ResearchPad - china https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Is poverty the mother of crime? Evidence from homicide rates in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15772 Income inequality is blamed for being the main driver of violent crime by the majority of the literature. However, earlier work on the topic largely neglects the role of poverty and income levels as opposed to income inequality. The current paper uses all court verdicts for homicide cases in China between 2014 and 2016, as well as various inequality measures calculated from 2005 mini census data together with a host of control variables to shed light on the relationship at the detailed Chinese prefecture-level. The results suggest that it is the poverty and low income level, rather than income inequality, that is positively related to homicide rates. We show that the internal rural-urban migration from more violent localities contributes to the destination cities’ homicide rates. The poverty-homicide association implies that instead of “relative deprivation”, “absolute deprivation” is mainly responsible for violent crime. Poverty is the mother of crime. —Marcus Aurelius (121-180AD), Emperor of the Roman Empire.

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<![CDATA[Meta-analysis of the correlation between dietary copper supply and broiler performance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15740 To conduct a meta-analysis assessing the correlation between dietary copper supply and broiler performanceMethodsStudies that were published prior to January 2019 and reported the dietary copper supply and broiler growth performance were identified using search functions in the Web of Science, Springer, Elsevier, Science Direct, and Taylor & Francis Online databases; the Journal of Dairy Research; and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We performed stratified analyses on the possible sources of bias, including differences in the study locations and years of publication. The publication bias was assessed with Egger’s test method.ResultsA total of 12 randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies were eligible for inclusion. The pooled WMDs of the ADG, ADFI and FCR were -0.166 (95% CI: -1.587 to 1.254), -0.844 (95% CI: -1.536 to -0.152) and -0.029 (95% CI: -0.057 to 0.000), respectively. In the Israeli and Indian studies, the ADG and ADFI data in the experimental group were higher than those in the control group; however, in America, a relatively high FCR value was found in the experimental group compared to that in the control group. The analysis of the study period showed that for the 1980s and 2010s, the ADG and ADFI of the experimental group were lower than those of the control group, while, in the 1990s and 2010s, the FCR of the experimental group were lower than those of the control group. The observed values were adjusted for study effects, and a model was used to obtain the copper supplementation under the optimal production performance. The results showed that the adjusted average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed to gain ratio (FCR) presented a quadratic relationship with Cu supplementation (P<0.05). The maximum value of ADG (31.84 g/d) is reached when Cu is added at amount of 158 mg/kg, and the minimum value of FCR (1.53) is reached when Cu is added at amount of 217 mg/kg. No significant publication bias existed in the studies (Egger's test: P value were 0.81, 0.71 and 0.14).ConclusionFrom this study, it can be concluded that the traditional copper addition is no longer suitable for modern broiler breeding; the higher copper content may be beneficial for the production performance of broilers. ]]> <![CDATA[Spatiotemporal trends and ecological determinants in maternal mortality ratios in 2,205 Chinese counties, 2010–2013: A Bayesian modelling analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14689 Information about the spatiotemporal trends of the maternal mortality ratio is helpful in the policymaking response to reducing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in developing areas.The study can help the government to preassess the effects of policy if the corresponding magnitudes of influence of the underlying determinants can be quantified.The quantitative statistical results of national and subnational influencing effects and patterns can help the government to create policies with precision.What did the researchers do and find?We employed a Bayesian space–time model to explore the spatiotemporal trends of the MMR in 2,205 Chinese counties from 2010 to 2013 and used Bayesian multivariable regression and GeoDetector models to address 3 main ecological determinants of MMR.The major determinants of the MMR in China are medical intervention factors. The MMR will decrease by 1.787 (95% CI 1.424–2.142, p < 0.001) and 0.623 (95% CI 0.436–0.798, p < 0.001) per 100,000 live births when the proportion of hospital births and the proportion of 5 or more antenatal care visits increase by 1.0%.The major determinants for the MMR in the western and southwestern regions of China are per capita income and antenatal care, while in the eastern and southern coastal regions, it is per capita income.What do these results mean?Many countries, and particularly developing countries, may learn from China’s dramatic improvement in maternal survival rates.This progress has profited from long-term strategies to enhance delivery care in healthcare facilities and the provision of professional maternity care in large hospitals. There are, however, a variety of policy effects that have occurred in different areas due to regional heterogeneity.We have revealed the dominant factors and their corresponding influencing magnitudes at the national and subnational level, and this evidence may help China or other developing countries to preassess policy effects. ]]> <![CDATA[Geo-temporal distribution of 1,688 Chinese healthcare workers infected with COVID-19 in severe conditions—A secondary data analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14630 The COVID-19 outbreak is posing an unprecedented challenge to healthcare workers. This study analyzes the geo-temporal effects on disease severity for the 1,688 Chinese healthcare workers infected with COVID-19.MethodsUsing the descriptive results recently reported by the Chinese CDC, we compare the percentage of infected healthcare workers in severe conditions over time and across three areas in China, and the fatality rate of infected healthcare workers with all the infected individuals in China aged 22–59 years.ResultsAmong the infected Chinese healthcare workers whose symptoms onset appeared during the same ten-day period, the percentage of those in severe conditions decreased significantly from 19.7% (Jan 11–20) to 14.4% (Jan 21–31) to 8.7% (Feb 1–11). Across the country, there was also a significant difference in the disease severity, with Wuhan being the most severe (17.3%), followed by Hubei Province (10.2%), and the rest of China (6.6%). The case fatality rate for the 1,688 infected Chinese healthcare workers was significantly lower than that for the 29,798 infected patients aged 20–59 years—0.3% (5/1,688) vs. 0.65% (193/29,798), respectively.ConclusionThe disease severity among infected healthcare workers improved considerably over a short period of time in China. The more severe conditions in Wuhan compared to the rest of the country may be attributable to the draconian lockdown. The clinical outcomes of infected Chinese healthcare workers may represent a more accurate estimation of the severity of COVID-19 for those who have access to quality healthcare. ]]> <![CDATA[Prediction of hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia from retinal fundus photographs via deep learning: A cross-sectional study of chronic diseases in central China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14561 Retinal fundus photography provides a non-invasive approach for identifying early microcirculatory alterations of chronic diseases prior to the onset of overt clinical complications. Here, we developed neural network models to predict hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and a range of risk factors from retinal fundus images obtained from a cross-sectional study of chronic diseases in rural areas of Xinxiang County, Henan, in central China. 1222 high-quality retinal images and over 50 measurements of anthropometry and biochemical parameters were generated from 625 subjects. The models in this study achieved an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.880 in predicting hyperglycemia, of 0.766 in predicting hypertension, and of 0.703 in predicting dyslipidemia. In addition, these models can predict with AUC>0.7 several blood test erythrocyte parameters, including hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and a cluster of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Taken together, deep learning approaches are feasible for predicting hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and risks of other chronic diseases.

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<![CDATA[Genetic variation and phylogeographic structure of <i>Spodoptera exigua</i> in western China based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14552 The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is a significant agricultural pest of numerous crops and has caused serious economic losses in China. To effectively control this pest, we analyzed its genetic variation, population genetic structure and demographic history. We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and eight nuclear microsatellite loci to investigate genetic diversity and population genetic structure of S. exigua populations at 14 sampling sites in western China. Both mtDNA and microsatellite data indicated low levels of genetic diversity among all populations. A moderate genetic differentiation among some S. exigua populations was detected. Neighbor-joining dendrograms, STRUCTURE, and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed two genetically distinct groups: the KEL group and the remaining population group. Isolation by distance (IBD) results showed a weak significant correlation between geographic distance and genetic differentiation. Haplotype networks, neutrality testing, and mismatch distribution analysis indicated that the beet armyworm experienced a recent rapid expansion without a recent genetic bottleneck in western China. Thus, the results of this population genetic study can help with the development of strategies for managing this highly migratory pest.

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<![CDATA[SNP markers for low molecular glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) at the <i>Glu-A3</i> and <i>Glu-B3</i> loci in bread wheat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13817 The content and composition of seed storage proteins is largely responsible for wheat end-use quality. They mainly consist of polymeric glutenins and monomeric gliadins. According to their electrophoretic mobility, gliadins and glutenins are subdivided into several fractions. Glutenins are classified as high molecular weight or low molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs, respectively). LMW-GSs are encoded by multigene families located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci. We designed a set of 16 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that are able to detect SDS-PAGE alleles at the Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 loci. The SNP markers captured the diversity of alleles in 88 international reference lines and 27 Mexican cultivars, when compared to SDS-PAGE and STS markers, however, showed a slightly larger percent of multiple alleles, mainly for Glu-B3. SNP markers were then used to determine the Glu-1 and Glu-3 allele composition in 54 CIMMYT historical lines and demonstrated to be useful tool for breeding programs to improve wheat end product properties.

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<![CDATA[Stereoscopic optimization of industrial structure of the equipment manufacturing industry from the perspective of collaborative emissions reduction: Evidence from China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11230 Equipment manufacturing industry is one of the major industries of the Chinese economy. Previous researches have revealed that the industry has dilemmas of unreasonable industrial structure and high pollution. Using the data of 30 provinces in 2006-2015 in China, this study calculated a comprehensive pollution indicator when estimating the possible pollution reduction brought by the optimization of industrial structure and then evaluated the reasonable level of capital allocation of provinces and industries by using the methods of nonlinear programming and stochastic frontier method. Under the target of collaborative emission reduction, the results show that the optimized output of China’s equipment manufacturing industry could be increased by 5.42%, the energy intensity could be reduced by about 10.4%, and the comprehensive emission intensity could be reduced by about 7.47%. Due to the industry heterogeneity and regional heterogeneity, industrial capacity should be transferred between industries and regions. Since the capital investment in the equipment manufacturing industry is significantly mismatched between industries and regions, the capital allocation of provincial industries in China needs to be adjusted properly. This study provides theoretically and practically reference for collaborative pollution reduction, industry restructure, spatial layout and capital investment, which contributes to achieving the stereoscopic optimization of equipment manufacturing industry.

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<![CDATA[Lithobius (Ezembius) varioporus, a new species from eastern China (Lithobiomorpha, Lithobiidae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N572199fd-7cd0-4e14-ac2f-61d95232cf44

Abstract

Lithobius (Ezembius) varioporussp. nov. (Lithobiomorpha, Lithobiidae), recently discovered from Longquanguan Town, Fuping County, Baoding City, Hebei Province, China, is described. Morphologically it resembles to Lithobius (Ezembius) laevidentata Pei, Ma, Hou, Zhu & Gai, 2015 from the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, but can be easily distinguished from the latter by the Tömösváry’s organ, slightly smaller than the adjoining ocelli, no secondary sexual modifications on male tibia 14 and 15, posterior accessory spine of legs 14 and 15 present and the number of coxal pores varying considerably from three to eight. The main morphological characters of the known Chinese species of the subgenusEzembius Chamberlin, 1919 based on adult specimens are presented.

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<![CDATA[A new species of the toothed toad Oreolalax (Anura, Megophryidae) from Sichuan Province, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfe9ecc3c-f3bd-4185-9355-fe8735eab0f6

Abstract

The toad genus Oreolalax is widely distributed in southwest China and northern Vietnam. A new species of the genus is described from Sichuan Province, China. Phylogenetic analyses based on the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene sequences supported the new species as an independent clade clustered into the clade also containing O. nanjiangensis and O. chuanbeiensis. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: body size moderate (SVL 51.2–64.2 mm in males); head broad; tympanum hidden; interorbital region with dark triangular pattern; belly with marbling; male lacking spines on lip margin; spiny patches on chest small with thick sparse spines in male; nuptial spines thick and sparse; tibio-tarsal articulation reaching beyond nostril when leg stretched forward; toe webbing at base.

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<![CDATA[Effectiveness of Live Poultry Market Interventions on Human Infection with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N117bb014-c2b9-42ea-b03e-d0eedee29880

Various interventions for live poultry markets (LPMs) have emerged to control outbreaks of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in mainland China since March 2013. We assessed the effectiveness of various LPM interventions in reducing transmission of H7N9 virus across 5 annual waves during 2013–2018, especially in the final wave. With the exception of waves 1 and 4, various LPM interventions reduced daily incidence rates significantly across waves. Four LPM interventions led to a mean reduction of 34%–98% in the daily number of infections in wave 5. Of these, permanent closure provided the most effective reduction in human infection with H7N9 virus, followed by long-period, short-period, and recursive closures in wave 5. The effectiveness of various LPM interventions changed with the type of intervention across epidemics. Permanent LPM closure should be considered to maintain sufficient effectiveness of interventions and prevent the recurrence of H7N9 epidemics.

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<![CDATA[Risk for Transportation of Coronavirus Disease from Wuhan to Other Cities in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N00c6f358-68ee-40be-ba1e-812b37277a1d

On January 23, 2020, China quarantined Wuhan to contain coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We estimated the probability of transportation of COVID-19 from Wuhan to 369 other cities in China before the quarantine. Expected COVID-19 risk is >50% in 130 (95% CI 89–190) cities and >99% in the 4 largest metropolitan areas.

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<![CDATA[Potential Presymptomatic Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, Zhejiang Province, China, 2020]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb84edf7a-68e1-42f8-bbe0-80fb5eaba1e9

We report a 2-family cluster of persons infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in the city of Zhoushan, Zhejiang Province, China, during January 2020. The infections resulted from contact with an infected but potentially presymptomatic traveler from the city of Wuhan in Hubei Province.

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<![CDATA[Future trends of water resources and influences on agriculture in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N87c2566a-6970-4c5f-9ecf-ecac024e386a

Water resources are indispensable for all social-economic activities and ecosystem functions. In addition, changes in water resources have great significance for agricultural production. This paper uses five global climate models from CMIP5 to evaluate the future spatiotemporal variation in water resources in China under four RCP scenarios. The results show that the available precipitation significantly decreases due to evapotranspiration. Comparing the four RCP scenarios, the national average of the available precipitation is the highest under the RCP 2.6 and 4.5 scenarios, followed by that under the RCP 8.5 scenario. In terms of spatial distribution, the amount of available precipitation shows a decreasing trend from southeast to northwest. Regarding temporal changes, the available precipitation under RCP 8.5 exhibits a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, while the available precipitation under the RCP 6.0 scenario exhibits a trend of first decreasing and then increasing. Under the RCP 2.6 and 4.5 scenarios, the available precipitation increases, and the RCP 4.5 scenario has a higher rate of increase than that of RCP 2.6. In the context of climate change, changes in water resources and temperature cause widespread increases in potential agricultural productivity around Hu’s line, especially in southwestern China. However, the potential agricultural productivity decreases in a large area of southeastern China. Hu’s line has a partial breakthrough in the locking of agriculture, mainly in eastern Tibet, western Sichuan, northern Yunnan and northwestern Inner Mongolia. The results provide a reference for the management and deployment of future water resources and can aid in agricultural production in China.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of the relationship between cognitive impairment and suboptimal health status in a northern Chinese population: a cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8779dc6d-7291-49c6-9f6a-d95dab3a9fcb

Background

Suboptimal health status (SHS) is an intermediate health status between ideal health and illness. As a determinant of cardiovascular disease and stroke, SHS is hypothesized to be associated with the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. This study aimed to investigate whether individuals with SHS have poor cognitive ability based on a community-based cohort in northern Chinese population.

Methods

3524 participants who were enrolled in Jidong cohort 2015 in Tangshan City were investigated in this study. Cognitive function was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). SHS level was evaluated using a self-reporting Suboptimal Health Status Questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25). The relationship between SHS and cognitive function was analyzed with logistic regression analysis, by which odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated.

Results

The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 3.4% (121/3524) in our study, with the prevalence rates of 1.9% (34/1750) among men and 4.9% (87/1774) in women. The medians of total score of MMSE were 28 (interquartile range (IQR) = 27-29) in the SHS group, and 29 (IQR = 27-30) in the ideal health group. Logistic regression analysis showed that SHS was significantly correlated with cognitive impairment (adjusted OR = 2.936, 95% CI = 1.428-6.033). With regard to gender, the OR was 5.067 (95% CI = 1.346-19.068) in men, which was higher than that in women (OR = 2.324, 95% CI = 1.130-4.779).

Conclusions

SHS might be a risk factor for cognitive function in northern Chinese population. Early screening of SHS individuals, as well as urgent treatment of SHS might contribute to the prevention of cognitive impairment.

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<![CDATA[The disease burden of childhood asthma in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3f93eac8-cab8-4c68-8538-b28091918b70

Background

In China, childhood asthma prevalence showed a remarkable increase in the past decades. An updated epidemiological assessment of childhood asthma in China with a focus on prevalence and time trends is required.

Methods

We systematically searched three main Chinese databases and one English database to identify epidemiological studies of the prevalence of childhood asthma in China. Asthma cases were defined according to one of the five sets of Chinese diagnostic criteria which were established by the Children Respiratory Disease Group. We estimated age- and sex-specific prevalence of asthma using a multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression. We presented the time trends of asthma prevalence between 1990 and 2020 by age, sex and setting (urban vs rural), and also estimated the number of children affected by asthma in 2010.

Results

In 1990, the prevalence of asthma ranged from 0.13% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.10-0.20) in rural girls aged 14 years to 1.34% (95% CI = 1.11-1.67) in urban boys aged five years. In 2010, the overall prevalence of asthma in Chinese children aged 0-14 years was 2.12% (95% CI = 1.83-2.51), corresponding to 5.16 million children living with asthma. Children aged 5-9 years were with the highest prevalence estimate of 2.65% (95% CI = 2.31-3.12) and those aged 10-14 years were with the lowest (1.48%, 95% CI = 1.26-1.78). In 2020, it is expected that this disparity will continue, with the prevalence of asthma being at the lowest level among rural girls aged 14 years (1.11%, 95% CI = 0.82-1.54) and at the highest level among urban boys aged four years (10.27%, 95% CI = 8.61-12.18). Over the 30 years (1990-2020), the prevalence of asthma in children aged 0-14 years has increased in both sexes and settings, which was consistently the lowest in rural girls and the highest in urban boys.

Conclusions

This study shows that childhood asthma has been increasingly prevalent in China. Asthma is more frequent in boys and in rural areas. The detailed and systematic estimates of asthma prevalence in this study constitute the best currently available basis for policymaking, planning, and allocation of health and welfare resources related to the burden of childhood asthma in China.

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<![CDATA[An application of ARIMA model for predicting total health expenditure in China from 1978-2022]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne9f278c8-889e-4b4e-917c-3b72935bc83f

Background

China's health financing system has changed from the government-led mode under the planned economy to the diversified mode under the market economy. Equity in health financing has been a national health priority. This study aimed to predict changes in total health expenditure (THE), government health expenditure (GHE), social health expenditure (SHE) and out-of-pocket health expenditure (OOP) in China from 2018 to 2022, and to provide a theoretical basis for health policy adjustment.

Methods

Based on health expenditure date of time series from 1978-2017, R3.5.1 software was used to construct the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model.

Results

The model of THE, GHE, SHE and OOP are ARIMA (3.3.0), ARIMA (1.3.1), ARIMA (2.4.0), ARIMA (2.2.2). According to the simulation results, in 2022, China's THE is expected to reach 8473.00 billion Yuan, and the constituent ratios in GHE, SHE and OOP will be 25.49%, 51.25% and 23.26%, respectively. The proportion of THE to GDP will continuously increase from 2018-2022 at a reasonable pace, while THE itself will increase rapidly.

Conclusions

China should take effective measures to control the excessive growth of THE, keep decreasing the OOP percentage, and improve the efficiency and fairness of the use of health funds.

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<![CDATA[Effective coverage for hypertension treatment among middle-aged adults and the older population in China, 2011 to 2013: A nationwide longitudinal study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3233f9ac-ece6-4837-bbad-bb6c30a6c84a

Methods

We used the baseline survey and first follow-up surveys of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study of middle-aged and older populations conducted between 2011 and 2013. Correlates of effective coverage and treatment coverage for hypertension were analysed using multivariate logistic regression models, after controlling for demographic characteristics.

Results

In 2011, 38.40% of 13 702 individuals surveyed were identified with hypertension. Overall, the effective treatment coverage among the middle-aged and older population in China from 2011 to 2013 was only 22.40% compared to the treatment coverage of 55.86%. Variations in effective coverage among patients enrolled in the three public health insurance schemes ranged from 22.60% to 29.31%.

Conclusions

The level of effective coverage for hypertension treatment in China was still very low, and that health insurance schemes play a significant role in improving treatment coverage and effective coverage for hypertension treatment. In the implementation of China’s health system reform, health equity and health care equality should be emphasised and enhanced by offering more equitable benefits packages across social health insurance schemes.

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<![CDATA[Notes on the genus Trigonotoma from China, with descriptions of two new species (Carabidae, Pterostichinae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfee9bc57-2092-4215-b67e-df03b43e2a94

Abstract

The genus Trigonotoma in China is studied, with descriptions of two new species, T. digitatasp. nov. and T. constrictasp. nov. One species is reported as new to China, Trigonotoma indica Brullé, 1834. Species relationships within Chinese Trigonotoma are briefly discussed mainly based on the endophallic characters.

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<![CDATA[High Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Prisoners, Tianjin, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N17ec9497-3d3b-4ab6-ba19-1b269cb0031a

The high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) among prisoners calls for interventions to identify latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) before disease onset. To identify LTBI prevalence among prisoners and factors associated with it, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Tianjin. We randomly sampled 959 HIV-negative adult prisoners by ward clusters in 5 prisons and determined LTBI by seropositivity using an interferon-γ release assay. The overall rate of LTBI was 52.0% (499/959) in the 5 facilities and ranged from 41.9% (72/172) to 60.9% (106/174). Age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.7, 95% CI 1.4–2.0 per 10 years), duration of imprisonment (aOR 1.2, 95 CI% 1.1–1.2 per year), previous incarceration (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.5–2.7), and facility-specific TB incidence (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3–2.8) were risk factors for LTBI. These findings indicate possible TB transmission within prisons and suggest the necessity for early TB case detection, as well as prophylaxis.

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