ResearchPad - cenozoic https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Evolutionary relationships and population genetics of the Afrotropical leaf-nosed bats (, )]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12535 The Old World leaf-nosed bats () are aerial and gleaning insectivores that occur throughout the Paleotropics. Both their taxonomic and phylogenetic histories are confused. Until recently, the family included genera now allocated to the and was recognized as a subfamily of . Evidence that diverged from both and in the Eocene confirmed their family rank, but their intrafamilial relationships remain poorly resolved. We examined genetic variation in the Afrotropical hipposiderids , , and using relatively dense taxon-sampling throughout East Africa and neighboring regions. Variation in both mitochondrial (cyt-b) and four nuclear intron sequences (ACOX2, COPS, ROGDI, STAT5) were analyzed using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. We used intron sequences and the lineage delimitation method BPP—a multilocus, multi-species coalescent approach—on supported mitochondrial clades to identify those acting as independent evolutionary lineages. The program StarBEAST was used on the intron sequences to produce a species tree of the sampled Afrotropical hipposiderids. All genetic analyses strongly support generic monophyly, with and as Afrotropical sister genera distinct from a Paleotropical ; mitochondrial analyses interpose the genera , , and between these clades. Mitochondrial analyses also suggest at least two separate colonizations of Africa by Asian groups of , but the actual number and direction of faunal interchanges will hinge on placement of the unsampled African-Arabian species . Mitochondrial sequences further identify a large number of geographically structured clades within species of all three genera. However, in sharp contrast to this pattern, the four nuclear introns fail to distinguish many of these groups and their geographic structuring disappears. Various distinctive mitochondrial clades are consolidated in the intron-based gene trees and delimitation analyses, calling into question their evolutionary independence or else indicating their very recent divergence. At the same time, there is now compelling genetic evidence in both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences for several additional unnamed species among the Afrotropical . Conflicting appraisals of differentiation among the Afrotropical hipposiderids based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci must be adjudicated by large-scale integrative analyses of echolocation calls, quantitative morphology, and geometric morphometrics. Integrative analyses will also help to resolve the challenging taxonomic issues posed by the diversification of the many lineages associated with and .

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<![CDATA[Composition and Natural History of Snakes from Etá Farm region, Sete Barras, south-eastern Brazil]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8995 Approximately 140 snake species are known to occur in the Atlantic Forest with nearly half being endemic to this ecoregion. However, the Atlantic forest is one of the most threatened tropical ecoregions, with only 16% of its original area remaining as forest. This extensive habitat loss must have had a negative effect on its snake fauna. Indeed, 53% of the threatened snakes of Brazil occur in the Atlantic forest. Therefore, basic natural history information that can potentially contribute to the conservation of Atlantic forest snakes are urgently needed. Here the natural history of a snake assemblage at Etá Farm region, Sete Barras municipality, south-eastern Brazil is described, and a visual guide and an identification key provided that can be used by researchers and local people to identify snakes from this region. Most of the species found in the field use both open areas and forests, are primarily terrestrial, present diurnal activity, and include frogs in their diet. A higher number of enlarged follicles, eggs, and/or embryos were recorded during the warm and rainy season. Seventeen different types of defensive tactics were recorded in the species found in the field. This study provides useful information for understanding the structure of snake assemblages of the Atlantic Forest and is potentially useful for conservation assessments and for designing conservation plans.

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<![CDATA[Sexual size and shape dimorphism in <i/> Daday, 1889 (, )]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N15d55356-314e-4d26-a228-ab274639df27 Until now, morphological trait variation has been investigated in several millipede species using geometric morphometrics. The present study is the first attempt to explore sexual shape and size dimorphism (SShD and SSD) of morphological structures in . We here analyse antennal, head, and leg SShD and SSD in Daday, 1889. Our results show that SSD exists in all of the analysed structures, while SShD is present only in the legs. In comparison with females, males possess longer and wider legs, as well as longer antennae and a shorter head. Contrary to previous findings in some , in SSD of the antennae and legs varies more than SShD in these morphological structures.

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<![CDATA[Editorial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne6be8bc0-4d85-4c3d-9616-d5e1b2f54352 Editorial

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<![CDATA[Character of woodland fragments affects distribution of myriapod assemblages in agricultural landscape]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2e23a40d-4af0-4615-9e86-c6fad1e09ab9 Fragments of woodland fulfil many irreplaceable functions in the agricultural landscape including being the main source of biodiversity of soil invertebrates. Due to intensive farming and land use changes, especially in the second half of the 20th century, fragments of woodland in agricultural landscape almost disappeared. This has led to a decrease in the diversity of invertebrates, especially those for which the presence of these woodland habitats in the landscape is a key element for survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of fragments of woodland (characterised by their area, vegetation structure, the amount of leaf litter layer and soil moisture) on the distribution of centipedes and millipedes () in the agricultural landscape of South Moravia (Czech Republic). Myriapods were collected using pitfall traps during summer in 2016 and 2017. Results showed that activity-density of myriapods is positively correlated with thickness of the leaf litter layer. Moreover, the species richness of centipedes is positively correlated with increasing size of fragments of woodland although higher centipedes’ activity-density was found in rather uniform woodlands in term of diversity of tree species.

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<![CDATA[Two new species of Rhaphium from Qinghai Province, China (Diptera, Dolichopodidae, Rhaphiinae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne91d2f67-b158-4ad4-8416-c17aaf2186a0

Abstract

At present, there are 31 species of Rhaphium Meigen recorded in China. In this paper, two species from Qinghai Province of China are described as new to science: Rhaphium huzhuensesp. nov., Rhaphium minhensesp. nov. A key to the Chinese species of Rhaphium is provided.

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<![CDATA[The millipedes collected by the Museum "La Specola" on Madagascar 1989/1991, with the description of three new species of giant pill-millipedes (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Arthrosphaeridae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N01e9d872-ee95-46a9-81c5-edfb751d9123

Abstract

A large collection of millipedes (Diplopoda) from Madagascar, belonging to the Museum “La Specola” in Florence, Italy were investigated. The collection includes three new species of the giant pill-millipede genus Zoosphaerium Pocock, 1895 which are described here as Zoosphaerium mangabe Wesener, sp. nov., Z. bartolozzii Anilkumar & Wesener, sp. nov., and Z. taitii Anilkumar & Wesener, sp. nov., all belonging to the Z. coquerelianum species group. The latter two are currently only known from a single site. Other specimens belonging to eight orders (Polyxenida, Sphaerotheriida, Polyzoniida, Siphonophorida, Chordeumatida, Polydesmida, Spirobolida, and Spirostreptida) are listed. Three tropical tramp species, Pseudospirobolellus avernus (Butler, 1876), Glyphiulus granulatus Gervais, 1847, and Chondromorpha xanthotricha (Attems, 1898) are recorded for the first time from Madagascar. New locality data is provided for Zoosphaerium neptunus (Butler, 1872), Z. villosum Wesener & Sierwald, 2005, Z. blandum (de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897), Sphaeromimus musicus (de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897), Rhinotus purpureus (Pocock, 1894), Hylekobolus andasibensis Wesener, 2009, Aphistogoniulus infernalis Wesener, 2009, Ostinobolus rufus Wesener, 2009, Ostinobolus subterraneus Wesener, 2009, Dactylobolus bivirgatus (Karsch, 1881), and Eumekius antimena (de Saussure & Zehntner, 1901).

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<![CDATA[Some new or poorly-known Zephroniidae (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida) from Vietnam]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1c33df72-dbf1-4a33-8fe7-cbacb3918d00

Abstract

Three new species of the giant pill-millipede family Zephroniidae are described from southern Vietnam: Sphaerobelum pumatensesp. nov., Sphaeropoeus honbaensissp. nov. and Sphaeropoeus bidoupensissp. nov. Two species, Sphaerobelum bicorne Attems, 1938 and Sphaeropoeus maculatus (Verhoeff, 1924), are redescribed, the former from new material, the latter from type material with lectotype designation. A new transfer is proposed: Zephronia manca Attems, 1936, to the genus Sphaeropoeus Brandt, 1833, giving the new combination, Sphaeropoeus manca (Attems, 1936) comb. nov.

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<![CDATA[Geographic boundaries and natural history notes of the microendemic endangered frog Eupsophus migueli Formas, 1977 (Alsodidae) in the Mahuidanche Range, southern Chile]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N613a9e27-4da3-4d48-b522-8b29066698b9

Abstract

Eupsophus migueli is considered a microendemic endangered species inhabiting the temperate Nothofagus forests of the Mahuidanche Range of southern Chile. However, this categorization is based on scarce data about its distribution and natural history. In order to assess these parameters, this article reports new geographic records obtained through intensive fieldwork between 2011 and 2016. Considering this, an updated distribution map for E. migueli is proposed, and new data about natural history traits and habitat use are provided. The information obtained in this study is discussed considering the zoogeographical importance of E. migueli, and confirms the species IUCN conservation status.

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<![CDATA[A new species of the toothed toad Oreolalax (Anura, Megophryidae) from Sichuan Province, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfe9ecc3c-f3bd-4185-9355-fe8735eab0f6

Abstract

The toad genus Oreolalax is widely distributed in southwest China and northern Vietnam. A new species of the genus is described from Sichuan Province, China. Phylogenetic analyses based on the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene sequences supported the new species as an independent clade clustered into the clade also containing O. nanjiangensis and O. chuanbeiensis. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: body size moderate (SVL 51.2–64.2 mm in males); head broad; tympanum hidden; interorbital region with dark triangular pattern; belly with marbling; male lacking spines on lip margin; spiny patches on chest small with thick sparse spines in male; nuptial spines thick and sparse; tibio-tarsal articulation reaching beyond nostril when leg stretched forward; toe webbing at base.

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<![CDATA[Revision of the genus Hoplodrina Boursin, 1937 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Xyleninae). I. Hoplodrina octogenaria (Goeze, 1781) and its sister species H. alsinides (Costantini, 1922) sp. rev. in Europe]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0edc772b-3fac-452d-87a9-685bb59cfb30

Abstract

The taxonomic status of the European Hoplodrina octogenaria (Goeze, 1781) is discussed and its partly sympatric sister species, Hoplodrina alsinides (Costantini, 1922) sp. rev., is separated and re-described based on morphological and molecular taxonomic evidence. The adults and their genitalia are illustrated and DNA barcodes, as well as genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data collected by fractional genome sequencing (ddRAD), of the two species are provided.

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<![CDATA[Commented checklist of European Gelechiidae (Lepidoptera)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbd2d13af-80e7-4910-b7bc-bf1275b42954

Abstract

The checklist of European Gelechiidae covers 865 species, belonging to 109 genera, with three species records which require confirmation. Further, it is the first checklist to include a complete coverage of proved synonyms of species and at generic level. The following taxonomic changes are introduced: Pseudosophronia constanti (Nel, 1998) syn. nov. of Pseudosophronia exustellus (Zeller, 1847), Metzneria expositoi Vives, 2001 syn. nov. of Metzneria aestivella (Zeller, 1839); Sophronia ascalis Gozmány, 1951 syn. nov. of Sophronia grandii Hering, 1933, Aproaerema incognitana (Gozmány, 1957) comb. nov., Aproaerema cinctelloides (Nel & Varenne, 2012) comb. nov., Aproaerema azosterella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854) comb. nov., Aproaerema montanata (Gozmány, 1957) comb. nov., Aproaerema cincticulella (Bruand, 1851) comb. nov., Aproaerema buvati (Nel, 1995) comb. nov., Aproaerema linella (Chrétien, 1904) comb. nov., Aproaerema captivella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1854) comb. nov., Aproaerema semicostella (Staudinger, 1871) comb. nov., Aproaerema steppicola (Junnilainen, 2010) comb. nov., Aproaerema cottienella (Nel, 2012) comb. nov., Ptocheuusa cinerella (Chrétien, 1908) comb. nov., Pragmatodes melagonella (Constant, 1895) comb. nov., Pragmatodes albagonella (Varenne & Nel, 2010) comb. nov., Pragmatodes parvulata (Gozmány, 1953) comb. nov., Oxypteryx nigromaculella (Millière, 1872) comb. nov., Oxypteryx wilkella (Linnaeus, 1758) comb. nov., Oxypteryx ochricapilla (Rebel, 1903) comb. nov., Oxypteryx superbella (Zeller, 1839) comb. nov., Oxypteryx mirusella (Huemer & Karsholt, 2013) comb. nov., Oxypteryx baldizzonei (Karsholt & Huemer, 2013) comb. nov., Oxypteryx occidentella (Huemer & Karsholt, 2011) comb. nov., Oxypteryx libertinella (Zeller, 1872) comb. nov., Oxypteryx gemerensis (Elsner, 2013) comb. nov., Oxypteryx deserta (Piskunov, 1990) comb. nov., Oxypteryx unicolorella (Duponchel, 1843) comb. nov., Oxypteryx nigritella (Zeller, 1847) comb. nov., Oxypteryx plumbella (Heinemann, 1870) comb. nov., Oxypteryx isostacta (Meyrick, 1926) comb. nov., Oxypteryx helotella (Staudinger, 1859) comb. nov., Oxypteryx parahelotella (Nel, 1995) comb. nov., Oxypteryx graecatella (Šumpich & Skyva, 2012) comb. nov.; Aproaerema genistae (Walsingham, 1908) comb. rev., Aproaerema thaumalea (Walsingham, 1905) comb. rev.; Dichomeris neatodes Meyrick, 1923 sp. rev.; Caryocolum horoscopa (Meyrick, 1926) stat. rev.; Ivanauskiella occitanica (Nel & Varenne, 2013) sp. rev.; Apodia martinii Petry, 1911 sp. rev.; Caulastrocecis cryptoxena (Gozmány, 1952) sp. rev. Following Article 23.9.2 ICZN we propose Caryocolum blandella (Douglas, 1852) (Gelechia) nom. protectum and Caryocolum signatella (Eversmann, 1844) (Lita) nom. oblitum.

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<![CDATA[Two new species of socially parasitic Nylanderia ants from the southeastern United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N34910d0d-2101-4b69-b85c-d3ba32a79da9

Abstract

In ants, social parasitism is an umbrella term describing a variety of life-history strategies, where a parasitic species depends entirely on a free-living species, for part of or its entire life-cycle, for either colony founding, survival, and/or reproduction. The highly specialized inquiline social parasites are fully dependent on their hosts for their entire lifecycles. Most inquiline species are tolerant of the host queen in the parasitized colony, forgo producing a worker caste, and invest solely in the production of sexual offspring. In general, inquilines are rare, and their geographic distribution is limited, making it difficult to study them. Inquiline populations appear to be small, cryptic, and they are perhaps ephemeral. Thus, information about their natural history is often fragmentary or non-existent but is necessary for understanding the socially parasitic life history syndrome in more detail. Here, we describe two new species of inquiline social parasites, Nylanderia deyrupisp. nov. and Nylanderia parasiticasp. nov., from the southeastern United States, parasitizing Nylanderia wojciki and Nylanderia faisonensis, respectively. The formicine genus Nylanderia is large and globally distributed, but until the recent description of Nylanderia deceptrix, social parasites were unknown from this genus. In addition to describing the new social parasite species, we summarize the fragmentary information known about their biology, present a key to both the queens and the males of the Nylanderia social parasites, and discuss the morphology of the social parasites in the context of the inquiline syndrome.

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<![CDATA[Notes on the genus Trigonotoma from China, with descriptions of two new species (Carabidae, Pterostichinae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfee9bc57-2092-4215-b67e-df03b43e2a94

Abstract

The genus Trigonotoma in China is studied, with descriptions of two new species, T. digitatasp. nov. and T. constrictasp. nov. One species is reported as new to China, Trigonotoma indica Brullé, 1834. Species relationships within Chinese Trigonotoma are briefly discussed mainly based on the endophallic characters.

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<![CDATA[A new species of Dischidia (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) from North-eastern Thailand]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N943420ca-e129-435e-a753-4994c19aa1cd
Abstract

Dischidia phuphanensis Chatan & Promprom, a new species from north-eastern Thailand, is described and illustrated. The new species is similar to D. tonkinensis Costantin, but is distinguished by the shape of its leaves, the apices of the staminal corona lobes, the colour of the corolla and the absence of a corolline corona. The distinguishing characters of similar species are discussed. A key for the identification of those species in Thailand without pitcher-like leaves is provided.

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<![CDATA[Onosma fuyunensis (Boraginaceae), a new species from Xinjiang, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N955aaf34-987f-4c28-b0d6-70ac7a96c493
Abstract

Onosma fuyunensis, a new species of Boraginaceae from northern Xinjiang, China, is described and illustrated here. Onosma fuyunensis is similar to O. simplicissima and O. gmelinii; it differs in having a particularly bristly indumentum, unbranched stems, white and yellow corollas, anthers united only at base, and nutlets with a stipitate cicatrix. An updated key to the species of Onosma from Xinjiang and Altai Mountains is also provided.

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<![CDATA[Aurivillius’s “Neue oder wenig bekannte Coleoptera Longicornia” (1886–1927), the correct years and page numbers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N32852a43-207d-46ef-bccc-87cd8f6fc58f
Abstract

Aurivillius’s work entitled “Neue oder wenig bekannte ColeopteraLongicornia” was published in parts over a period of over four decades. There were two page numbers on most pages of these publications, one ordered by Aurivillius, the other by the journal. Historically, different authors have used different page numbers, and sometimes different years for these publications, which has caused chaos in the citations. Herein, accurate dates of publications for this work, and correct page numbers that should be used are provided and discussed.

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<![CDATA[The larva of Drusus dudor Oláh, 2017, including an updated key to larval Drusinae Banks, 1916 (Insecta, Trichoptera, Limnephilidae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf6169268-9ea3-4011-9d91-1d05b7880a61
Abstract

The caddisfly Drusus dudor Oláh, 2017 (Limephilidae: Drusinae) was described from the Northwestern Italian Alps. We provide a detailed description of the larva, based on material from the Italian Province of Piemonte. Information on the morphology of the 5th larval instar is given, and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. The larva is included in an updated key to larval Drusinae where D. dudor keys together with Drusus aprutiensis Moretti, 1981, D. camerinus Moretti, 1981, D. croaticus Marinkovic-Gospodnetic, 1971, D. mixtus (Pictet, 1834), and D. nigrescens Meyer-Duer, 1875. The species can be reliably separated by the morphology of the pronotum, the shape of the metanotal sclerites, and by morphological details of abdominal sternum I.

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<![CDATA[Xochiquetzallia (Asparagaceae, Brodiaeoideae), a new genus segregated from the paraphyletic Dandya]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd66a9b5e-32d5-4411-bbc9-1cbd01b2e129
Abstract

A new genus, Xochiquetzallia, for the Brodiaeoideae, Asparagaceae family is here proposed. A taxonomic analysis based on morphology highlights its synapomorphies. The characters that distinguish Xochiquetzallia are the absence of a pith in the gynophore and the presence of an entire stigma. The recognition of Dandya purpusii as a monotypic genus is supported by the development of a short floral tube (< 2 mm) and a pith in the gynophore, as well as a divided stigma shared with the other genera of the Milla clade, Bessera, Jaimehintonia, Petronymphe and Milla. A key to its taxonomic determination is given for both the Xochiquetzallia species and the Milla clade genera.

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<![CDATA[Comparative cytogenetics of the ground frogs Eupsophus emiliopugini Formas, 1989 and E. vertebralis Grandison, 1961 (Alsodidae) with comments on their inter- and intraspecific chromosome differentiation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N400e31f9-b246-421b-9f5b-da9642d3e66c
Abstract

South American frogs of the genus Eupsophus Fitzinger, 1843 comprise 10 species. Two of them, Eupsophus vertebralis Grandison, 1961 and E. emiliopugini Formas, 1989 belong to the Eupsophus vertebralis group, exhibiting 2n = 28. Fundamental number differences between these species have been described using conventional chromosome staining of few specimens from only two localities. Here, classical techniques (Giemsa, C-banding, CMA3/DAPI banding, and Ag-NOR staining), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, with telomeric and 28S ribosomal probes), were applied on individuals of both species collected from 15 localities. We corroborate differences in fundamental numbers (FN) between E. vertebralis and E. emiliopugini through Giemsa staining and C-banding (FN = 54 and 56, respectively). No interstitial fluorescent signals, but clearly stained telomeric regions were detected by FISH using telomeric probe over spreads from both species. FISH with 28S rDNA probes and Ag-NOR staining confirmed the active nucleolus organizer regions signal on pair 5 for both species. Nevertheless, one E. emiliopugini individual from the Puyehue locality exhibited 28S ribosomal signals on pairs 4 and 5. Interestingly, only one chromosome of each pair showed Ag-NOR positive signals, showing a nucleolar dominance pattern. Chromosomal rearrangements, rRNA gene dosage control, mobile NORs elements, and/or species hybridization process could be involved in this interpopulation chromosomal variation.

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