ResearchPad - chemical-biology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Conformational distributions of isolated myosin motor domains encode their mechanochemical properties]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16345 Myosin motor domains perform an extraordinary diversity of biological functions despite sharing a common mechanochemical cycle. Motors are adapted to their function, in part, by tuning the thermodynamics and kinetics of steps in this cycle. However, it remains unclear how sequence encodes these differences, since biochemically distinct motors often have nearly indistinguishable crystal structures. We hypothesized that sequences produce distinct biochemical phenotypes by modulating the relative probabilities of an ensemble of conformations primed for different functional roles. To test this hypothesis, we modeled the distribution of conformations for 12 myosin motor domains by building Markov state models (MSMs) from an unprecedented two milliseconds of all-atom, explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations. Comparing motors reveals shifts in the balance between nucleotide-favorable and nucleotide-unfavorable P-loop conformations that predict experimentally measured duty ratios and ADP release rates better than sequence or individual structures. This result demonstrates the power of an ensemble perspective for interrogating sequence-function relationships.

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<![CDATA[Nek7 conformational flexibility and inhibitor binding probed through protein engineering of the R-spine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9198 Nek7 is a serine/threonine-protein kinase required for proper spindle formation and cytokinesis. Elevated Nek7 levels have been observed in several cancers, and inhibition of Nek7 might provide a route to the development of cancer therapeutics. To date, no selective and potent Nek7 inhibitors have been identified. Nek7 crystal structures exhibit an improperly formed regulatory-spine (R-spine), characteristic of an inactive kinase. We reasoned that the preference of Nek7 to crystallise in this inactive conformation might hinder attempts to capture Nek7 in complex with Type I inhibitors. Here, we have introduced aromatic residues into the R-spine of Nek7 with the aim to stabilise the active conformation of the kinase through R-spine stacking. The strong R-spine mutant Nek7SRS retained catalytic activity and was crystallised in complex with compound 51, an ATP-competitive inhibitor of Nek2 and Nek7. Subsequently, we obtained the same crystal form for wild-type Nek7WT in apo form and bound to compound 51. The R-spines of the three well-ordered Nek7WT molecules exhibit variable conformations while the R-spines of the Nek7SRS molecules all have the same, partially stacked configuration. Compound 51 bound to Nek2 and Nek7 in similar modes, but differences in the precise orientation of a substituent highlights features that could be exploited in designing inhibitors that are selective for particular Nek family members. Although the SRS mutations are not required to obtain a Nek7–inhibitor structure, we conclude that it is a useful strategy for restraining the conformation of a kinase in order to promote crystallogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Small molecules that target the ubiquitin system]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9166 Eukaryotic life depends upon the interplay between vast networks of signaling pathways composed of upwards of 109–1010 proteins per cell. The integrity and normal operation of the cell requires that these proteins act in a precise spatial and temporal manner. The ubiquitin system is absolutely central to this process and perturbation of its function contributes directly to the onset and progression of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndromes, neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmunity, inflammatory disorders, infectious diseases, and muscle dystrophies. Whilst the individual components and the overall architecture of the ubiquitin system have been delineated in some detail, how ubiquitination might be successfully targeted, or harnessed, to develop novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of disease, currently remains relatively poorly understood. In this review, we will provide an overview of the current status of selected small molecule ubiquitin system inhibitors. We will further discuss the unique challenges of targeting this ubiquitous and highly complex machinery, and explore and highlight potential ways in which these challenges might be met.

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<![CDATA[Heterogeneity of proteome dynamics between connective tissue phases of adult tendon]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7267 Muscles are anchored to bones through specialized tissues called tendons. Made of bundles of fibers (or fascicles) linked together by an ‘interfascicular’ matrix, healthy tendons are required for organisms to move properly. Yet, these structures are constantly exposed to damage: the interfascicular matrix, in particular, is highly susceptible to injury as it allows the fascicles to slide on each other.

One way to avoid damage could be for the body to continually replace proteins in tendons before they become too impaired. However, the way proteins are renewed in these structures is currently not well understood – indeed, it has long been assumed that almost no protein turnover occurs in tendons. In particular, it is unknown whether proteins in the interfascicular matrix have a higher turn over than those in the fascicles.

To investigate, Choi, Simpson et al. fed rats on water carrying a molecular label that becomes integrated into new proteins. Analysis of individual proteins from the rats’ tendons showed great variation in protein turnover, with some replaced every few days and others only over several years. This suggests that protein turnover is actually an important part of tendon health. In particular, the results show that turnover is higher in the interfascicular matrix, where damage is expected to be more likely.

Protein turnover also plays a part in conditions such as cancer, heart disease and kidney disease. Using approaches like the one developed by Choi, Simpson et al. could help to understand how individual proteins are renewed in a range of diseases, and how to design new treatments.

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<![CDATA[Hfq CLASH uncovers sRNA-target interaction networks linked to nutrient availability adaptation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6357 By shaping gene expression profiles, small RNAs (sRNAs) enable bacteria to efficiently adapt to changes in their environment. To better understand how Escherichia coli acclimatizes to nutrient availability, we performed UV cross-linking, ligation and sequencing of hybrids (CLASH) to uncover Hfq-associated RNA-RNA interactions at specific growth stages. We demonstrate that Hfq CLASH robustly captures bona fide RNA-RNA interactions. We identified hundreds of novel sRNA base-pairing interactions, including many sRNA-sRNA interactions and involving 3’UTR-derived sRNAs. We rediscovered known and identified novel sRNA seed sequences. The sRNA-mRNA interactions identified by CLASH have strong base-pairing potential and are highly enriched for complementary sequence motifs, even those supported by only a few reads. Yet, steady state levels of most mRNA targets were not significantly affected upon over-expression of the sRNA regulator. Our results reinforce the idea that the reproducibility of the interaction, not base-pairing potential, is a stronger predictor for a regulatory outcome.

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<![CDATA[Evolution of multifunctionality through a pleiotropic substitution in the innate immune protein S100A9]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6353 A single protein sometimes does multiple jobs. For instance, our immune system uses a small number of multipurpose proteins to respond quickly to a large number of threats. One example is the protein S100A9. It acts as an antimicrobial by preventing microbes from getting the nutrients they need, while also stimulating inflammation by inducing the release of molecules that recruit white blood cells.

S100A9, like all proteins, is made up of a chain of small building blocks. These building blocks interact with each other and with other molecules in the environment. The sequence of the building blocks thus determines what jobs the protein can do. Therefore, a single change to the sequence of building blocks can have a dramatic effect: one change might render the protein faulty, while another change might allow it to do a new job.

Proteins face similar challenges humans do when trying to do several things at once. A person driving a car while using their phone will not do either task well. Likewise, a protein that does two jobs faces challenges a single-purpose protein does not.

Harman et al. were interested in how S100A9 was able to evolve and maintain its dual functionality, despite this potential problem. They started by asking when S100A9 acquired its two purposes. They measured the antimicrobial and inflammatory activity of S100A9 proteins from humans, mice and opossums. The activities of S100A9 in these species was similar, suggesting that S100A9 acquired its different jobs in the ancestor of mammals, some 160 million years ago.

Next, Harman et al. computationally reconstructed ancestral forms of S100A9 by comparing hundreds of similar proteins and building an evolutionary tree. They then measured the antimicrobial and inflammatory activity of these ancestral proteins. By comparing the last ancestor that did not have these activities to the first ancestor that did, they identified the sequence changes that gave S100A9 its dual activity. Importantly, these changes are located in separate regions of the protein, meaning they could occur independently, without affecting each other. Further, the same sequence change that converted S100A9 into an inflammatory signal also introduced a mechanism to regulate this activity.

The results suggest that a small number of sequence changes – or even a single change – can make a protein more versatile. This means that evolving multipurpose proteins may not be as difficult as is often thought.

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<![CDATA[The dynamic interplay of host and viral enzymes in type III CRISPR-mediated cyclic nucleotide signalling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6343 Cyclic nucleotide second messengers are increasingly implicated in prokaryotic anti-viral defence systems. Type III CRISPR systems synthesise cyclic oligoadenylate (cOA) upon detecting foreign RNA, activating ancillary nucleases that can be toxic to cells, necessitating mechanisms to remove cOA in systems that operate via immunity rather than abortive infection. Previously, we demonstrated that the Sulfolobus solfataricus type III-D CRISPR complex generates cyclic tetra-adenylate (cA4), activating the ribonuclease Csx1, and showed that subsequent RNA cleavage and dissociation acts as an ‘off-switch’ for the cyclase activity. Subsequently, we identified the cellular ring nuclease Crn1, which slowly degrades cA4 to reset the system (Rouillon et al., 2018), and demonstrated that viruses can subvert type III CRISPR immunity by means of a potent anti-CRISPR ring nuclease variant AcrIII-1. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the dynamic interplay between these enzymes, governing cyclic nucleotide levels and infection outcomes in virus-host conflict.

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<![CDATA[A single power stroke by ATP binding drives substrate translocation in a heterodimeric ABC transporter]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N31301349-16ac-43e0-9228-476ce24b03ef ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute the largest family of primary active transporters, responsible for many physiological processes and human maladies. However, the mechanism how chemical energy of ATP facilitates translocation of chemically diverse compounds across membranes is poorly understood. Here, we advance the quantitative mechanistic understanding of the heterodimeric ABC transporter TmrAB, a functional homolog of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) by single-turnover analyses at single-liposome resolution. We reveal that a single conformational switch by ATP binding drives unidirectional substrate translocation. After this power stroke, ATP hydrolysis and phosphate release launch the return to the resting state, which facilitates nucleotide exchange and a new round of substrate binding and translocation. In contrast to hitherto existing steady-state assays, our single-turnover approach uncovers the power stroke in substrate translocation and the tight chemomechanical coupling in these molecular machines.

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<![CDATA[Direct observation and analysis of TET-mediated oxidation processes in a DNA origami nanochip]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7b38a4c9-ef65-4a84-927c-51b640806391 DNA methylation and demethylation play a key role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression; however, a series of oxidation reactions of 5-methyl cytosine (5mC) mediated by ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes driving demethylation process are yet to be uncovered. To elucidate the relationship between the oxidative processes and structural factors of DNA, we analysed the behavior of TET-mediated 5mC-oxidation by incorporating structural stress onto a substrate double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) using a DNA origami nanochip. The reactions and behaviors of TET enzymes were systematically monitored by biochemical analysis and single-molecule observation using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A reformative frame-like DNA origami was established to allow the incorporation of dsDNAs as 5mC-containing substrates in parallel orientations. We tested the potential effect of dsDNAs present in the tense and relaxed states within a DNA nanochip on TET oxidation. Based on enzyme binding and the detection of oxidation reactions within the DNA nanochip, it was revealed that TET preferred a relaxed substrate regardless of the modification types of 5-oxidated-methyl cytosine. Strikingly, when a multi-5mCG sites model was deployed to further characterize substrate preferences of TET, TET preferred the fully methylated site over the hemi-methylated site. This analytical modality also permits the direct observations of dynamic movements of TET such as sliding and interstrand transfer by high-speed AFM. In addition, the thymine DNA glycosylase-mediated base excision repair process was characterized in the DNA nanochip. Thus, we have convincingly established the system's ability to physically regulate enzymatic reactions, which could prove useful for the observation and characterization of coordinated DNA demethylation processes at the nanoscale.

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<![CDATA[Chimeric siRNAs with chemically modified pentofuranose and hexopyranose nucleotides: altritol-nucleotide (ANA) containing GalNAc–siRNA conjugates: <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> RNAi activity and resistance to 5′-exonuclease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2f838286-b11e-417a-be2f-2759c58c2bf5 In this report, we investigated the hexopyranose chemical modification Altriol Nucleic Acid (ANA) within small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes that were otherwise fully modified with the 2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro and 2′-O-methyl pentofuranose chemical modifications. The siRNAs were designed to silence the transthyretin (Ttr) gene and were conjugated to a trivalent N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) ligand for targeted delivery to hepatocytes. Sense and antisense strands of the parent duplex were synthesized with single ANA residues at each position on the strand, and the resulting siRNAs were evaluated for their ability to inhibit Ttr mRNA expression in vitro. Although ANA residues were detrimental at the 5′ end of the antisense strand, the siRNAs with ANA at position 6 or 7 in the seed region had activity comparable to the parent. The siRNA with ANA at position 7 in the seed region was active in a mouse model. An Oligonucleotide with ANA at the 5′ end was more stable in the presence of 5′-exonuclease than an oligonucleotide of the same sequence and chemical composition without the ANA modification. Modeling studies provide insight into the origins of regiospecific changes in potency of siRNAs and the increased protection against 5′-exonuclease degradation afforded by the ANA modification.

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<![CDATA[ADAPT identifies an ESCRT complex composition that discriminates VCaP from LNCaP prostate cancer cell exosomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N97019b55-e130-4ece-8720-d73bcbc42864 Libraries of single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs) can be enriched for sequences that specifically bind molecules on naïve complex biological samples like cells or tissues. Depending on the enrichment strategy, the ssODNs can identify molecules specifically associated with a defined biological condition, for example a pathological phenotype, and thus are potentially useful for biomarker discovery. We performed ADAPT, a variant of SELEX, on exosomes secreted by VCaP prostate cancer cells. A library of ∼1011 ssODNs was enriched for those that bind to VCaP exosomes and discriminate them from exosomes derived from LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) identified the best discriminating ssODNs, nine of which were resynthesized and their discriminatory ability confirmed by qPCR. Affinity purification with one of the sequences (Sequence 7) combined with LC–MS/MS identified its molecular target complex, whereof most proteins are part of or associated with the multiprotein ESCRT complex participating in exosome biogenesis. Within this complex, YBX1 was identified as the directly-bound target protein. ADAPT thus is able to differentiate exosomes from cancer cell subtypes from the same lineage. The composition of ESCRT complexes in exosomes from VCaP versus LNCaP cells might constitute a discriminatory element between these prostate cancer subtypes.

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<![CDATA[Cooperative interactions facilitate stimulation of Rad51 by the Swi5-Sfr1 auxiliary factor complex]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbfc8d5d1-da72-4c2a-9797-ce3b29738b07

Although Rad51 is the key protein in homologous recombination (HR), a major DNA double-strand break repair pathway, several auxiliary factors interact with Rad51 to promote productive HR. We present an interdisciplinary characterization of the interaction between Rad51 and Swi5-Sfr1, a conserved auxiliary factor. Two distinct sites within the intrinsically disordered N-terminus of Sfr1 (Sfr1N) were found to cooperatively bind Rad51. Deletion of this domain impaired Rad51 stimulation in vitro and rendered cells sensitive to DNA damage. By contrast, amino acid-substitution mutants, which had comparable biochemical defects, could promote DNA repair, suggesting that Sfr1N has another role in addition to Rad51 binding. Unexpectedly, the DNA repair observed in these mutants was dependent on Rad55-Rad57, another auxiliary factor complex hitherto thought to function independently of Swi5-Sfr1. When combined with the finding that they form a higher-order complex, our results imply that Swi5-Sfr1 and Rad55-Rad57 can collaboratively stimulate Rad51 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

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<![CDATA[OmniChange: The Sequence Independent Method for Simultaneous Site-Saturation of Five Codons]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa7ab0ee8fa60ba7f19

Focused mutant library generation methods have been developed to improve mainly “localizable” enzyme properties such as activity and selectivity. Current multi-site saturation methods are restricted by the gene sequence, require subsequent PCR steps and/or additional enzymatic modifications. Here we report, a multiple site saturation mutagenesis method, OmniChange, which simultaneously and efficiently saturates five independent codons. As proof of principle, five chemically cleaved DNA fragments, each carrying one NNK-degenerated codon, were generated and assembled to full gene length in a one-pot-reaction without additional PCR-amplification or use of restriction enzymes or ligases. Sequencing revealed the presence of up to 27 different codons at individual positions, corresponding to 84.4% of the theoretical diversity offered by NNK-degeneration. OmniChange is absolutely sequence independent, does not require a minimal distance between mutated codons and can be accomplished within a day.

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<![CDATA[Shiga Toxin Receptor Gb3Cer/CD77: Tumor-Association and Promising Therapeutic Target in Pancreas and Colon Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db09ab0ee8fa60bc97d3

Background

Despite progress in adjuvant chemotherapy in the recent decades, pancreatic and colon cancers remain common causes of death worldwide. Bacterial toxins, which specifically bind to cell surface-exposed glycosphingolipids, are a potential novel therapy. We determined the expression of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer/CD77), the Shiga toxin receptor, in human pancreatic and colon adenocarcinomas.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Tissue lipid extracts of matched pairs of cancerous and adjacent normal tissue from 21 pancreatic and 16 colon cancer patients were investigated with thin-layer chromatography overlay assay combined with a novel mass spectrometry approach. Gb3Cer/CD77 was localized by immunofluorescence microscopy of cryosections from malignant and corresponding healthy tissue samples. 62% of pancreatic and 81% of colon adenocarcinomas showed increased Gb3Cer/CD77 expression, whereas 38% and 19% of malignant pancreas and colon tissue, respectively, did not, indicating an association of this marker with neoplastic transformation. Also, Gb3Cer/CD77 was associated with poor differentiation (G>2) in pancreatic cancer (P = 0.039). Mass spectrometric analysis evidenced enhanced expression of Gb3Cer/CD77 with long (C24) and short chain fatty acids (C16) in malignant tissues and pointed to the presence of hydroxylated fatty acid lipoforms, which are proposed to be important for receptor targeting. They could be detected in 86% of pancreatic and about 19% of colon adenocarcinomas. Immunohistology of tissue cryosections indicated tumor-association of these receptors.

Conclusions/Significance

Enhanced expression of Gb3Cer/CD77 in most pancreatic and colon adenocarcinomas prompts consideration of Shiga toxin, its B-subunit or B-subunit-derivatives as novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these challenging malignancies.

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<![CDATA[Correction: Endothelial PKA activity regulates angiogenesis by limiting autophagy through phosphorylation of ATG16L1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N63d19ade-13da-4b37-a1de-55afc96d0697 ]]> <![CDATA[MEHP interferes with mitochondrial functions and homeostasis in skeletal muscle cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na411c472-0723-403f-89af-3381276a1e18

Abstract

Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer frequently leached out from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products and is quickly metabolized to its monoester equivalent mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) once enters organisms. Exposure to DEHP/MEHP through food chain intake has been shown to modified metabolism but its effect on the development of metabolic myopathy of skeletal muscle (SKM) has not been revealed so far. Here, we found that MEHP repressed myogenic terminal differentiation of proliferating myoblasts (PMB) and confluent myoblasts (CMB) but had weak effect on this process once it had been initiated. The transition of mitochondria (MITO) morphology from high efficient filamentary network to low efficient vesicles was triggered by MEHP, implying its negative effects on MITO functions. The impaired MITO functions was further demonstrated by reduced MITO DNA (mtDNA) level and SDH enzyme activity as well as highly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells after MEHP treatment. The expression of metabolic genes, including PDK4, CPT1b, UCP2, and HO1, was highly increased by MEHP and the promoters of PDK4 and CPT1b were also activated by MEHP. Additionally, the stability of some subunits in the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) complexes was found to be reduced by MEHP, implying defective oxidative metabolism in MITO and which was confirmed by repressed palmitic acid oxidation in MEHP-treated cells. Besides, MEHP also blocked insulin-induced glucose uptake. Taken together, our results suggest that MEHP is inhibitory to myogenesis and is harmful to MITO functions in SKM, so its exposure should be avoided or limited.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of the efficacy of MOE and PMO modifications of systemic antisense oligonucleotides in a severe SMA mouse model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N80ddb538-a920-45c9-8855-fab44eac663b

Abstract

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a motor neuron disease. Nusinersen, a splice-switching antisense oligonucleotide (ASO), was the first approved drug to treat SMA. Based on prior preclinical studies, both 2′-O-methoxyethyl (MOE) with a phosphorothioate backbone and morpholino with a phosphorodiamidate backbone—with the same or extended target sequence as nusinersen—displayed efficient rescue of SMA mouse models. Here, we compared the therapeutic efficacy of these two modification chemistries in rescue of a severe mouse model using ASO10-29—a 2-nt longer version of nusinersen—via subcutaneous injection. Although both chemistries efficiently corrected SMN2 splicing in various tissues, restored motor function and improved the integrity of neuromuscular junctions, MOE-modified ASO10-29 (MOE10-29) was more efficacious than morpholino-modified ASO10-29 (PMO10-29) at the same molar dose, as seen by longer survival, greater body-weight gain and better preservation of motor neurons. Time-course analysis revealed that MOE10-29 had more persistent effects than PMO10-29. On the other hand, PMO10-29 appears to more readily cross an immature blood-brain barrier following systemic administration, showing more robust initial effects on SMN2 exon 7 inclusion, but less persistence in the central nervous system. We conclude that both modifications can be effective as splice-switching ASOs in the context of SMA and potentially other diseases, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each.

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<![CDATA[GO: a functional reporter system to identify and enrich base editing activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8a9f1098-b74a-4fac-bc68-452350dae1bd

Abstract

Base editing (BE) is a powerful tool for engineering single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and has been used to create targeted mutations in cell lines, organoids and animal models. Recent development of new BE enzymes has provided an extensive toolkit for genome modification; however, identifying and isolating edited cells for analysis has proven challenging. Here we report a ‘Gene On’ (GO) reporter system that indicates precise cytosine or adenine base editing in situ with high sensitivity and specificity. We test GO using an activatable GFP and use it to measure the kinetics, efficiency and PAM specificity of a range of new BE variants. Further, GO is flexible and can be easily adapted to induce expression of numerous genetically encoded markers, antibiotic resistance genes or enzymes, such as Cre recombinase. With these tools, GO can be exploited to functionally link BE events at endogenous genomic loci to cellular enzymatic activities in human and mouse cell lines and organoids. Thus, GO provides a powerful approach to increase the practicality and feasibility of implementing CRISPR BE in biomedical research.

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<![CDATA[2′-Alkynyl spin-labelling is a minimally perturbing tool for DNA structural analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndfb443bf-8789-4e8f-b814-9f2b6d21e8e2

Abstract

The determination of distances between specific points in nucleic acids is essential to understanding their behaviour at the molecular level. The ability to measure distances of 2–10 nm is particularly important: deformations arising from protein binding commonly fall within this range, but the reliable measurement of such distances for a conformational ensemble remains a significant challenge. Using several techniques, we show that electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of oligonucleotides spin-labelled with triazole-appended nitroxides at the 2′ position offers a robust and minimally perturbing tool for obtaining such measurements. For two nitroxides, we present results from EPR spectroscopy, X-ray crystal structures of B-form spin-labelled DNA duplexes, molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These four methods are mutually supportive, and pinpoint the locations of the spin labels on the duplexes. In doing so, this work establishes 2′-alkynyl nitroxide spin-labelling as a minimally perturbing method for probing DNA conformation.

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<![CDATA[Agonist-mediated switching of ion selectivity in TPC2 differentially promotes lysosomal function]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc2fad685-f858-495d-8178-d7538f92930d

Ion selectivity is a defining feature of a given ion channel and is considered immutable. Here we show that ion selectivity of the lysosomal ion channel TPC2, which is hotly debated (Calcraft et al., 2009; Guo et al., 2017; Jha et al., 2014; Ruas et al., 2015; Wang et al., 2012), depends on the activating ligand. A high-throughput screen identified two structurally distinct TPC2 agonists. One of these evoked robust Ca2+-signals and non-selective cation currents, the other weaker Ca2+-signals and Na+-selective currents. These properties were mirrored by the Ca2+-mobilizing messenger, NAADP and the phosphoinositide, PI(3,5)P2, respectively. Agonist action was differentially inhibited by mutation of a single TPC2 residue and coupled to opposing changes in lysosomal pH and exocytosis. Our findings resolve conflicting reports on the permeability and gating properties of TPC2 and they establish a new paradigm whereby a single ion channel mediates distinct, functionally-relevant ionic signatures on demand.

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