ResearchPad - chinese-people https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Geo-temporal distribution of 1,688 Chinese healthcare workers infected with COVID-19 in severe conditions—A secondary data analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14630 The COVID-19 outbreak is posing an unprecedented challenge to healthcare workers. This study analyzes the geo-temporal effects on disease severity for the 1,688 Chinese healthcare workers infected with COVID-19.MethodsUsing the descriptive results recently reported by the Chinese CDC, we compare the percentage of infected healthcare workers in severe conditions over time and across three areas in China, and the fatality rate of infected healthcare workers with all the infected individuals in China aged 22–59 years.ResultsAmong the infected Chinese healthcare workers whose symptoms onset appeared during the same ten-day period, the percentage of those in severe conditions decreased significantly from 19.7% (Jan 11–20) to 14.4% (Jan 21–31) to 8.7% (Feb 1–11). Across the country, there was also a significant difference in the disease severity, with Wuhan being the most severe (17.3%), followed by Hubei Province (10.2%), and the rest of China (6.6%). The case fatality rate for the 1,688 infected Chinese healthcare workers was significantly lower than that for the 29,798 infected patients aged 20–59 years—0.3% (5/1,688) vs. 0.65% (193/29,798), respectively.ConclusionThe disease severity among infected healthcare workers improved considerably over a short period of time in China. The more severe conditions in Wuhan compared to the rest of the country may be attributable to the draconian lockdown. The clinical outcomes of infected Chinese healthcare workers may represent a more accurate estimation of the severity of COVID-19 for those who have access to quality healthcare. ]]> <![CDATA[Tsinghua facial expression database – A database of facial expressions in Chinese young and older women and men: Development and validation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf679a1e8-67cb-47b3-95b4-f3d293b80761

Perception of facial identity and emotional expressions is fundamental to social interactions. Recently, interest in age associated changes in the processing of faces has grown rapidly. Due to the lack of older faces stimuli, most previous age-comparative studies only used young faces stimuli, which might cause own-age advantage. None of the existing Eastern face stimuli databases contain face images of different age groups (e.g. older adult faces). In this study, a database that comprises images of 110 Chinese young and older adults displaying eight facial emotional expressions (Neutral, Happiness, Anger, Disgust, Surprise, Fear, Content, and Sadness) was constructed. To validate this database, each image was rated on the basis of perceived facial expressions, perceived emotional intensity, and perceived age by two different age groups. Results have shown an overall 79.08% correct identification rate in the validation. Access to the freely available database can be requested by emailing the corresponding authors.

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<![CDATA[Associations of anxiety with discomfort and tolerance in Chinese patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac6fd5eed0c484d08793

Objectives

To evaluate the associations of pre-endoscopy anxiety with discomfort and tolerance in patients undergoing unsedated esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD).

Methods

This is a hospital-based cohort study of 348 patients undergoing routine, non-advanced EGD without sedation. The primary outcomes were discomfort and tolerance. The anxiety before endoscopy was evaluated with a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS). The associations of pre-endoscopy anxiety with the outcomes were evaluated with logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders like age, sex, and body mass index.

Results

Seventy patients reported severe discomfort and 56 patients reported poor tolerance after endoscopy. The risk of severe discomfort increased with pre-endoscopy anxiety and reached a platform around 7–10 points. Compared with the participants with low pre-endoscopy anxiety, those with moderate (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17 to 6.22) and high level of anxiety (adjusted OR 6.87, 95% CI 2.16 to 21.79) were associated with a gradual increase in the risk of severe discomfort (P-trend < 0.001). The association between pre-endoscopy anxiety and tolerance was linear, with an adjusted OR of 1.67(95% CI 1.33 to 2.08) for a 1-score increase in pre-endoscopy anxiety VAS. The associations were not modified by age, sex, pharyngitis, duration of endoscopy, and diameter of the endoscope.

Conclusions

Pre-endoscopy anxiety was an independent predictor of severe discomfort and poor tolerance in Chinese patients undergoing unsedated EGD. Our findings suggested the importance of the management of anxiety to reduce adverse endoscopic experience and taking high level of anxiety as an indication for sedation.

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<![CDATA[Effects of mother-offspring and father-offspring dynamics on emerging adults’ adjustment: The mediating role of emotion regulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca1bd5eed0c48452a7ac

The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation between parent-offspring dynamics and emerging adults’ adjustment. The mediating role of emotion regulation strategies, including cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, were investigated for the effects of mother-offspring and father-offspring dynamics on emerging adults’ adjustment. A sample of 352 Chinese emerging adults in Hong Kong (230 female, 121 male) participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete a set of self-reported questionnaires. Findings based on structural equation modeling indicated that greater mother-offspring intimacy and father-offspring intimacy predicted emerging adults’ better cognitive reappraisal and psychological, social, and general health. Greater mother-offspring conflict also predicted more expressive suppression and poorer psychological and social functioning. Distinctive mediation pathways as a function of parents’ gender were identified. These findings enrich the literature for parent-offspring dynamics and emotion regulation as explanatory processes of emerging adults’ adjustment.

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<![CDATA[Epidemiology of low-energy lower extremity fracture in Chinese populations aged 50 years and above]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c46657fd5eed0c484519799

This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of low-energy lower-extremity fracture in Chinese men and women aged 50 years and above. This study was a part of Chinese National Fracture Survey (CNFS), which used the stratified multistage cluster random sampling method to recruit subjects between January and May 2015. A total of 512187 individuals participated in the CNFS and of them there were 154099 men and women aged 50 years and above included in this study for data analysis. Low-energy fracture was defined as a fracture caused by slip, trip or fall from standing height. Univariate analyses and gender-based multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to identify the independent risk factors. A total of 215 patients had sustained low-energy lower extremity fractures in 2014, indicating the overall incidence was 139.5 (120.9 to 158.2) per 100000 persons, with 127.8 (102.5 to 153.1) and 151.1 (123.8 to 178.5) per 100000 person-year in men and women. Over 80% of fractures occurred at home and on the common road. In men, alcohol consumption (OR, 2.00; 95%CI, 1.29 to 3.08), sleep duration<7h/d (OR, 2.60; 95%CI, 1.68 to 4.03) and history of past fracture (OR, 2.57; 95%CI, 1.33 to 4.95) were identified as significant risk factors associated with low-energy fractures. In women, advanced age (80+ years) (OR, 3.22; 95%CI, 1.80 to 5.75), alcohol consumption(OR, 1.72; 95%CI, 1.00 to 2.98), sleep duration <7h/d (OR, 2.11; 95%CI, 1.40 to 3.18), and history of past fracture (OR, 3.46; 95%CI, 1.97 to 6.09) were identified as significant risk factors and living in western region (OR, 0.60; 95%CI, 0.38 to 0.94) and current weight of 50 to 59.9 kg (OR, 0.17; 95%CI, 0.04 to 0.73) were identified as protective factors for fractures. Accordingly, awareness on the importance of sleep and alcohol consumption on fragility fracture should be improved, and health policies that focus on decreasing alcohol consumption and encouraging individuals to improve their sleep quality and duration should be considered. Maintaining a healthy bodyweight for women should be specifically emphasized to prevent low-energy fractures.

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<![CDATA[A data-driven study of Chinese participants' social judgments of Chinese faces]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390b95d5eed0c48491d5c3

Social judgments of faces made by Western participants are thought to be underpinned by two dimensions: valence and dominance. Because some research suggests that Western and Eastern participants process faces differently, the two-dimensional model of face evaluation may not necessarily apply to judgments of faces by Eastern participants. Here we used a data-driven approach to investigate the components underlying social judgments of Chinese faces by Chinese participants. Analyses showed that social judgments of Chinese faces by Chinese participants are partly underpinned by a general approachability dimension similar to the valence dimension previously found to underpin Western participants’ evaluations of White faces. However, we found that a general capability dimension, rather than a dominance dimension, contributed to Chinese participants’ evaluations of Chinese faces. Thus, our findings present evidence for both cultural similarities and cultural differences in social evaluations of faces. Importantly, the dimension that explained most of the variance in Chinese participants’ social judgments of faces was strikingly similar to the valence dimension previously reported for Western participants.

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<![CDATA[Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form for inpatients with schizophrenia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0b0fd5eed0c484427365

Background

The evaluation of childhood trauma is essential for the treatment of schizophrenia. The short form of Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF) is a widely used measure of the experience of childhood trauma in the general population. Nevertheless, data regarding the psychometric property of CTQ-SF for assessing childhood trauma of patients with schizophrenia are very limited.

Methods

Two hundred Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia completed the Chinese CTQ-SF, the Child Psychological Maltreatment Scale (CPMS), the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II). To assess test-retest reliability of the CTQ-SF, all patients completed the CTQ-SF again two weeks later. Concurrent and convergent validity was assessed by analyzing Pearson bivariate correlation coefficients between CTQ-SF and CPMS, IES-R, and DES-II.

Results

The Cronbach’s α coefficient of the Chinese CTQ-SF was 0.81, and the two-week re-test reliability was 0.81 (P<0.01). The criterion-related validity coefficients of CTQ-SF with the CMPS, IES-R and DES-II were 0.61, 0.41, and 0.51, respectively.

Conclusion

The Chinese CTQ-SF has satisfactory psychometric properties to measure childhood abuse or neglect in Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia.

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<![CDATA[Chinese adolescents’ power distance value and prosocial behavior toward powerful people: A longitudinal study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c12cf7ed5eed0c48491473e

We were interested in how specific cultural value and adolescent social behavior would influence each other over time. Thus the present study explored the longitudinal and bidirectional relations between adolescents’ power distance value and prosocial behavior toward powerful people over a year. A sample of 434 Chinese adolescents participated in the investigation (initial mean age = 11.27; 54.15% females). The results based on cross-lagged models showed that, earlier prosocial behavior toward powerful people was positively correlated to subsequent power distance value, but not vice versa. The findings point toward an understanding of the important role of adolescent social behavior on his/her cultural value development, and also shed light on future research in terms of the interplay between cultural values and individual’s social behaviors in other cultures.

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<![CDATA[The association between major complications of immobility during hospitalization and quality of life among bedridden patients: A 3 month prospective multi-center study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bca48dd40307c0516656415

Purpose

To describe the association between major complications of immobility (pressure ulcer, pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis and urinary tract infection) during hospitalization and the patients’ health-related quality of life after discharge.

Methods

The data were obtained from a multi-center study conducted in 2015. Complications of immobility during hospitalization was measured by case report form and quality of life after discharge was measured using the EQ-5D scale by telephone interview. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to explore the association of complications and responses in the EQ-5D dimensions after controlling for important covariates.

Results

Among the 20,515 bedridden patients, 2,601(12.72%) patients experienced at least one of the major complications of immobility during hospitalization, including pressure ulcer (527, 2.57%), deep vein thrombosis (343, 1.67%), pneumonia (1647, 8.16%), and urinary tract infection (265, 1.29%). Patients with any of the four complications during hospitalization reported more problems in all EQ-5D dimensions except for pain/discomfort, and had lower mean EQ-VAS scores than those without any complications. The four complications all showed significant associations with the proportion of reported problems in certain dimensions after adjustment for confounding variables.

Conclusions

Major complications of immobility were significantly associated with reduced health related quality of life. Prevention of complications is critical to reduce the burden of decreased quality of life for bedridden patients.

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<![CDATA[Ethnicity estimation using family naming practices]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0c047dd5eed0c48481c067

This paper examines the association between given and family names and self-ascribed ethnicity as classified by the 2011 Census of Population for England and Wales. Using Census data in an innovative way under the new Office for National Statistics (ONS) Secure Research Service (SRS; previously the ONS Virtual Microdata Laboratory, VML), we investigate how bearers of a full range of given and family names assigned themselves to 2011 Census categories, using a names classification tool previously described in this journal. Based on these results, we develop a follow-up ethnicity estimation tool and describe how the tool may be used to observe changing relations between naming practices and ethnic identities as a facet of social integration and cosmopolitanism in an increasingly diverse society.

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<![CDATA[Two-minute walk test: Reference equations for healthy adults in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0c04f6d5eed0c48481d1db

Background and objective

Although the six-minute walk test (6MWT) is widely used as a measure of exercise capacity, it may not be applicable in some settings and populations. This issue has led to increased use of the two-minute walk test (2MWT) to assess exercise capacity. The main objective of this study is to establish reference equations for the two-minute walk distance (2MWD) in healthy Chinese adults aged 18–85 years.

Methods

A total of 973 volunteers took part in the study. We obtained verbal consent from all participants before the test, and the study design was approved by the ethics committees of Wenzhou People's Hospital. The participants performed two 2MWTs using a standardized protocol, and the longer distance was used for further analysis. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed using age, height and weight as independent variables and was used to establish the reference equations for the 2MWD in the male and female groups.

Results

The mean walking distance for all participants was 199.1±25.81 m. Age and height were identified as independent factors that influenced the 2MWD, and they explained 35% and 34% of the variance in distance for the male and female groups, respectively.

Conclusion

This study resulted in determination of reference equations for predicting the 2MWD in healthy Chinese adults. These 2MWD standards will provide useful references for medical care in some settings and populations.

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<![CDATA[Risk factors of striae gravidarum in Chinese primiparous women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b5b8b85463d7e1effa460fa

Background

Striae gravidarum is a common skin problem of considerable cosmetic concern for many pregnant women. Various risk factors associated with the development of striae have been reported, with conflicting results.

Objectives

To analyze the risk factors of striae gravidarum in Chinese primiparous women and to provide evidence relevant to the prevention of this condition.

Methods

Singleton primiparous pregnant women who were hospitalized for delivery were included, and relevant data were collected. Independent risk factors associated with striae gravidarum in women with and those without striae gravidarum were identified using logistic regression.

Results

Among 213 singleton primiparous pregnant women, 125 had striae gravidarum, yielding a prevalence of up to 58.9%. There was a significant variation (P < 0.05, odds ratio >1) between the striae gravidarum and non-striae gravidarum groups in terms of several factors, including younger maternal age, weight gain during pregnancy, body mass index gain, uterine height, abdominal girth, and positive family history. Factors such as maternal height, birth weight, systemic disease, skin type, and neonatal gender did not significantly differ between the 2 groups.

Conclusion

This study showed that the independent risk factors for striae gravidarum in primiparous women were younger maternal age, weight gain during pregnancy, body mass index gain, uterine height, abdominal girth, and a positive family history. The severity of striae gravidarum was associated with weight gain during pregnancy, body mass index gain, abdominal girth, and timing of the onset of striae gravidarum.

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<![CDATA[The gap between cause-of-death statistics and Household Registration reports in Shandong, China during 2011-2013: Evaluation and adjustment for underreporting in the mortality data for 262 subcounty level populations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b49cac8463d7e33e4eac05b

Underreporting is a quality concern in mortality statistics. The purpose of this study was to assess and adjust underreporting in the population-based cause-of-death statistics. The total population (96 million) in Shandong, China was divided into 262 subcounty level populations geographically and by residence type (urban/rural). For each subpopulation, the total number of deaths during the years 2011–2013 was determined using data from the Household Registration System (HRS), and was used as a reference to assess the underreporting rate (UR) in the cause-of-death data from the Shandong Death Registration System (SDRS). It was estimated that 454,615 deaths, or 21.5% (95% CI: 21.4–21.5%) were unreported. Underreporting was more pronounced in rural (22.1%) versus urban communities (20.0%), in economically underdeveloped regions (32% versus 16% in least disadvantaged areas), and in newly included sites with no prior experience in cause-of-death reporting (24% versus 17%). Geographic variation was large with a UR at the prefectural level ranging from 11.2% to 43.7%. A stratified analysis showed that UR was higher in rural populations in high-income regions, but in middle- and low-income regions, was higher in urban communities. An adjustment factor (AF) was calculated for each of the 262 subpopulations (ranging from 0.9 to 2.5 with an average of 1.27). The total morality rate was adjusted from 6.03 to 7.67 deaths per 1000 persons. Underreporting in the SDRS varies greatly between areas and populations and is related to residence type, prior experience and local economy. Correcting underreporting at a local level is needed especially for comparative analyses across geographical areas or populations.

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<![CDATA[The Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Is Associated with Persistent Atrial Fibrillation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2dab0ee8fa60b8349e

Objective

Upregulation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been proposed as a pathophysiological mechanism underlying the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). We sought to investigate if soluble RAGE levels are associated with AF in Caucasian patients.

Methods

Patients (n = 587) were prospectively recruited and serum levels of soluble RAGE (sRAGE) and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) measured. The patients included 527 with sinus rhythm, 32 with persistent AF (duration >7 days, n = 32) and 28 with paroxysmal AF (duration <7 days, n = 28).

Results

Patients with AF were older and had a greater prevalence of heart failure than patients in sinus rhythm. Circulating RAGE levels were higher in patients with persistent AF [median sRAGE 1190 (724–2041) pg/ml and median esRAGE 452 (288–932) pg/ml] compared with paroxysmal AF [sRAGE 799 (583–1033) pg/ml and esRAGE 279 (201–433) pg/ml, p ≤ 0.01] or sinus rhythm [sRAGE 782 (576–1039) pg/ml and esRAGE 289 (192–412) pg/ml, p < 0.001]. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of persistent AF were age, heart failure, sRAGE [odds ratio 1.1 per 100 pg/ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0–1.1, p = 0.001] and esRAGE [odds ratio 1.3 per 100 pg/ml, 95% CI 1.1–1.4, p < 0.001]. Heart failure and age were the only independent predictors of paroxysmal AF. In AF patients, sRAGE [odds ratio 1.1 per 100 pg/ml, 95% CI 1.1–1.2, p = 0.007] and esRAGE [odds ratio 1.3 per 100 pg/ml, 95% CI 1.0–1.5, p = 0.017] independently predicted persistent compared with paroxysmal AF.

Conclusions

Soluble RAGE is elevated in Caucasian patients with AF, and both sRAGE and esRAGE predict the presence of persistent AF.

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<![CDATA[Development and Application of the Chinese (Mainland) Version of Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire to Assess the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db49ab0ee8fa60bd992e

Objective

To develop the Chinese (Mainland) version of Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ) and use it to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in China and identify the determinants of HRQoL.

Methods

The Chinese (Mainland) CLDQ was developed by expert consultation, focus group interviews with patients, and pilot study. The final version of questionnaire was adopted to assess the HRQoL of chronic hepatitis B outpatients enrolled from two largest infectious hospitals in Beijing. Cronbach’ s alpha was used to measure the internal consistency reliability. The construct validity was measured by factor analysis. T-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multi-variable linear regression were used to analyze the data.

Results

Cronbach’s alpha of the overall CLDQ is 0.935, ranging from 0.628 to o.881 among six subscales. Six factors were identified via factor analysis, including a new factor sleeping(SL). A total of 519 patients with CHB were included in the investigation with the final version of questionnaire, 405 of them were only with CHB, 53 with compensated cirrhosis, and 61 with decompensated cirrhosis. The CHB group scored the highest in the overall score of CLDQ (p<0.05). The score of worry (WO) domain was significantly lower in the compensated group than the CHB group (p<0.05). Decompensated cirrhosis patients scored lower than the CHB group in all CLDQ domains and the overall score (p<0.05). Stages of illness, gender, regular visits to specialized hospitals, and work status in last year were determinants of HRQoL.

Conclusion

The psychometric properties of the Chinese(Mainland) CLDQ is acceptable. The HRQoL of CHB patients deteriorated with disease progression. Advanced stages of CHB, female, long time absence from work after illness, and no job or retirement were determinants of poor HRQoL. Regular visits to specialized hospitals was a positive determinant of HRQoL.

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<![CDATA[Family-based association study of DRD4 gene in methylphenidate-responded Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbda5

The 48-basepair (48-bp) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in exon 3 of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) is implicated in the etiology of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In particular, ADHD in European-ancestry population is associated with an increased prevalence of the 7-repeat (7R) allele of the exon 3 VNTR. However, it is intriguing to note that the 7R allele has been found to be of very low prevalence in the Chinese general population. In a previous case-control study, our research team had found that the 7R allele was similarly absent in Chinese ADHD children in Hong Kong. Instead, there was an increased prevalence of the 2R allele in Chinese ADHD children. Interestingly, in Asian samples, the 2R allele had been found to be an evolutionary derivative of the 7R allele with equivalent biochemical functionality. So, the finding of an association between ADHD and 2R allele in Chinese population does not exactly contradict the original 7R allele finding in European-ancestry population. However, given the potential pitfall of population stratification in the previous case-control design, this current study tested the 2R allele and ADHD association using a methodologically more rigorous family-based approach on 33 Chinese ADHD probands who had favorable clinical responses to stimulant medication (methylphenidate). Haplotype Relative Risk (HRR) analysis and Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) both showed a significant preferential transmission of the 2R allele from the biological parents to ADHD probands (pone-tailed = 0.038, OR = 2.04; pone-tailed = 0.048, OR = 2.29, respectively). A second hypothesis speculates that it is the deviation, including 7R and 2R alleles, from the conserved ancestral 4R allele which confers risk to ADHD. Thus, a preferential transmission of non-4R alleles, against the 4R allele, from biological parents to their ADHD probands is predicted. Both HRR analysis and TDT confirmed such prediction (pone-tailed = 0.029, OR = 2.07; pone-tailed = 0.032, OR = 2.43, respectively). This study re-confirmed the original finding of a previous study that in Chinese population, the 2R allele of the DRD4 exon 3 VNTR was related to ADHD. This endorses the general thesis that DRD4 exon 3 VNTR polymorphism is related to ADHD, despite that the exact length or number of repeats of the associated alleles varies across ethnicity. This in turn supports the dopamine dysregulation theory of ADHD.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Culture and Gender on Judgments of Intent and Responsibility]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da77ab0ee8fa60b96fdd

Do different cultures hold different views of intentionality? In four studies, participants read scenarios in which the actor’s distal intent (a focus on a broader goal) and proximal intent (a focus on the mechanics of the act) were manipulated. In Studies 1–2, when distal intent was more prominent in the actor’s mind, North Americans rated the actor more responsible than did Chinese and South Asian participants. When proximal intent was more prominent, Chinese and South Asian participants, if anything, rated the actor more responsible. In Studies 3–4, when distal intent was more prominent, male Americans rated the actor more responsible than did female Americans. When proximal intent was more prominent, females rated the actor more responsible. The authors discuss these findings in relation to the literatures on moral reasoning and cultural psychology.

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<![CDATA[Performance of Spot Photoscreener in Detecting Amblyopia Risk Factors in Chinese Pre-school and School Age Children Attending an Eye Clinic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da60ab0ee8fa60b90d20

Purpose

To evaluate the effectiveness of Spot photoscreener in detecting amblyopia risk factors meeting 2013 the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) criteria in Chinese preschool and school-age children.

Methods

One hundred and fifty-five children (310 eyes), aged between 4 to 7 years (5.74 ± 1.2 years) underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, photoscreening, and cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction. The agreement of the results obtained with the photoscreening and retinoscopy was evaluated by linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting amblyopia risk factors were calculated based on the AAPOS 2013 guidelines. The overall effectiveness of detecting amblyopia risk factors was analyzed with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves.

Result

The mean refractive errors measured with the Spot were: spherical equivalent (SE) = 0.70 ± 1.99 D, J0 = 0.87 ± 1.01 D, J45 = 0.09 ± 0.60 D. The mean results from retinoscopy were: SE = 1.19 ± 2.22 D, J0 = 0.77 ± 1.00 D, J45 = -0.02 ± 0.45 D. There was a strong linear agreement between results obtained from those two methods (R2 = 0.88, P<0.01). Bland–Altman plot indicated a moderate agreement of cylinder values between the two methods. Based on the criteria specified by the AAPOS 2013 guidelines, the sensitivity and specificity (in respective order) for detecting hyperopia were 98.31% and 97.14%; for detecting myopia were 78.50% and 88.64%; for detecting astigmatism were 90.91% and 80.37%; for detecting anisometropia were 93.10% and 85.25%; and for detection of strabismus was 77.55% and 88.18%.

Conclusion

The refractive values measured from Spot photoscreener showed a moderate agreement with the results from cycloplegic retinoscopy refraction, however there was an overall myopic shift of -0.49D. The performance in detecting individual amblyopia risk factors was satisfactory, but could be further improved by optimizing criteria based on ROC curves.

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<![CDATA[The 2013 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism Classification Criteria for Systemic Sclerosis Could Classify Systemic Sclerosis Patients at Earlier Stage: Data from a Chinese EUSTAR Center]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db06ab0ee8fa60bc8940

Objectives

To evaluate the performance of the 2013 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for systemic sclerosis (SSc) in clinical practice in a Chinese patient cohort, and to compare outcomes with the 1980 ACR criteria.

Methods

Patients clinically diagnosed with SSc between September 2013 and May 2015 were prospectively recruited from the EUSTAR database of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Diagnosis of SSc was based on the evaluation of three experienced rheumatologists. Patients diagnosed with other connective tissue diseases were recruited as disease controls. The 1980 ACR and 2013 ACR/EULAR criteria were applied to the cohort, and patients who fulfilled the criteria were classified as definite SSc patients. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed for the 2013 and 1980 criteria.

Results

A total of 143 SSc patients and 87 patients with other connective diseases were recruited. 41 (28.7%) and 102 (71.3%) cases were diffuse cutaneous SSc and limited cutaneous SSc, respectively. Although the sensitivity of the 2013 criteria (94.4%) exceeded the 1980 criteria (72.7%) (P<0.001), the 1980 and 2013 criteria sets showed no significant difference in specificity (97.7% and 93.1%, respectively, P = 0.278). The sensitivity of the 2013 criteria was significantly higher than the 1980 criteria in some SSc subgroups (e.g., lcSSc, abnormal pattern of nailfold videocapillaroscopy [NVC] and presence of Raynaud’s phenomenon [RP]) compared to others.

Conclusions

Relative to the 1980 ACR criteria, in Chinese SSc patients the new 2013 ACR/EULAR criteria had similar specificity and higher sensitivity, especially for patients with mild skin thickening or prominent microvascular diseases.

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<![CDATA[Immigrants in the one percent: The national origin of top wealth owners]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbb0d

Background

Economic inequality in the United States is extreme, but little is known about the national origin of affluent households. Households in the top one percent by total wealth own vastly disproportionate quantities of household assets and have correspondingly high levels of economic, social, and political influence. The overrepresentation of white natives (i.e., those born in the U.S.) among high-wealth households is well-documented, but changing migration dynamics suggest that a growing portion of top households may be immigrants.

Methods

Because no single survey dataset contains top wealth holders and data about country of origin, this paper uses two publicly-available data sets: the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) and the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Multiple imputation is used to impute country of birth from the SIPP into the SCF. Descriptive statistics are used to demonstrate reliability of the method, to estimate the prevalence of immigrants among top wealth holders, and to document patterns of asset ownership among affluent immigrants.

Results

Significant numbers of top wealth holders who are usually classified as white natives may be immigrants. Many top wealth holders appear to be European and Canadian immigrants, and increasing numbers of top wealth holders are likely from Asia and Latin America as well. Results suggest that of those in the top one percent of wealth holders, approximately 3% are European and Canadian immigrants, .5% are from Mexico or Cuban, and 1.7% are from Asia (especially Hong Kong, Taiwan, Mainland China, and India). Ownership of key assets varies considerably across affluent immigrant groups.

Conclusion

Although the percentage of top wealth holders who are immigrants is relatively small, these percentages represent large numbers of households with considerable resources and corresponding social and political influence. Evidence that the propensity to allocate wealth to real and financial assets varies across immigrant groups suggests that wealth ownership is more global than previous research suggests and that immigrant groups are likely to become more prevalent in top wealth positions in the U.S. As the representation of immigrants in top wealth positions grows, their economic, social, and political influence is likely to increase as well.

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