 (IFNλ4) genotype may affect the incidence of active CMV infection in Autologous stem cell transplantation (Auto-SCT) setting. The study included 99 patients who underwent to Auto-SCT. IL28 and IFNΔ4 SNPs were correlated with CMV reactivation along with other clinical and treatment parameters. CMV reactivation by CMV DNAemia was evaluated once a week until day 100 from Auto-SCT. CMV reactivation was documented in 50% (TT-ΔG/ΔG), 35% (CC-TT/TT) and 29.2% (CT-TT/ΔG) of the patients respectively. No differences in CMV copies number were recorded at reactivation between different IL28/IFNλ4 genotypes. The analysis of patients older than 60 years showed a significantly higher incidence of active CMV infection in the TT-ΔG/ΔG (83%) population with respect to CC-TT/TT (21%) and CT-TT/ΔG (40%) patients. Our data suggest a negative role of TT-ΔG/ΔG genotype in the CMV reactivation in Auto-SCT. The exposure to rituximab and the pre-infusion presence of anti CMV IgG also significantly influenced CMV reactivation.

]]>
<![CDATA[Immunological Properties of Corneal Epithelial-Like Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daddab0ee8fa60bbab19

Transplantation of ex vivo expanded corneal limbal stem cells (LSCs) has been the main treatment for limbal stem cell deficiency, although the shortage of donor corneal tissues remains a major concern for its wide application. Due to the development of tissue engineering, embryonic stem cells (ESCs)-derived corneal epithelial-like cells (ESC-CECs) become a new direction for this issue. However, the immunogenicity of ESC-CECs is a critical matter to be solved. In the present study, we explored the immunological properties of ESC-CECs, which were differentiated from ESCs. The results showed that ESC-CECs had a similar character and function with LSCs both in vitro and in vivo. In ESC-CECs, a large number of genes related with immune response were down-regulated. The expressions of MHC-I, MHC-II, and co-stimulatory molecules were low, but the expression of HLA-G was high. The ESC-CECs were less responsible for T cell proliferation and NK cell lysis in vitro, and there was less immune cell infiltration after transplantation in vivo compared with LSCs. Moreover, the immunological properties were not affected by interferon-γ. All these results indicated a low immunogenicity of ESC-CECs, and they can be promising in clinical use.

]]>
<![CDATA[Pharmacologic Blockade of JAK1/JAK2 Reduces GvHD and Preserves the Graft-Versus-Leukemia Effect]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da01ab0ee8fa60b74257

We have recently reported that interferon gamma receptor deficient (IFNγR−/−) allogeneic donor T cells result in significantly less graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) than wild-type (WT) T cells, while maintaining an anti-leukemia or graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effect after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We demonstrated that IFNγR signaling regulates alloreactive T cell trafficking to GvHD target organs through expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 in alloreactive T cells. Since IFNγR signaling is mediated via JAK1/JAK2, we tested the effect of JAK1/JAK2 inhibition on GvHD. While we demonstrated that pharmacologic blockade of JAK1/JAK2 in WT T cells using the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, INCB018424 (Ruxolitinib), resulted in a similar effect to IFNγR−/− T cells both in vitro (reduction of CXCR3 expression in T cells) and in vivo (mitigation of GvHD after allo-HSCT), it remains to be determined if in vivo administration of INCB018424 will result in preservation of GvL while reducing GvHD. Here, we report that INCB018424 reduces GvHD and preserves the beneficial GvL effect in two different murine MHC-mismatched allo-HSCT models and using two different murine leukemia models (lymphoid leukemia and myeloid leukemia). In addition, prolonged administration of INCB018424 further improves survival after allo-HSCT and is superior to other JAK1/JAK2 inhibitors, such as TG101348 or AZD1480. These data suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of JAK1/JAK2 might be a promising therapeutic approach to achieve the beneficial anti-leukemia effect and overcome HLA-barriers in allo-HSCT. It might also be exploited in other diseases besides GvHD, such as organ transplant rejection, chronic inflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases.

]]>
<![CDATA[Hematopoietic Stem Cells Contribute to Lymphatic Endothelium]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db16ab0ee8fa60bcd407

Background

Although the lymphatic system arises as an extension of venous vessels in the embryo, little is known about the role of circulating progenitors in the maintenance or development of lymphatic endothelium. Here, we investigated whether hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have the potential to give rise to lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC).

Methodology/Principal Findings

Following the transfer of marked HSCs into irradiated recipients, donor-derived LEC that co-express the lymphatic endothelial markers Lyve-1 and VEGFR-3 were identified in several tissues. HSC-derived LEC persisted for more than 12 months and contributed to ∼3–4% of lymphatic vessels. Donor-derived LECs were not detected in mice transplanted with common myeloid progenitors and granulocyte/macrophage progenitors, suggesting that myeloid lineage commitment is not a requisite step in HSC contribution to lymphatic endothelium. Analysis of parabiotic mice revealed direct evidence for the existence of functional, circulating lymphatic progenitors in the absence of acute injury. Furthermore, the transplantation of HSCs into ApcMin/+ mice resulted in the incorporation of donor-derived LEC into the lymphatic vessels of spontaneously arising intestinal tumors.

Conclusions/Significance

Our results indicate that HSCs can contribute to normal and tumor associated lymphatic endothelium. These findings suggest that the modification of HSCs may be a novel approach for targeting tumor metastasis and attenuating diseases of the lymphatic system.

]]>
<![CDATA[Effect of Prophylactic Low Level Laser Therapy on Oral Mucositis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da36ab0ee8fa60b8640c

Background

Objective was to determine whether prophylactic low level laser therapy (LLLT) reduces the risk of severe mucositis as compared to placebo or no therapy.

Methods

MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched until February 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing prophylactic LLLT with placebo or no therapy in patients with cancer or undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). All analyses used random effects models.

Results

Eighteen RCTs (1144 patients) were included. Prophylactic LLLT reduced the overall risk of severe mucositis (risk ratio (RR) 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20 to 0.67; P = 0.001). LLLT also reduced the following outcomes when compared to placebo/no therapy: severe mucositis at the time of anticipated maximal mucositis (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.59), overall mean grade of mucositis (standardized mean difference −1.49, 95% CI −2.02 to −0.95), duration of severe mucositis (weighted mean difference −5.32, 95% CI −9.45 to −1.19) and incidence of severe pain (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.37).

Conclusion

Prophylactic LLLT reduced severe mucositis and pain in patients with cancer and HSCT recipients. Future research should identify the optimal characteristics of LLLT and determine feasibility in the clinical setting.

]]>
<![CDATA[A BCR-ABL Mutant Lacking Direct Binding Sites for the GRB2, CBL and CRKL Adapter Proteins Fails to Induce Leukemia in Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3bab0ee8fa60b87f82

The BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase is the defining feature of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and its kinase activity is required for induction of this disease. Current thinking holds that BCR-ABL forms a multi-protein complex that incorporates several substrates and adaptor proteins and is stabilized by multiple direct and indirect interactions. Signaling output from this highly redundant network leads to cellular transformation. Proteins known to be associated with BCR-ABL in this complex include: GRB2, c-CBL, p62DOK, and CRKL. These proteins in turn, link BCR-ABL to various signaling pathways indicated in cellular transformation. In this study we show that a triple mutant of BCR-ABL with mutations of the direct binding sites for GRB2, CBL, p62DOK and CRKL, is defective for transformation of primary hematopoietic cells in vitro and in a murine CML model, while it retains the capacity to induce IL-3 independence in 32D cells. Compared to BCR-ABL, the triple mutant's ability to activate the MAP kinase and PI3-kinase pathways is severely compromised, while STAT5 phosphorylation is maintained, suggesting that the former are crucial for the transformation of primary cells, but dispensable for transformation of factor dependent cell lines. Our data suggest that inhibition of BCR-ABL-induced leukemia by disrupting protein interactions could be possible, but would require blocking of multiple sites.

]]>
<![CDATA[CD34+ Cells Represent Highly Functional Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Murine Bone Marrow]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadaab0ee8fa60bb970c

Background

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were shown to have angiogenic potential contributing to neovascularization. However, a clear definition of mouse EPCs by cell surface markers still remains elusive. We hypothesized that CD34 could be used for identification and isolation of functional EPCs from mouse bone marrow.

Methodology/Principal Findings

CD34+ cells, c-Kit+/Sca-1+/Lin (KSL) cells, c-Kit+/Lin (KL) cells and Sca-1+/Lin (SL) cells were isolated from mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) using fluorescent activated cell sorting. EPC colony forming capacity and differentiation capacity into endothelial lineage were examined in the cells. Although CD34+ cells showed the lowest EPC colony forming activity, CD34+ cells exhibited under endothelial culture conditions a more adherent phenotype compared with the others, demonstrating the highest mRNA expression levels of endothelial markers vWF, VE-cadherin, and Flk-1. Furthermore, a dramatic increase in immediate recruitment of cells to the myocardium following myocardial infarction and systemic cell injection was observed for CD34+ cells comparing with others, which could be explained by the highest mRNA expression levels of key homing-related molecules Integrin β2 and CXCR4 in CD34+ cells. Cell retention and incorporation into the vasculature of the ischemic myocardium was also markedly increased in the CD34+ cell-injected group, giving a possible explanation for significant reduction in fibrosis area, significant increase in neovascularization and the best cardiac functional recovery in this group in comparison with the others.

Conclusion

These findings suggest that mouse CD34+ cells may represent a functional EPC population in bone marrow, which could benefit the investigation of therapeutic EPC biology.

]]>
<![CDATA[VEGFR1 Activity Modulates Myeloid Cell Infiltration in Growing Lung Metastases but Is Not Required for Spontaneous Metastasis Formation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d2ab0ee8fa60b647df

The role of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1/Flt1) in tumor metastasis remains incompletely characterized. Recent reports suggested that blocking VEGFR1 activity or the interaction with its ligands (VEGF and PlGF) has anti-tumor effects. Moreover, several studies showed that VEGFR1 mediates tumor progression to distant metastasis. All these effects may be exerted indirectly by recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs), such as myeloid cells. We investigated the role of VEGFR1 activity in BMDCs during the pre-metastatic phase, i.e., prior to metastatic nodule formation in mice after surgical removal of the primary tumor. Using pharmacologic blockade or genetic deletion of the tyrosine kinase domain of VEGFR1, we demonstrate that VEGFR1 activity is not required for the infiltration of de novo myeloid BMDCs in the pre-metastatic lungs in two tumor models and in two mouse models. Moreover, in line with emerging clinical observations, we show that blockade of VEGFR1 activity neither prevents nor changes the rate of spontaneous metastasis formation after primary tumor removal. Prevention of metastasis will require further identification and exploration of cellular and molecular pathways that mediate the priming of the metastatic soil.

]]>
<![CDATA[Impact of Donor Activating KIR Genes on HSCT Outcome in C1-Ligand Negative Myeloid Disease Patients Transplanted with Unrelated Donors—A Retrospective Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcd34

Natural Killer cells (NK) are lymphocytes with the potential to recognize and lyse cells which escaped T-cell mediated lysis due to their aberrant HLA expression profiles. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) influence NK-cell activity by mediation of activating or inhibitory signals upon interaction with HLA-C (C1, C2) ligands. Therefore, absence of ligands for donor inhibitory KIRs following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may have an influence on its outcome. Previous studies showed that C1 negative patients have a decreased HSCT outcome. Our study, based on a cohort of 200 C1-negative patients, confirmed these findings for the endpoints: overall survival (OS: HR = 1.41, CI = 1.14–1.74, p = 0.0012), disease free survival (DFS: HR = 1.27, CI = 1.05–1.53, p = 0.015), treatment related mortality (TRM: HR = 1.41, CI = 1.01–1.96, p = 0.04), and relapse incidence (RI: HR = 1.33, CI = 1.01–1.75, p = 0.04) all being inferior when compared to C1-positive patients (n = 1246). Subsequent analysis showed that these findings applied for patients with myeloid malignancies but not for patients with lymphoproliferative diseases (OS: myeloid: HR = 1.51, CI = 1.15–1.99, p = 0.003; lymphoblastic: HR = 1.26, CI = 0.91–1.75, p = 0.16; DFS: myeloid: HR = 1.31, CI = 1.01–1.70, p = 0.04; lymphoblastic: HR = 1.21, CI = 0.90–1.61, p = 0.21; RI: myeloid: HR = 1.31, CI = 1.01–1.70, p = 0.04; lymphoblastic: HR = 1.21, CI = 0.90–1.61, p = 0.21). Interestingly, within the C1-negative patient group, transplantation with KIR2DS2 resulted in better OS (9/10 matched: HR = 0.24, CI = 0.08–0.67, p = 0.007) as well as DFS (9/10 matched: HR = 0,26, CI = 0.11–0.60, p = 0.002), and transplantation with KIR2DS1 positive donors was associated with a decreased RI (HR = 0.30, CI = 0.13–0.69, p = 0.005). TRM was increased when the donor was positive for KIR2DS1 (HR = 2.61, CI = 1.26–5.41, p = 0.001). Our findings suggest that inclusion of KIR2DS1/2/5 and KIR3DS1-genotyping in the unrelated donor search algorithm of C1-ligand negative patients with myeloid malignancies may prove to be of clinical relevance.

]]>
<![CDATA[Prediction of Clinical Deterioration in Hospitalized Adult Patients with Hematologic Malignancies Using a Neural Network Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0aab0ee8fa60b773da

Introduction

Clinical deterioration (ICU transfer and cardiac arrest) occurs during approximately 5–10% of hospital admissions. Existing prediction models have a high false positive rate, leading to multiple false alarms and alarm fatigue. We used routine vital signs and laboratory values obtained from the electronic medical record (EMR) along with a machine learning algorithm called a neural network to develop a prediction model that would increase the predictive accuracy and decrease false alarm rates.

Design

Retrospective cohort study.

Setting

The hematologic malignancy unit in an academic medical center in the United States.

Patient Population

Adult patients admitted to the hematologic malignancy unit from 2009 to 2010.

Intervention

None.

Measurements and Main Results

Vital signs and laboratory values were obtained from the electronic medical record system and then used as predictors (features). A neural network was used to build a model to predict clinical deterioration events (ICU transfer and cardiac arrest). The performance of the neural network model was compared to the VitalPac Early Warning Score (ViEWS). Five hundred sixty five consecutive total admissions were available with 43 admissions resulting in clinical deterioration. Using simulation, the neural network outperformed the ViEWS model with a positive predictive value of 82% compared to 24%, respectively.

Conclusion

We developed and tested a neural network-based prediction model for clinical deterioration in patients hospitalized in the hematologic malignancy unit. Our neural network model outperformed an existing model, substantially increasing the positive predictive value, allowing the clinician to be confident in the alarm raised. This system can be readily implemented in a real-time fashion in existing EMR systems.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Mobilization and Recruitment of C-Kit+ Cells Contribute to Wound Healing after Surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadeab0ee8fa60bbb0f2

Delayed wound healing is a serious clinical problem in patients after surgery. A recent study has demonstrated that bone marrow-derived c-kit-positive (c-kit+) cells play important roles in repairing and regenerating various tissues and organs. To examine the hypothesis that surgical injury induces the mobilization and recruitment of c-kit+ cells to accelerate wound healing. Mice were subjected to a left pneumonectomy. The mobilization of c-kit+ cells was monitored after surgery. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP+) bone marrow-transplanted chimera mice, we investigated further whether the mobilized c-kit+ cells were recruited to effect wound healing in a skin puncture model. The group with left pneumonectomies increased the c-kit+ and CD34+ stem cells in peripheral blood 24 h after surgery. At 3 days after surgery, the skin wound size was observed to be significantly smaller, and the number of bone marrow-derived GFP+ cells and GFP+/c-kit+ cells in the wound tissue was significantly greater in mice that had received pneumonectomies, as compared with those that had received a sham operation. Furthermore, some of these GFP+ cells were positively expressed specific markers of macrophages (F4/80), endothelial cells (CD31), and myofibroblasts (αSMA). The administration of AMD3100, an antagonist of a stromal-cell derived factor (SDF)-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway, reduced the number of GFP+ cells in wound tissue and completely negated the accelerated wound healing. Surgical injury induces the mobilization and recruitment of c-kit+ cells to contribute to wound healing. Regulating c-kit+ cells may provide a new approach that accelerates wound healing after surgery.

]]>
<![CDATA[Molecular Signatures of Quiescent, Mobilized and Leukemia-Initiating Hematopoietic Stem Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa8ab0ee8fa60ba8273

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are rare, multipotent cells capable of generating all specialized cells of the blood system. Appropriate regulation of HSC quiescence is thought to be crucial to maintain their lifelong function; however, the molecular pathways controlling stem cell quiescence remain poorly characterized. Likewise, the molecular events driving leukemogenesis remain elusive. In this study, we compare the gene expression profiles of steady-state bone marrow HSC to non-self-renewing multipotent progenitors; to HSC treated with mobilizing drugs that expand the HSC pool and induce egress from the marrow; and to leukemic HSC in a mouse model of chronic myelogenous leukemia. By intersecting the resulting lists of differentially regulated genes we identify a subset of molecules that are downregulated in all three circumstances, and thus may be particularly important for the maintenance and function of normal, quiescent HSC. These results identify potential key regulators of HSC and give insights into the clinically important processes of HSC mobilization for transplantation and leukemic development from cancer stem cells.

]]>