ResearchPad - chiroptera https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Evolutionary relationships and population genetics of the Afrotropical leaf-nosed bats (, )]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12535 The Old World leaf-nosed bats () are aerial and gleaning insectivores that occur throughout the Paleotropics. Both their taxonomic and phylogenetic histories are confused. Until recently, the family included genera now allocated to the and was recognized as a subfamily of . Evidence that diverged from both and in the Eocene confirmed their family rank, but their intrafamilial relationships remain poorly resolved. We examined genetic variation in the Afrotropical hipposiderids , , and using relatively dense taxon-sampling throughout East Africa and neighboring regions. Variation in both mitochondrial (cyt-b) and four nuclear intron sequences (ACOX2, COPS, ROGDI, STAT5) were analyzed using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. We used intron sequences and the lineage delimitation method BPP—a multilocus, multi-species coalescent approach—on supported mitochondrial clades to identify those acting as independent evolutionary lineages. The program StarBEAST was used on the intron sequences to produce a species tree of the sampled Afrotropical hipposiderids. All genetic analyses strongly support generic monophyly, with and as Afrotropical sister genera distinct from a Paleotropical ; mitochondrial analyses interpose the genera , , and between these clades. Mitochondrial analyses also suggest at least two separate colonizations of Africa by Asian groups of , but the actual number and direction of faunal interchanges will hinge on placement of the unsampled African-Arabian species . Mitochondrial sequences further identify a large number of geographically structured clades within species of all three genera. However, in sharp contrast to this pattern, the four nuclear introns fail to distinguish many of these groups and their geographic structuring disappears. Various distinctive mitochondrial clades are consolidated in the intron-based gene trees and delimitation analyses, calling into question their evolutionary independence or else indicating their very recent divergence. At the same time, there is now compelling genetic evidence in both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences for several additional unnamed species among the Afrotropical . Conflicting appraisals of differentiation among the Afrotropical hipposiderids based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci must be adjudicated by large-scale integrative analyses of echolocation calls, quantitative morphology, and geometric morphometrics. Integrative analyses will also help to resolve the challenging taxonomic issues posed by the diversification of the many lineages associated with and .

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<![CDATA[Cryptic diversity and range extension in the big-eyed bat genus Chiroderma (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc3133c6b-d132-4511-be61-88a57340ab56
Abstract

Since the last systematic review of Chiroderma (big-eyed bats) more than two decades ago, we report on biodiversity surveys that expand the distribution and species diversity of this Neotropical genus. The Caribbean endemic species Chiroderma improvisum is documented for the first time from Nevis in the northern Lesser Antilles. A broader geographic sampling for a molecular analysis identifies a paraphyletic relationship in Chiroderma trinitatum with respect to Chiroderma doriae. Cis-Andean populations of C. trinitatum are most closely related to the morphologically distinctive and allopatrically distributed C. doriae in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest of Brazil and Paraguay. The sister taxon to this grouping includes trans-Andean populations of C. trinitatum, which we recommend to elevate to species status as C. gorgasi. This is an example of a cryptic species because C. gorgasi was previously considered morphologically similar to C. trinitatum, but more detailed examination revealed that it lacks a posterolabial accessory cusp on the lower second premolar and has a narrower breadth of the braincase. We provide an amended description of Chiroderma gorgasi.

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<![CDATA[Completeness of Digital Accessible Knowledge (DAK) about terrestrial mammals in the Iberian Peninsula]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c197fd5eed0c484b4d7aa

The advent of online data aggregator infrastructures has facilitated the accumulation of Digital Accessible Knowledge (DAK) about biodiversity. Despite the vast amount of freely available data records, their usefulness for research depends on completeness of each body of data regarding their spatial, temporal and taxonomic coverage. In this paper, we assess the completeness of DAK about terrestrial mammals distributed across the Iberian Peninsula. We compiled a dataset with all records about mammals occurring in the Iberian Peninsula available in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility and in the national atlases from Portugal and Spain. After cleaning the dataset of errors as well as records lacking collection dates or not determined to species level, we assigned all occurrences to a 10-km grid. We assessed inventory completeness by calculating the ratio between observed and expected richness (based on the Chao2 richness index) in each grid cell and classified cells as well-sampled or under-sampled. We evaluated survey coverage of well-sampled cells along four environmental gradients and temporal coverage. Out of 796,283 retrieved records, quality issues led us to remove 616,141 records unfit for this use. The main reason for discarding records was missing collection dates. Only 25.95% cells contained enough records to robustly estimate completeness. The DAK about terrestrial mammals from the Iberian Peninsula was low, and spatially and temporally biased. Out of 5,874 cells holding data, only 620 (9.95%) were classified as well-sampled. Moreover, well-sampled cells were geographically aggregated and reached inventory completeness over the same temporal range. Despite the increasing availability of DAK, its usefulness is still compromised by quality issues and gaps in data. Future work should therefore focus on increasing data quality, in addition to mobilizing unpublished data.

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<![CDATA[Species From Feces: Order-Wide Identification of Chiroptera From Guano and Other Non-Invasive Genetic Samples]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9fab0ee8fa60ba51a6

Bat guano is a relatively untapped reservoir of information, having great utility as a DNA source because it is often available at roosts even when bats are not and is an easy type of sample to collect from a difficult-to-study mammalian order. Recent advances from microbial community studies in primer design, sequencing, and analysis enable fast, accurate, and cost-effective species identification. Here, we borrow from this discipline to develop an order-wide DNA mini-barcode assay (Species from Feces) based on a segment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI). The assay works effectively with fecal DNA and is conveniently transferable to low-cost, high-throughput Illumina MiSeq technology that also allows simultaneous pairing with other markers. Our PCR primers target a region of COI that is highly discriminatory among Chiroptera (92% species-level identification of barcoded species), and are sufficiently degenerate to allow hybridization across diverse bat taxa. We successfully validated our system with 54 bat species across both suborders. Despite abundant arthropod prey DNA in guano, our primers were highly specific to bats; no arthropod DNA was detected in thousands of feces run on Sanger and Illumina platforms. The assay is extendable to fecal pellets of unknown age as well as individual and pooled guano, to allow for individual (using singular fecal pellets) and community (using combined pellets collected from across long-term roost sites) analyses. We developed a searchable database (http://nau.edu/CEFNS/Forestry/Research/Bats/Search-Tool/) that allows users to determine the discriminatory capability of our markers for bat species of interest. Our assay has applications worldwide for examining disease impacts on vulnerable species, determining species assemblages within roosts, and assessing the presence of bat species that are vulnerable or facing extinction. The development and analytical pathways are rapid, reliable, and inexpensive, and can be applied to ecology and conservation studies of other taxa.

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