ResearchPad - chemokines https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL1, IL12, IL28 and TLR4 and symptoms of congenital cytomegalovirus infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15749 Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most common intrauterine infection. A non-specific immune response is the first line of host defense mechanism against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). There is limited data on associations between Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involving innate immunity and the risk and clinical manifestation of cCMV infection. The aim of the study was to investigate association between selected SNPs in genes encoding cytokines and cytokine receptors, and predisposition to cCMV infection including symptomatic course of disease and symptoms. A panel of eight SNPs: IL1B rs16944, IL12B rs3212227, IL28B rs12979860, CCL2 rs1024611, DC-SIGN rs735240, TLR2 rs5743708, TLR4 rs4986791, TLR9 rs352140 was analyzed in 233 infants (92 cCMV-infected and 141 healthy controls). Associations between genotyped SNPs and predisposition to cCMV infection and symptoms were analyzed. The association analysis was performed using SNPStats software. No statistically significant association was found between any genotyped SNPs and predisposition to cCMV infection and symptomatic course of disease. In relation to particular symptoms, polymorphism of IL12B rs3212227 was linked to decreased risk of prematurity (OR = 0.37;95%CI,0.14–0.98;p = 0.025), while polymorphism of IL1B rs16944 was linked to reduced risk of splenomegaly (OR = 0.36;95%CI,0.14–0.98; p = 0.034) in infants with cCMV infection. An increased risk of thrombocytopenia was associated with IL28B rs12979860 polymorphism (OR = 2.55;95%CI,1.03–6.32;p = 0.042), while hepatitis was associated with SNP of TLR4rs4986791 (OR = 7.80;95%CI,1.49–40,81; p = 0.024). This is the first study to demonstrate four new associations between SNPs in selected genes (IL1B, IL12B, IL28B, TLR4) and particular symptoms in cCMV disease. Further studies on the role of SNPs in the pathogenesis of cCMV infection and incorporation of selected SNPs in the clinical practice might be considered in the future.

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<![CDATA[Aspects of intradermal immunization with different adjuvants: The role of dendritic cells and Th1/Th2 response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b26a6d5eed0c484289df6

Intradermal (i.d.) application of vaccine is promising way how to induce specific immune response against particular pathogens. Adjuvants, substances added into vaccination dose with the aim to increase immunogenicity, play important role in activation of dendritic cells with subsequent activation of lymphocytes. They can, however, induce unwanted local reactions. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of i.d. administration of model antigen keyhole limped hemocyanine alone or with different adjuvants–aluminium hydroxide and oil-based adjuvants—on local histopathological reaction as well as dendritic cell activation at the site of administration and local cytokine and chemokine response. This was assessed at 4 and 24 hours after application. Selection of the adjuvants was based on the fact, that they differently enhance antibody or cell-mediated immunity. The results showed activation of dendritic cells and both Th1 and Th2 response stimulated by oil-based adjuvants. It was associated with higher expression of set of genes, incl. chemokine receptor CCR7 or Th1-associated chemokine CXCL10 and cytokine IFNγ. Application of the antigen with aluminium hydroxide induced higher expression of Th2-associated IL4 or IL13. On the other hand, both complete and incomplete Freund´s adjuvants provoked strong local reaction associated with influx of neutrophils. This was accompanied with high expression of proinflammatory IL1 or neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL8. Surprisingly, similarly strong local reaction was detected also after application of aluminium hydroxide-based adjuvant. The best balanced local reaction with sufficient activation of immune cells was detected after application of oil-based adjuvants Montanide and Emulsigen.

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<![CDATA[The effect of different treatments of lymph after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in rats on macrophages in vitro]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644955d5eed0c484c2fa61

Background

To observe the effects of different treatments of lymph after intestinal I/R in rats on macrophages in vitro.

Methods

Forty-eight healthy SPF SD rats weighing 300 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into two groups: group A, and group B. The rats in group A were drained of lymph fluid for 180 min; the rats in group B were subjected to 60 min ischemia by clamping the SMA, followed by 120 min reperfusion and 180 min of lymph drainage. The lymph fluid collected was divided into 4 sub-groups: 1. no treatment (A1, Ly, and B1, I/R Ly); 2. protein degradation (A2, Ly PD, and B2 I/R PD); 3. endotoxin removal (A3, Ly ER, and B3, I/R ER); 4. protein degradation plus endotoxin removal (A4, Ly PD+ER, and B4, I/R PD+ER), then used to stimulate a monocyte-macrophage cell line.

Results

Compared with group A1, the levels of the inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, HMGB1 concentration, protein and mRNA expression of TLR4, HMGB1 and NF-κBp65 were significantly increased in group B1. There was a significant reduction in proinflammatory cytokines and of the expression of TLR4, NF-κBp65, and chemokines in groups A2, B2, A4, and B4. However, there were no significant decrease of these factors in groups A3 and B3.

Conclusions

The lymph fluid drained after intestinal I/R can cause inflammation in vivo and in vitro. Deproteinization of lymph fluid with proteinase K significantly reduced the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, TLR4 and NF-κBp65 in cell culture supernatant, exerting a protective effect on inflammatory reaction caused by the intestinal I/R. Passage of lymph fluid through an endotoxin removal column did not reduce the levels of active proinflammatory factors produced by macrophages in vitro.

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<![CDATA[Lifelong aerobic exercise protects against inflammaging and cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e679d5eed0c484ef3350

Biological aging is associated with progressive damage accumulation, loss of organ reserves, and systemic inflammation ('inflammaging'), which predispose for a wide spectrum of chronic diseases, including several types of cancer. In contrast, aerobic exercise training (AET) reduces inflammation, lowers all-cause mortality, and enhances both health and lifespan. In this study, we examined the benefits of early-onset, lifelong AET on predictors of health, inflammation, and cancer incidence in a naturally aging mouse model (C57BL/J6). Lifelong, voluntary wheel-running (O-AET; 26-month-old) prevented age-related declines in aerobic fitness and motor coordination vs. age-matched, sedentary controls (O-SED). AET also provided partial protection against sarcopenia, dynapenia, testicular atrophy, and overall organ pathology, hence augmenting the ‘physiologic reserve’ of lifelong runners. Systemic inflammation, as evidenced by a chronic elevation in 17 of 18 pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (P < 0.05 O-SED vs. 2-month-old Y-CON), was potently mitigated by lifelong AET (P < 0.05 O-AET vs. O-SED), including master regulators of the cytokine cascade and cancer progression (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6). In addition, circulating SPARC, previously known to be upregulated in metabolic disease, was elevated in old, sedentary mice, but was normalized to young control levels in lifelong runners. Remarkably, malignant tumours were also completely absent in the O-AET group, whereas they were present in the brain (pituitary), liver, spleen, and intestines of sedentary mice. Collectively, our results indicate that early-onset, lifelong running dampens inflammaging, protects against multiple cancer types, and extends healthspan of naturally-aged mice.

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<![CDATA[In vitro and in vivo properties of the bovine antimicrobial peptide, Bactenecin 5]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5efd5eed0c484caa407

Antimicrobial peptides (AMP), part of the innate immune system, are well studied for their ability to kill pathogenic microorganisms. However, many also possess important immunomodulatory effects, and this area has potential for the development of novel therapies to supplement traditional methods such as the use of antibiotics. Here, we characterise the microbicidal and immunomodulatory potential of the proline-rich bovine AMP, Bactenecin 5 (Bac5). We demonstrate broad antimicrobial activity, including against some mycobacterial species, which are important pathogens of fish, cattle and humans. Bac5 is able to activate macrophage-like THP-1 cells and can synergistically trigger the upregulation of tnf-α when co-stimulated with M. marinum. Furthermore, Bac5 sensitises A549 epithelial cells to stimulation with TNF-α. For the first time, we characterise the activity of Bac5 in vivo, and show it to be a potent chemokine for macrophages in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo model of infection. Bac5 also supports the early recruitment of neutrophils in the presence of M. marinum. In the absence of host adaptive immunity, exogenous injected Bac5 is able to slow, although not prevent, infection of zebrafish with M. marinum.

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<![CDATA[Proteomic analysis of heart failure hospitalization among patients with chronic kidney disease: The Heart and Soul Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c21515ad5eed0c4843f9d47

Background

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for heart failure (HF). We aimed to investigate differences in proteins associated with HF hospitalizations among patients with and without CKD in the Heart and Soul Study.

Methods and results

We measured 1068 unique plasma proteins from baseline samples of 974 participants in The Heart and Soul Study who were followed for HF hospitalization over a median of 7 years. We sequentially applied forest regression and Cox survival analyses to select prognostic proteins. Among participants with CKD, four proteins were associated with HF at Bonferroni-level significance (p<2.5x10-4): Angiopoietin-2 (HR[95%CI] 1.45[1.33, 1.59]), Spondin-1 (HR[95%CI] 1.13 [1.06, 1.20]), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase type 5 (HR[95%CI] 0.65[0.53, 0.78]) and neurogenis locus notch homolog protein 1 (NOTCH1) (HR[95%CI] 0.67[0.55, 0.80]). These associations persisted at p<0.01 after adjustment for age, estimated glomerular filtration and history of HF. CKD was a significant interaction term in the associations of NOTCH1 and Spondin-1 with HF. Pathway analysis showed a trend for higher representation of the Cardiac Hypertrophy and Complement/Coagulation pathways among proteins prognostic of HF in the CKD sub-group.

Conclusions

These results suggest that markers of heart failure differ between patients with and without CKD. Further research is needed to validate novel markers in cohorts of patients with CKD and adjudicated HF events.

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<![CDATA[Microbiota control acute arterial inflammation and neointimal hyperplasia development after arterial injury]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c12cf15d5eed0c484913eab

Background

The microbiome has a functional role in a number of inflammatory processes and disease states. While neointimal hyperplasia development has been linked to inflammation, a direct role of the microbiota in neointimal hyperplasia has not yet been established. Germ-free (GF) mice are an invaluable model for studying causative links between commensal organisms and the host. We hypothesized that GF mice would exhibit altered neointimal hyperplasia following carotid ligation compared to conventionally raised (CONV-R) mice.

Methods

Twenty-week-old male C57BL/6 GF mice underwent left carotid ligation under sterile conditions. Maintenance of sterility was assessed by cultivation and 16S rRNA qPCR of stool. Neointimal hyperplasia was assessed by morphometric and histologic analysis of arterial sections after 28 days. Local arterial cell proliferation and inflammation was assessed by immunofluorescence for Ki67 and inflammatory cell markers at five days. Systemic inflammation was assessed by multiplex immunoassays of serum. CONV-R mice treated in the same manner served as the control cohort. GF and CONV-R mice were compared using standard statistical methods.

Results

All GF mice remained sterile during the entire study period. Twenty-eight days after carotid ligation, CONV-R mice had significantly more neointimal hyperplasia development compared to GF mice, as assessed by intima area, media area, intima+media area, and intima area/(intima+media) area. The collagen content of the neointimal lesions appeared qualitatively similar on Masson’s trichrome staining. There was significantly reduced Ki67 immunoreactivity in the media and adventitia of GF carotid arteries 5 days after ligation. GF mice also had increased arterial infiltration of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages compared to CONV-R mouse arteries and a reduced proportion of mature neutrophils. GF mice had significantly reduced serum IFN-γ-inducible protein (IP)-10 and MIP-2 5 days after carotid ligation, suggesting a reduced systemic inflammatory response.

Conclusions

GF mice have attenuated neointimal hyperplasia development compared to CONV-R mice, which is likely related to altered kinetics of wound healing and acute inflammation. Recognizing the role of commensals in the regulation of arterial remodeling will provide a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of restenosis and support strategies to treat or reduce restenosis risk by manipulating microbiota.

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<![CDATA[Serum IP-10 levels and increased DPPIV activity are linked to circulating CXCR3+ T cells in cholestatic HCV patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ed777d5eed0c484f141d9

Background & aims

Serum interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) is elevated in cholestatic liver diseases and predicts response to antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (DPPIV) cleaves active IP-10 into an inactive form, which inhibits recruitment of CXCR3+ T cells to the liver. In this study the link between IP-10 levels, DPPIV activity in serum and CXCR3+ T cells is analysed in cholestatic and non-cholestatic liver patients.

Methods

In serum DPPIV activity (by enzymatic assay), IP-10 (by ELISA) and bile acids (BA) (by enzymatic assay) were analysed in 229 naive HCV genotype (GT) 1 patients and in 16 patients with cholestatic liver disease. In a prospective follow-up (FU) cohort of 27 HCV GT 1 patients peripheral CD3+CXCR3+, CD4+CXCR3+ and CD8+CXCR3+ cells were measured by FACS.

Results

In 229 HCV patients serum IP-10 levels correlated positively to DPPIV serum activity. Higher IP-10 levels and DPPIV activity were detected in cholestatic and in cirrhotic HCV patients. Increased IP-10 serum levels were associated with therapeutic non-response to antiviral treatment with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin. In the HCV FU cohort elevated IP-10 serum levels and increased BA were associated with higher frequencies of peripheral CD3+CXCR3+, CD4+CXCR3+ and CD8+CXCR3+ T cells. Positive correlation between serum IP-10 levels and DPPIV activity was likewise validated in patients with cholestatic liver diseases.

Conclusions

A strong correlation between elevated serum levels of IP-10 and DPPIV activity was seen in different cholestatic patient groups. Furthermore, in cholestatic HCV patients a functional link to increased numbers of peripheral CXCR3+ immune cells could be observed. The source of DPPIV release in cholestatic patients remains open.

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<![CDATA[Cervico-vaginal inflammatory cytokine alterations after intrauterine contraceptive device insertion: A pilot study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1028cfd5eed0c48424826a

In a prospective study of twenty sexually transmitted infection (STI)-free women, we examined the impact of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) insertion on cervico-vaginal cytokine levels. Nine women chose the levonorgestrel-containing IUCD and eight chose a copper IUCD. A cervico-vaginal swab was collected for cytokine analysis pre-insertion and four weeks post-insertion. Significant increases were noted in levels of IL-1α (median 483.4 versus 316.6 pg/mL, p = 0.046), IL-1β (median 605.7 versus 147.3 pg/mL, p = 0.018), IL-6 (median 570.1 versus 157.3 pg/mL, p = 0.046), TNFα (median 1.19 versus 0.6 pg/mL, p = 0.029) and the chemokine MCP-1 (median 340.2 versus 135.2 pg/mL, p = 0.003). No significant changes were noted in the levels of GM-CSF, IL-8, MIG, MIP-3α, RANTES, IL-10, IL-17, IP-10, MIP-1β. Whether this increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels decreases epithelial barrier integrity and enhances susceptibility to STIs, including HIV, merits further study.

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<![CDATA[MMP-9 inhibition promotes anti-tumor immunity through disruption of biochemical and physical barriers to T-cell trafficking to tumors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ae46dd5eed0c484589a83

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), whose expression is frequently dysregulated in cancer, promotes tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis by multiple mechanisms, including extracellular matrix remodeling and growth-factor and cytokine activation. We developed a monoclonal antibody against murine MMP-9, which we found decreased growth of established primary tumors in an orthotopic model of HER2-driven breast cancer (HC11-NeuT) in immunocompetent mice. RNA sequencing (RNAseq) profiling of NeuT tumors and additional mouse model tumors revealed that anti-MMP-9 treatment resulted in upregulation of immune signature pathways associated with cytotoxic T-cell response. As there is a need to boost the low response rates observed with anti-PDL1 antibody treatment in the clinical setting, we assessed the potential of anti-MMP-9 to improve T-cell response to immune checkpoint inhibitor anti-PDL1 in NeuT tumors. Anti-MMP-9 and anti-PDL1 cotreatment reduced T-cell receptor (TCR) clonality and increased TCR diversity, as detected by TCR sequencing of NeuT tumors. Flow cytometry analyses of tumors showed that the combination treatment increased the frequency of CD3+ T cells, including memory/effector CD4 and CD8 T cells, but not regulatory T cells, among tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. Moreover, in vitro enzymatic assays corroborated that MMP-9 cleaves key T-cell chemoattractant CXC receptor 3 ligands (CXC ligand [CXCL] 9, CXCL10, and CXCL11) and renders them inactive in T-cell migration assays. Consistent with our in vitro experiments, analysis of NeuT tumor protein lysates showed that anti-MMP-9 treatment increases expression of CXCL10 and other T cell–stimulating factors, such as interleukin (IL)-12p70 and IL-18. We show that inhibition of MMP-9, a key component of the tumor-promoting and immune-suppressive myeloid inflammatory milieu, increases T-helper cell 1 type cytokines, trafficking of effector/memory T cells into tumors, and intratumoral T-cell diversity.

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<![CDATA[Decreased expression of CCL17 in the disrupted nasal polyp epithelium and its regulation by IL-4 and IL-5]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b03d266463d7e6e6b5b7903

Background

In airway epithelium, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (CCL22) are induced by defective epithelial barriers such as E-cadherin and attract the effector cells of Th2 immunity. However, the association between the epithelial barrier and CCL17 expression has not been studied in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyp (CRSwNP). Thus, we aimed to evaluate the expression of CCL17 and its regulation by Th cytokines in nasal polyp (NP) epithelial cells.

Methods

The expression and distribution of CCL17, CCL22, E-cadherin and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were measured using real-time PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry and compared between normal ethmoid sinus epithelium and NP epithelium. In addition, the expression level of CCL17 was determined in cultured epithelial cells treated with IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, TNF-α, and IFN-γ.

Results

The expression of CCL17 was decreased in the NP epithelium compared to the epithelium of normal ethmoid sinus, whereas the expression of CCL22 was not decreased. E-cadherin was differentially distributed between the epithelium of normal ethmoid sinus and NP epithelium. EGFR was also decreased in NPs. Interestingly, the stimulation of cultured epithelial cells with Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5, resulted in an upregulation of CCL17 expression only in NP epithelial cells whereas the expression of CCL17 was increased in both normal epithelial cells and NP epithelial cells by Th1 cytokines.

Conclusion

Our results suggest that the decreased expression of CCL17 in defective NP epithelium may be closely connected to NP pathogenesis and can be differentially regulated by cytokines in the NP epithelium of patients with CRSwNP.

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<![CDATA[Major Neutrophilia Observed in Acute Phase of Human Leptospirosis Is Not Associated with Increased Expression of Granulocyte Cell Activation Markers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db10ab0ee8fa60bcbdf5

It has long been known that pathogenic Leptospira can mobilize the immune system but the specific contribution of neutrophils to control the infectious challenge remains to be clarified. We herein analyzed the phenotype of circulating neutrophils of patients with leptospirosis and healthy controls for the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) type 2 (TLR2, to sense the leptospiral LPS) and several activation markers: interleukin 8 chemokine receptor CD182 (CXCR2), CD11b of the integrin/opsonin complement receptor type 3 (CR3) and CD15 (ligand of the selectin). The plasmatic level of the main CD182 ligand, interleukin 8 (CXCL8), was measured by ELISA. Hospitalized leptospirosis cases showed marked neutrophilia, particularly in the most severe cases. Interestingly, TLR2 was significantly increased in leptospirosis but identical levels of CD182 and CD11b were detected when compared to controls. CD15 was significantly decreased on neutrophils in leptospirosis but returned to normal within 1 month. Basal levels of IL-8 were measured in control subjects and were not increased in leptospirosis cases at the initial stage of the disease. In conclusion, we observed that neutrophils failed to regulate the expression of several of the receptors involved in cell activation and recruitment. This study further emphasizes the paradigm that neutrophils may be impaired in their overall capacity to thwart bacterial infection in leptospirosis patients.

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<![CDATA[Utility of CSF Cytokine/Chemokines as Markers of Active Intrathecal Inflammation: Comparison of Demyelinating, Anti-NMDAR and Enteroviral Encephalitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1aab0ee8fa60b7c800

Background

Despite the discovery of CSF and serum diagnostic autoantibodies in autoimmune encephalitis, there are still very limited CSF biomarkers for diagnostic and monitoring purposes in children with inflammatory or autoimmune brain disease. The cause of encephalitis is unknown in up to a third of encephalitis cohorts, and it is important to differentiate infective from autoimmune encephalitis given the therapeutic implications.

Aim

To study CSF cytokines and chemokines as diagnostic biomarkers of active neuroinflammation, and assess their role in differentiating demyelinating, autoimmune, and viral encephalitis.

Methods

We measured and compared 32 cytokine/chemokines using multiplex immunoassay and APRIL and BAFF using ELISA in CSF collected prior to commencing treatment from paediatric patients with confirmed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM, n = 16), anti-NMDAR encephalitis (anti-NMDAR E, n = 11), and enteroviral encephalitis (EVE, n = 16). We generated normative data using CSF from 20 non-inflammatory neurological controls. The sensitivity of CSF cytokine/chemokines to diagnose encephalitis cases was calculated using 95th centile of control values as cut off. We correlated CSF cytokine/chemokines with disease severity and follow up outcome based on modified Rankin scale. One-way hierarchical correlational cluster analysis of molecules was performed in different encephalitis and outcome groups.

Results

In descending order, CSF TNF-α, IL-10, IFN-α, IL-6, CXCL13 and CXCL10 had the best sensitivity (>79.1%) when all encephalitis patients were included. The combination of IL-6 and IFN-α was most predictive of inflammation on multiple logistic regression with area under the ROC curve 0.99 (CI 0.97–1.00). There were no differences in CSF cytokine concentrations between EVE and anti-NMDAR E, whereas ADEM showed more pronounced elevation of Th17 related (IL-17, IL-21) and Th2 (IL-4, CCL17) related cytokine/chemokines. Unlike EVE, heat map analysis showed similar clustering of cytokine/chemokine molecules in immune mediated encephalitis (ADEM and anti-NMDAR E). Th1 and B cell (CXCL13 and CXCL10) molecules clustered together in patients with severe encephalopathy at admission and worse disability at follow up in all encephalitis. There was no correlation between CSF neopterin and IFN-γ or IFN-α.

Conclusion

A combination panel of cytokine/chemokines consisting of CSF TNF-α, IL-10, IFN-α, IL-6, CXCL13 and CXCL10 measured using multiplex immunoassay may be used to diagnose and monitor intrathecal inflammation in the brain. Given their association with worse outcome, certain key chemokines (CXCL13, CXCL10) could represent potential therapeutic targets in encephalitis.

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<![CDATA[Syndecan-1 in the Mouse Parietal Peritoneum Microcirculation in Inflammation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab0ab0ee8fa60bab0e3

Background

The heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 (CD138) was shown to regulate inflammatory responses by binding chemokines and cytokines and interacting with adhesion molecules, thereby modulating leukocyte trafficking to tissues. The objectives of this study were to examine the expression of syndecan-1 and its role in leukocyte recruitment and chemokine presentation in the microcirculation underlying the parietal peritoneum.

Methods

Wild-type BALB/c and syndecan-1 null mice were stimulated with an intraperitoneal injection of Staphylococcus aureus LTA, Escherichia coli LPS or TNFα and the microcirculation of the parietal peritoneum was examined by intravital microscopy after 4 hours. Fluorescence confocal microscopy was used to examine syndecan-1 expression in the peritoneal microcirculation using fluorescent antibodies. Blocking antibodies to adhesion molecules were used to examine the role of these molecules in leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in response to LTA. To determine whether syndecan-1 co-localizes with chemokines in vivo, fluorescent antibodies to syndecan-1 were co-injected intravenously with anti-MIP-2 (CXCL2), anti-KC (CXCL1) or anti-MCP-1 (CCL2).

Results and Conclusion

Syndecan-1 was localized to the subendothelial region of peritoneal venules and the mesothelial layer. Leukocyte rolling was significantly decreased with LPS treatment while LTA and TNFα significantly increased leukocyte adhesion compared with saline control. Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions were not different in syndecan-1 null mice. Antibody blockade of β2 integrin (CD18), ICAM-1 (CD54) and VCAM-1 (CD106) did not decrease leukocyte adhesion in response to LTA challenge while blockade of P-selectin (CD62P) abrogated leukocyte rolling. Lastly, MIP-2 expression in the peritoneal venules was not dependent on syndecan-1 in vivo. Our data suggest that syndecan-1 is expressed in the parietal peritoneum microvasculature but does not regulate leukocyte recruitment and is not necessary for the presentation of the chemokine MIP-2 in this tissue.

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<![CDATA[IL-1 Coordinates the Neutrophil Response to C. albicans in the Oral Mucosa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9ebab0ee8fa60b6c884

Mucosal infections with Candida albicans belong to the most frequent forms of fungal diseases. Host protection is conferred by cellular immunity; however, the induction of antifungal immunity is not well understood. Using a mouse model of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) we show that interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling is critical for fungal control at the onset of infection through its impact on neutrophils at two levels. We demonstrate that both the recruitment of circulating neutrophils to the site of infection and the mobilization of newly generated neutrophils from the bone marrow depended on IL-1R. Consistently, IL-1R-deficient mice displayed impaired chemokine production at the site of infection and defective secretion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the circulation in response to C. albicans. Strikingly, endothelial cells were identified as the primary cellular source of G-CSF during OPC, which responded to IL-1α that was released from keratinocytes in the infected tissue. The IL-1-dependent crosstalk between two different cellular subsets of the nonhematopoietic compartment was confirmed in vitro using a novel murine tongue-derived keratinocyte cell line and an established endothelial cell line. These data establish a new link between IL-1 and granulopoiesis in the context of fungal infection. Together, we identified two complementary mechanisms coordinating the neutrophil response in the oral mucosa, which is critical for preventing fungal growth and dissemination, and thus protects the host from disease.

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<![CDATA[G Protein Coupled Receptor Kinase 3 Regulates Breast Cancer Migration, Invasion, and Metastasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafdab0ee8fa60bc537d

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease that has a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Chemokine receptor interactions are important modulators of breast cancer metastasis; however, it is now recognized that quantitative surface expression of one important chemokine receptor, CXCR4, may not directly correlate with metastasis and that its functional activity in breast cancer may better inform tumor pathogenicity. G protein coupled receptor kinase 3 (GRK3) is a negative regulator of CXCR4 activity, and we show that GRK expression correlates with tumorigenicity, molecular subtype, and metastatic potential in human tumor microarray analysis. Using established human breast cancer cell lines and an immunocompetent in vivo mouse model, we further demonstrate that alterations in GRK3 expression levels in tumor cells directly affect migration and invasion in vitro and the establishment of distant metastasis in vivo. The effects of GRK3 modulation appear to be specific to chemokine-mediated migration behaviors without influencing tumor cell proliferation or survival. These data demonstrate that GRK3 dysregulation may play an important part in TNBC metastasis.

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<![CDATA[The Immunomodulatory Role of Adjuvants in Vaccines Formulated with the Recombinant Antigens Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 against Onchocerca volvulus in Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3fab0ee8fa60bd649b

Background

In some regions in Africa, elimination of onchocerciasis may be possible with mass drug administration, although there is concern based on several factors that onchocerciasis cannot be eliminated solely through this approach. A vaccine against Onchocerca volvulus would provide a critical tool for the ultimate elimination of this infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that immunization of mice with Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, when formulated with alum, induced protective immunity. It was hypothesized that the levels of protective immunity induced with the two recombinant antigens formulated with alum would be improved by formulation with other adjuvants known to enhance different types of antigen-specific immune responses.

Methodology/ Principal Findings

Immunizing mice with Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 in conjunction with alum, Advax 2 and MF59 induced significant levels of larval killing and host protection. The immune response was biased towards Th2 with all three of the adjuvants, with IgG1 the dominant antibody. Improved larval killing and host protection was observed in mice immunized with co-administered Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 in conjunction with each of the three adjuvants as compared to single immunizations. Antigen–specific antibody titers were significantly increased in mice immunized concurrently with the two antigens. Based on chemokine levels, it appears that neutrophils and eosinophils participate in the protective immune response induced by Ov-103, and macrophages and neutrophils participate in immunity induced by Ov-RAL-2.

Conclusions/Significance

The mechanism of protective immunity induced by Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, with the adjuvants alum, Advax 2 and MF59, appears to be multifactorial with roles for cytokines, chemokines, antibody and specific effector cells. The vaccines developed in this study have the potential of reducing the morbidity associated with onchocerciasis in humans.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure on the Expression of Endocannabinoid Signaling-Related Proteins in the Spleen of Young Adult Rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da01ab0ee8fa60b743f9

Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of alcohol consumption among adolescents and alcohol is known to modulate the expression of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown whether this pattern may have short-term consequences on the ECS in the spleen. To address this question, we examined the plasma concentrations of metabolic and inflammatory signals and the splenic ECS in early adult rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence. A 4-day drinking in the dark (DID) procedure for 4 weeks was used as a model of intermittent forced-alcohol administration (20%, v/v) in female and male Wistar rats, which were sacrificed 2 weeks after the last DID session. First, there was no liver damage or alterations in plasma metabolic parameters. However, certain plasma inflammatory signals were altered according to sex and alcohol exposition. Whereas fractalkine [chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1] was only affected by sex with lower concentration in male rats, there was an interaction between sex and alcohol exposure in the TNF-α and interleukin-6 concentrations and only female rats displayed changes. Regarding the mRNA and protein expression of the ECS, the receptors and endocannabinoid-synthesizing enzymes were found to be altered with area-specific expression patterns in the spleen. Overall, whereas the expression of the cannabinoid receptor CB1 and the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARα were lower in alcohol-exposed rats compared to control rats, the CB2 expression was higher. Additionally, the N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D expression was high in female alcohol-exposed rats and low in male alcohol-exposed rats. In conclusion, intermittent alcohol consumption during adolescence may be sufficient to induce short-term changes in the expression of splenic endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins and plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats with a strong sexual dimorphism. The potential impact of these alterations in early adulthood remains to be elucidated.

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<![CDATA[Triggering Dectin-1-Pathway Alone Is Not Sufficient to Induce Cytokine Production by Murine Macrophages]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db2aab0ee8fa60bd1062

β-glucans (BG) are abundant polysaccharides of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall (Sc CW), an industry byproduct. They have immuno-stimulatory properties upon engagement of dectin-1 (Clec7a), their main receptor on particular immune cells, and they actually become of great interest because of their preventive or therapeutic potentials. Zymosan, a crude extract of Sc CW was studied as a prototypic BG, despite its miscellaneous PAMPs content. Here, we examined the response of murine wild type or Clec7a-/- bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) to products with increasing BG content (15, 65 or 75%) and compared their effects with those of other dectin-1 ligands. The enrichment process removed TLR ligands while preserving dectin-1 activity. The most enriched extracts have very low NFκB activity and triggered low amounts of cytokine production in contrast with crude products like zymosan and BG15. Furthermore, MyD88-/- BMDM did not produce TNFα in response to crude Sc CW extracts, whereas their response to BG-enriched extracts was unaffected, suggesting that BG alone are not able to initiate cytokine secretion. Although Sc CW-derived BG stimulated the late and strong expression of Csf2 in a dectin-1-dependent manner, they remain poor inducers of chemokine and cytokine production in murine macrophages.

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<![CDATA[Mycobacterium tuberculosis AtsG (Rv0296c), GlmU (Rv1018c) and SahH (Rv3248c) Proteins Function as the Human IL-8-Binding Effectors and Contribute to Pathogen Entry into Human Neutrophils]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0dab0ee8fa60bcace8

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an extremely successful intracellular pathogen that has evolved a broad spectrum of pathogenic mechanisms that enable its manipulation of host defense elements and its survival in the hostile environment inside phagocytes. Cellular influx into the site of mycobacterial entry is mediated by a variety of chemokines, including interleukin-8 (IL-8), and the innate cytokine network is critical for the development of an adaptive immune response and infection control. Using affinity chromatography, liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and surface plasmon resonance techniques, we identified M. tuberculosis AtsG arylsulphatase, bifunctional glucosamine-1-phosphate acetyltransferase and N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GlmU) and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (SahH) as the pathogen proteins that bind to human IL-8. The interactions of all of the identified proteins (AtsG, GlmU and SahH) with IL-8 were characterized by high binding affinity with KD values of 6.83x10-6 M, 5.24x10-6 M and 7.14x10-10 M, respectively. Furthermore, the construction of Mtb mutant strains overproducing AtsG, GlmU or SahH allowed determination of the contribution of these proteins to mycobacterial entry into human neutrophils. The significantly increased number of intracellularly located bacilli of the overproducing M. tuberculosis mutant strains compared with those of “wild-type” M. tuberculosis and the binding interaction of AtsG, GlmU and SahH proteins with human IL-8 may indicate that these proteins participate in the modulation of the early events of infection with tubercle bacilli and could affect pathogen attachment to target cells.

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