ResearchPad - chlamydia-infection https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Modulation of T helper 1 and T helper 2 immune balance in a murine stress model during <i>Chlamydia muridarum</i> genital infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14727 A murine model to study the effect of cold-induced stress (CIS) on Chlamydia muridarum genital infection and immune response has been developed in our laboratory. Previous results in the lab show that CIS increases the intensity of chlamydia genital infection, but little is known about the effects and mechanisms of CIS on the differentiation and activities of CD4+ T cell subpopulations and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). The factors that regulate the production of T helper 1 (Th1) or T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines are not well defined. In this study, we examined whether CIS modulates the expressions of beta-adrenergic receptor (β-AR), transcription factors, hallmark cytokines of Th1 and Th2, and differentiation of BMDCs during C. muridarum genital infection in the murine model. Our results show that the mRNA level of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) compared to β1-AR and β3-AR was high in the mixed populations of CD4+ T cells and BMDCs. Furthermore, we observed decreased expression of T-bet, low level of Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production, increased expression of GATA-3, and Interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in CD4+ T cells of stressed mice. Exposure of BMDCs to Fenoterol, β2-AR agonist, or ICI118,551, β2-AR antagonist, revealed significant β2-AR stimulation or inhibition, respectively, in stressed mice. Moreover, co-culturing of mature BMDCs and naïve CD4+ T cells increased the production of IL-4, IL-10, L-17, and IL-23 cytokines, suggesting that stimulation of β2-AR leads to the increased production of Th2 cytokines. Overall, our results show for the first time that CIS promotes the switching from a Th1 to Th2 cytokine environment. This was evidenced in the murine stress model by the overexpression of GATA-3 concurrent with elevated IL-4 production, reduced T-bet expression, and IFN-γ secretion.

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<![CDATA[Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients attending sexual and reproductive health clinics: A cross-sectional study in Bao'an District, Shenzhen, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac92d5eed0c484d08a5a

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of chlamydial trachomatis (CT) infection and explore its risk factors among patients attending sexual and reproductive health clinics in Shenzhen, China. We collected demographic and clinical information from attendees (aged 18–49). CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infection was determined by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) on self-collected urine specimens. Of 1,938 participants recruited, 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.6%-11.0%) tested positive for CT. Prevalence was similar between men (10.6% [85/804]; 95% CI, 9.5%–11.7%) and women (10.1% [115/1134]; 95% CI: 9.2%–11.0%). Being 18–25 years old (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.52; 95%CI:1.35–4.71), never tested for CT before (aOR = 2.42; 95%CI: 1.05–5.61) and infected with NG(aOR = 3.87; 95%CI: 2.10–7.10) were independently associated with CT infection. We found that CT infection is prevalent among patients attending sexual and reproductive health clinics in Shenzhen, China. A comprehensive program including CT screening, surveillance and treatment is urgently needed.

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<![CDATA[Community-level chlamydial serology for assessing trachoma elimination in trachoma-endemic Niger]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d649d5eed0c484031a9e

Background

Program decision-making for trachoma elimination currently relies on conjunctival clinical signs. Antibody tests may provide additional information on the epidemiology of trachoma, particularly in regions where it is disappearing or elimination targets have been met.

Methods

A cluster-randomized trial of mass azithromycin distribution strategies for trachoma elimination was conducted over three years in a mesoendemic region of Niger. Dried blood spots were collected from a random sample of children aged 1–5 years in each of 24 study communities at 36 months after initiation of the intervention. A multiplex bead assay was used to test for antibodies to two Chlamydia trachomatis antigens, Pgp3 and CT694. We compared seropositivity to either antigen to clinical signs of active trachoma (trachomatous inflammation—follicular [TF] and trachomatous inflammation—intense [TI]) at the individual and cluster level, and to ocular chlamydia prevalence at the community level.

Results

Of 988 children with antibody data, TF prevalence was 7.8% (95% CI 6.1 to 9.5) and TI prevalence was 1.6% (95% CI 0.9 to 2.6). The overall prevalence of antibody positivity to Pgp3 was 27.2% (95% CI 24.5 to 30), and to CT694 was 23.7% (95% CI 21 to 26.2). Ocular chlamydia infection prevalence was 5.2% (95% CI 2.8 to 7.6). Seropositivity to Pgp3 and/or CT694 was significantly associated with TF at the individual and community level and with ocular chlamydia infection and TI at the community level. Older children were more likely to be seropositive than younger children.

Conclusion

Seropositivity to Pgp3 and CT694 correlates with clinical signs and ocular chlamydia infection in a mesoendemic region of Niger.

Trial registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00792922.

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<![CDATA[Epithelial stratification shapes infection dynamics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c52182bd5eed0c48479763d

Infections of stratified epithelia contribute to a large group of common diseases, such as dermatological conditions and sexually transmitted diseases. To investigate how epithelial structure affects infection dynamics, we develop a general ecology-inspired model for stratified epithelia. Our model allows us to simulate infections, explore new hypotheses and estimate parameters that are difficult to measure with tissue cell cultures. We focus on two contrasting pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis and Human papillomaviruses (HPV). Using cervicovaginal parameter estimates, we find that key infection symptoms can be explained by differential interactions with the layers, while clearance and pathogen burden appear to be bottom-up processes. Cell protective responses to infections (e.g. mucus trapping) generally lowered pathogen load but there were specific effects based on infection strategies. Our modeling approach opens new perspectives for 3D tissue culture experimental systems of infections and, more generally, for developing and testing hypotheses related to infections of stratified epithelia.

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<![CDATA[CPn0572, the C. pneumoniae ortholog of TarP, reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton via a newly identified F-actin binding domain and recruitment of vinculin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f797d5eed0c48438643a

Chlamydia pneumoniae is one of the two major species of the Chlamydiaceae family that have a profound effect on human health. C. pneumoniae is linked to a number of severe acute and chronic diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract including pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis and infection by the pathogen might play a role in lung cancer. Following adhesion, Chlamydiae secrete effector proteins into the host cytoplasm that modulate the actin cytoskeleton facilitating internalization and infection. Members of the conserved TarP protein family comprise such effector proteins that polymerize actin, and in the case of the C. trachomatis TarP protein, has been shown to play a critical role in pathogenesis. In a previous study, we demonstrated that, upon bacterial invasion, the C. pneumoniae TarP family member CPn0572 is secreted into the host cytoplasm and recruits and associates with actin via an actin-binding domain conserved in TarP proteins. We have now extended our analysis of CPn0572 and found that the CPn0572 actin binding and modulating capability is more complex. With the help of the fission yeast system, a second actin modulating domain was identified independent of the actin binding domain. Microscopic analysis of HEp-2 cells expressing different CPn0572 deletion variants mapped this domain to the C-terminal part of the protein as CPn0572536-755 binds F-actin in vitro and colocalizes with aberrantly thickened actin cables in vivo. Finally, microscopic and bioinformatic analysis revealed the existence of a vinculin binding sequence in CPn0572. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the function of the TarP family and underscore the existence of several actin binding domains and a vinculin binding site for host actin modulation.

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<![CDATA[Therapeutic effect of a Chlamydia pecorum recombinant major outer membrane protein vaccine on ocular disease in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d014dd5eed0c48403a16e

Chlamydia pecorum is responsible for causing ocular infection and disease which can lead to blindness in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). Antibiotics are the current treatment for chlamydial infection and disease in koalas, however, they can be detrimental for the koala’s gastrointestinal tract microbiota and in severe cases, can lead to dysbiosis and death. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects provided by a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP) vaccine on ocular disease in koalas. Koalas with ocular disease (unilateral or bilateral) were vaccinated and assessed for six weeks, evaluating any changes to the conjunctival tissue and discharge. Samples were collected pre- and post-vaccination to evaluate both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. We further assessed the infecting C. pecorum genotype, host MHC class II alleles and presence of koala retrovirus type (KoRV-B). Our results clearly showed an improvement in the clinical ocular disease state of all seven koalas, post-vaccination. We observed increases in ocular mucosal IgA antibodies to whole C. pecorum elementary bodies, post-vaccination. We found that systemic cell-mediated immune responses to interferon-γ, interleukin-6 and interleukin-17A were not significantly predictive of ocular disease in koalas. Interestingly, one koala did not have as positive a clinical response (in one eye primarily) and this koala was infected with a C. pecorum genotype (E’) that was not used as part of the vaccine formula (MOMP genotypes A, F and G). The predominant MHC class II alleles identified were DAb*19, DAb*21 and DBb*05, with no two koalas identified with the same genetic sequence. Additionally, KoRV-B, which is associated with chlamydial disease outcome, was identified in two (29%) ocular diseased koalas, which still produced vaccine-induced immune responses and clinical ocular improvements post-vaccination. Our findings show promise for the use of a recombinant chlamydial MOMP vaccine for the therapeutic treatment of ocular disease in koalas.

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<![CDATA[TLR3 deficiency exacerbates the loss of epithelial barrier function during genital tract Chlamydia muridarum infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa57fd5eed0c484ca5130

Problem

Chlamydia trachomatis infections are often associated with acute syndromes including cervicitis, urethritis, and endometritis, which can lead to chronic sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and tubal infertility. As epithelial cells are the primary cell type productively infected during genital tract Chlamydia infections, we investigated whether Chlamydia has any impact on the integrity of the host epithelial barrier as a possible mechanism to facilitate the dissemination of infection, and examined whether TLR3 function modulates its impact.

Method of study

We used wild-type and TLR3-deficient murine oviduct epithelial (OE) cells to ascertain whether C. muridarum infection had any effect on the epithelial barrier integrity of these cells as measured by transepithelial resistance (TER) and cell permeability assays. We next assessed whether infection impacted the transcription and protein function of the cellular tight-junction (TJ) genes for claudins1-4, ZO-1, JAM1 and occludin via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and western blot.

Results

qPCR, immunoblotting, transwell permeability assays, and TER studies show that Chlamydia compromises cellular TJ function throughout infection in murine OE cells and that TLR3 deficiency significantly exacerbates this effect.

Conclusion

Our data show that TLR3 plays a role in modulating epithelial barrier function during Chlamydia infection of epithelial cells lining the genital tract. These findings propose a role for TLR3 signaling in maintaining the integrity of epithelial barrier function during genital tract Chlamydia infection, a function that we hypothesize is important in helping limit the chlamydial spread and subsequent genital tract pathology.

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<![CDATA[Optimising the short and long-term clinical outcomes for koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) during treatment for chlamydial infection and disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2e7fd2d5eed0c48451b867

Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) have suffered severe declines in the northern extent of their range due to a variety of threats, including habitat destruction, trauma from cars and dogs, climate change and importantly, disease. The most significant pathogen in koalas is Chlamydia pecorum, which causes inflammation and fibrosis at mucosal sites, resulting in blindness, infertility and death in severe cases. Chlamydia treatment can be problematic in koalas as the response to treatment is often poor in chronic cases and antimicrobial choice is limited. Thus, chlamydial disease is a severely threatening process for koala conservation. We investigated the short and long-term clinical outcomes for 167 koalas with Chlamydia that underwent capture, telemetric monitoring and intensive veterinary management as part of a large-scale population management program in South East Queensland. Chlamydia treatments included the standard regimen of daily subcutaneous chloramphenicol injections (60mg/kg) for 14 to 28-days, and a variety of non-standard regimens such as topical antimicrobials only (for ocular disease), surgical treatment only (for bilateral reproductive tract disease), and other antimicrobials/treatment lengths. To assess these regimens we analysed clinical records, field monitoring data and swab samples collected from the urogenital tract and ocular conjunctiva. Overall, in contrast to other studies, treatment was generally successful with 86.3% of treated koalas released back into the wild. The success of treatment rose to 94.8% however, when the standard treatment regimen was employed. Further, 100% of koalas that were also treated with surgical ovariohysterectomy (n = 12) remained healthy for a median of 466 days of post-treatment monitoring, demonstrating the benefits of surgical treatment. Previous studies reported 45-day chloramphenicol regimens, but the shorter standard regimen still achieved microbiological cure and reduces the risk of negative sequelae associated with treatment and/or captivity and treatment costs. Despite these positive clinical outcomes, alternatives to chloramphenicol are warranted due to its decreasing availability.

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<![CDATA[Understanding the burden of bacterial sexually transmitted infections and Trichomonas vaginalis among black Caribbeans in the United Kingdom: Findings from a systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141e90d5eed0c484d272f7

Background

In the UK, people of black Caribbean (BC) ethnicity continue to be disproportionately affected by bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). We systematically reviewed evidence on the association between bacterial STIs/TV and ethnicity (BC compared to white/white British (WB)) accounting for other risk factors; and differences between these two ethnic groups in the prevalence of risk factors associated with these STIs, sexual healthcare seeking behaviours, and contextual factors influencing STI risk.

Methods

Studies presenting relevant evidence for participants aged ≥14 years and living in the UK were eligible for inclusion. A pre-defined search strategy informed by the inclusion criteria was developed. Eleven electronic databases were searched from the start date to September-October 2016. Two researchers independently screened articles, extracted data using a standardised proforma and resolved discrepancies in discussion with a third researcher. Descriptive summaries of evidence are presented. Meta-analyses were not conducted due to variation in study designs. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were followed.

Results

Of 3815 abstracts identified, 15 articles reporting quantitative data were eligible and included in the review. No qualitative studies examining contextual drivers of STI risk among people of BC ethnicity were identified. Compared to the white/WB ethnic group, the greater STI/TV risk among BCs was partially explained by variations in socio-demographic factors, sexual behaviours, and recreational drug use. The prevalence of reporting early sexual debut (<16 years), concurrency, and multiple partners was higher among BC men compared to white/WB men; however, no such differences were observed for women. People of BC ethnicity were more likely to access sexual health services than those of white/WB ethnicity.

Conclusions

Further research is needed to explore other drivers of the sustained higher STI/TV prevalence among people of BC ethnicity. Developing holistic, tailored interventions that address STI risk and target people of BC ethnicity, especially men, could enhance STI prevention.

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<![CDATA[Incidence of sexually transmitted infections in men who have sex with men and who are at substantial risk of HIV infection – A meta-analysis of data from trials and observational studies of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ed782d5eed0c484f142c2

Background

Men who have sex with men (MSM) and who engage in condomless anal intercourse with casual partners are at high risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but reliable epidemiological data are scarce. Studies on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) enrol MSM who indicate that they engage in behaviour that puts them at high risk of acquiring HIV. Because they also screen for STIs at regular intervals, these studies may serve as a valuable source to estimate incidence rates of STIs in this subpopulation of MSM.

Methods

We systematically searched for trials and observational studies of PrEP in MSM that reported data on the incidence of STIs during the study period. Incidence rates were calculated as events per 100 person-years (py) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Data from individual studies were pooled building subgroups along study types and geography. We performed sensitivity analyses, including data only from studies that met pre-defined quality criteria.

Results

Twenty-four publications on 20 studies were included. The majority of studies reported that sexual behaviour and/or STI incidence remained stable or decreased during the study period. For syphilis, incidence rates ranged from 1.8/100py to 14.9/100py, the pooled estimate was 9.1/100py (95%-CI: 7.7–10.9). Incidence rates for gonorrhoea and chlamydia of any site ranged from 13.3/100py to 43.0/100py and 15.1/100py to 48.5/100py, respectively. Considering only studies that met the criteria for sensitivity analysis yielded pooled estimates of 39.6/100py (95%-CI: 32.9–47.6) and 41.8/100py (95%-CI: 33.9–51.5), respectively. The overall estimate for hepatitis C incidence was 1.3/100py (95%-CI: 1.0–1.8).

Conclusions

Despite partly heterogeneous results, the data depict high incidence rates of STIs among MSM who engage in higher-risk sexual behaviours such as condomless sex with casual partners. This subpopulation of MSM requires access to STI screening at close intervals. By offering access to structures that provide regular STI monitoring and prompt treatment, PrEP may not only decrease HIV incidence but also have beneficial effects in decreasing the burden of STIs.

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<![CDATA[Illuminating pathogen–host intimacy through optogenetics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b5ff78f463d7e28ade495c3

The birth and subsequent evolution of optogenetics has resulted in an unprecedented advancement in our understanding of the brain. Its outstanding success does usher wider applications; however, the tool remains still largely relegated to neuroscience. Here, we introduce selected aspects of optogenetics with potential applications in infection biology that will not only answer long-standing questions about intracellular pathogens (parasites, bacteria, viruses) but also broaden the dimension of current research in entwined models. In this essay, we illustrate how a judicious integration of optogenetics with routine methods can illuminate the host–pathogen interactions in a way that has not been feasible otherwise.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence of Chlamydia in Young Adulthood and Association with Life Course Socioeconomic Position: Birth Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f1ab0ee8fa60b6e8b3

Background

Few estimates are available of chlamydia prevalence in the general population. Existing studies have limited scope to explore potential selection bias or associations with socioeconomic position.

Methods

We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and associations with life-course socioeconomic position in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in England. Chlamydia infection was measured through nucleic acid amplification test of urine specimens.

Results

4864 (51%) of those invited attended the clinic (mean age 17.8; SD 0.37 years). (60%) provided a urine specimen. Prevalence was 1.0% (95% CI 0.6 to 1.6) among participants reporting sexual activity. Risk of infection was strongly associated with life course social disadvantage and with recent sexual behaviour. After adjustment for other measures of disadvantage and for sexual behaviour the strongest risk factors for infection were lower maternal educational attainment (OR 9.1 (1.1, 76.7)) and lower participant educational attainment at age 11 (OR 5.0 (1.5, 16.5)). Both clinic attendance and agreement to test were lower amongst the disadvantaged. Adjustment for selective participation based on detailed information on non-participants approximately doubled prevalence estimates. Prevalence was higher in sexually active women (1.4% (0.7 to 2.4) than men (0.5% (0.1 to 1.3)).

Conclusions

Chlamydia prevalence in this general population sample was low even after adjustment for selective participation in testing. These estimates of prevalence and patterns of association with socioeconomic position may both reflect recent screening efforts. Prevalence was higher amongst the disadvantaged who were also less likely to engage in testing. Our results reveal the importance of monitoring and addressing inequalities in screening programme participation and outcomes.

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<![CDATA[Rapid detection and strain typing of Chlamydia trachomatis using a highly multiplexed microfluidic PCR assay]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be0142

Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are recommended by the CDC for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) urogenital infections. Current commercial NAATs require technical expertise and sophisticated laboratory infrastructure, are time-consuming and expensive, and do not differentiate the lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) strains that require a longer duration of treatment than non-LGV strains. The multiplexed microfluidic PCR-based assay presented in this work simultaneously interrogates 13 loci to detect Ct and identify LGV and non-LGV strain-types. Based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms, the assay differentiates LGV, ocular, urogenital, and proctocolitis clades, and also serovars L1, L2, and L3 within the LGV group. The assay was evaluated in a blinded fashion using 95 clinical swabs, with 76 previously reported as urogenital Ct-positive samples and typed by ompA genotyping and/or Multi-Locus Sequence Typing. Results of the 13-plex assay showed that 51 samples fell within urogenital clade 2 or 4, 24 samples showed both clade 2 and 4 signatures, indicating possible mixed infection, gene rearrangement, or inter-clade recombination, and one sample was a noninvasive trachoma biovar (either a clade 3 or 4). The remaining 19 blinded samples were correctly identified as LGV clade 1 (3), ocular clade 3 (4), or as negatives (12). To date, no NAAT assay can provide a point-of-care applicable turnaround time for Ct detection while identifying clinically significant Ct strain types to inform appropriate treatment. Coupled with rapid DNA processing of clinical swabs (approximately 60 minutes from swab-in to result-out), the assay has significant potential as a rapid POC diagnostic for Ct infections.

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<![CDATA[Rectal administration of a chlamydial subunit vaccine protects against genital infection and upper reproductive tract pathology in mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be0231

In this study, we tested the hypothesis that rectal immunization with a VCG-based chlamydial vaccine would cross-protect mice against heterologous genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection and Chlamydia-induced upper genital tract pathologies in mice. Female mice were immunized with a C. trachomatis serovar D-derived subunit vaccine or control or live serovar D elementary bodies (EBs) and the antigen-specific mucosal and systemic immune responses were characterized. Vaccine efficacy was determined by evaluating the intensity and duration of genital chlamydial shedding following intravaginal challenge with live serovar E chlamydiae. Protection against upper genital tract pathology was determined by assessing infertility and tubal inflammation. Rectal immunization elicited high levels of chlamydial-specific IFN-gamma-producing CD4 T cells and humoral immune responses in mucosal and systemic tissues. The elicited immune effectors cross-reacted with the serovar E chlamydial antigen and reduced the length and intensity of genital chlamydial shedding. Furthermore, immunization with the VCG-vaccine but not the rVCG-gD2 control reduced the incidence of tubal inflammation and protected mice against Chlamydia-induced infertility. These results highlight the potential of rectal immunization as a viable mucosal route for inducing protective immunity in the female genital tract.

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<![CDATA[The Relationship between Active Trachoma and Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection before and after Mass Antibiotic Treatment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daafab0ee8fa60baa99e

Background

Trachoma is a blinding disease, initiated in early childhood by repeated conjunctival infection with the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The population prevalence of the clinical signs of active trachoma; ‘‘follicular conjunctivitis” (TF) and/or ‘‘intense papillary inflammation” (TI), guide programmatic decisions regarding the initiation and cessation of mass drug administration (MDA). However, the persistence of TF following resolution of infection at both the individual and population level raises concerns over the suitability of this clinical sign as a marker for C. trachomatis infection.

Methodology/Principle Findings

We systematically reviewed the literature for population-based studies and those including randomly selected individuals, which reported the prevalence of the clinical signs of active trachoma and ocular C. trachomatis infection by nucleic acid amplification test. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between active trachoma and C. trachomatis infection before and after MDA. TF and C. trachomatis infection were strongly correlated prior to MDA (r = 0.92, 95%CI 0.83 to 0.96, p<0.0001); the relationship was similar when the analysis was limited to children. A moderate correlation was found between TI and prevalence of infection. Following MDA, the relationship between TF and infection prevalence was weaker (r = 0.60, 95%CI 0.25 to 0.81, p = 0.003) and there was no correlation between TI and C. trachomatis infection.

Conclusions/Significance

Prior to MDA, TF is a good indicator of the community prevalence of C. trachomatis infection. Following MDA, the prevalence of TF tends to overestimate the underlying infection prevalence. In order to prevent unnecessary additional rounds of MDA and to accurately ascertain when elimination goals have been reached, a cost-effective test for C. trachomatis that can be administered in low-resource settings remains desirable.

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<![CDATA[Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Patients with Interleukin-1 Polymorphisms Is Significantly Associated with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7fab0ee8fa60b9a006

Background

Helicobacter pylori infection and interleukin-1 polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. We examined the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and interleukin-1 polymorphisms between ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patients.

Methods

We recruited consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients, and 101 non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patients and 103 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients were enrolled. Interleukin-1 polymorphism analyses were performed for single nucleotide polymorphism in interleukin-1 beta-511 and the variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist by polymerase chain reaction. Immunoglobulin G antibodies against Helicobacter pylori and high sensitivity C-reactive protein were also measured.

Results

The rates of the simultaneous presence of interleukin-1 polymorphisms and Helicobacter pylori-seropositivity between non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction groups were 25.7% and 42.7%, respectively (P = 0.012). Helicobacter pylori-seropositive subjects with interleukin-1 polymorphisms showed significantly higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (0.04–0.12 vs. 0.02–0.05; P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the carriage of Helicobacter pylori-seropositivity and interleukin-1 polymorphisms was significantly associated with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 2.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.23–4.37; P = 0.009). The C-statistic of conventional risk factors was 0.68 (P<0.001) and that including Helicobacter pylori-seropositivity and interleukin-1 polymorphisms was 0.70 (P<0.001); continuous net reclassification improvement was 34% (P = 0.0094) and integrated discrimination improvement was 3.0% (P = 0.014).

Conclusions

The coincidence of Helicobacter pylori-seropositivity and interleukin-1 polymorphisms was significantly associated with higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein and the increased risk of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

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<![CDATA[The Chlamydia trachomatis type III secretion substrates CT142, CT143, and CT144 are secreted into the lumen of the inclusion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be1108

Chlamydia trachomatis is a human bacterial pathogen causing ocular and genital infections. It multiplies exclusively within an intracellular membrane-bound vacuole, the inclusion, and uses a type III secretion system to manipulate host cells by injecting them with bacterially-encoded effector proteins. In this work, we characterized the expression and subcellular localization in infected host cells of the C. trachomatis CT142, CT143, and CT144 proteins, which we previously showed to be type III secretion substrates. Transcriptional analyses in C. trachomatis confirmed the prediction that ct142, ct143 and ct144 are organized in an operon and revealed that their expression is likely driven by the main σ factor, σ66. In host cells infected by C. trachomatis, production of CT142 and CT143 could be detected by immunoblotting from 20–26 h post-infection. Immunofluorescence microscopy of infected cells revealed that from 20 h post-infection CT143 appeared mostly as globular structures outside of the bacterial cells but within the lumen of the inclusion. Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy of cells infected by C. trachomatis strains carrying plasmids producing CT142, CT143, or CT144 under the control of the ct142 promoter and with a C-terminal double hemagglutinin (2HA) epitope tag revealed that CT142-2HA, CT143-2HA or CT144-2HA showed an identical localization to chromosomally-encoded CT143. Moreover, CT142-2HA or CT144-2HA and CT143 produced by the same bacteria co-localized in the lumen of the inclusion. Overall, these data suggest that the CT142, CT143, and CT144 type III secretion substrates are secreted into the lumen of the inclusion where they might form a protein complex.

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<![CDATA[Chlamydia trachomatis Frequency in a Cohort of HPV-Infected Colombian Women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db32ab0ee8fa60bd21e0

Background

Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest infectious bacterial agent of sexual transmission throughout the world. It has been shown that the presence of this bacteria in the cervix represents a risk regarding HPV persistence and, thereafter, in developing cervical cancer (CC). Prevalence rates may vary from 2% to 17% in asymptomatic females, depending on the population being analysed. This study reports the identification of C. trachomatis in a cohort of 219 HPV-infected Colombian females.

Methods

C. trachomatis infection frequency was determined during each of the study’s follow-up visits; it was detected by amplifying the cryptic plasmid sequence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two sets of primers: KL5/KL6 and KL1/KL2.

Infection was defined as a positive PCR result using either set of primers at any time during the study. Cox proportional risk models were used for evaluating the association between the appearance of infection and a group of independent variables.

Results

Base line C. trachomatis infection frequency was 28% (n = 61). Most females infected by C. trachomatis were infected by multiple types of HPV (77.42%), greater prevalence occurring in females infected with HPV-16 (19.18%), followed by HPV-58 (17.81%). It was observed that females having had the most sexual partners (HR = 6.44: 1.59–26.05 95%CI) or infection with multiple types of HPV (HR = 2.85: 1.22–6.63 95%CI) had the greatest risk of developing C. trachomatis.

Conclusions

The study provides data regarding the epidemiology of C. trachomatis /HPV coinfection in different population groups of Colombian females and contributes towards understanding the natural history of C. trachomatis infection.

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<![CDATA[Targeted Delivery of Amoxicillin to C. trachomatis by the Transferrin Iron Acquisition Pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daefab0ee8fa60bc0be6

Weak intracellular penetration of antibiotics makes some infections difficult to treat. The Trojan horse strategy for targeted drug delivery is among the interesting routes being explored to overcome this therapeutic difficulty. Chlamydia trachomatis, as an obligate intracellular human pathogen, is responsible for both trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. Chlamydia develops in a vacuole and is therefore protected by four membranes (plasma membrane, bacterial inclusion membrane, and bacterial membranes). In this work, the iron-transport protein, human serum-transferrin, was used as a Trojan horse for antibiotic delivery into the bacterial vacuole. Amoxicillin was grafted onto transferrin. The transferrin-amoxicillin construct was characterized by mass spectrometry and absorption spectroscopy. Its affinity for transferrin receptor 1, determined by fluorescence emission titration [KaffTf-amox = (1.3 ± 1.0) x 108], is very close to that of transferrin [4.3 x 108]. Transmission electron and confocal microscopies showed a co-localization of transferrin with the bacteria in the vacuole and were also used to evaluate the antibiotic capability of the construct. It is significantly more effective than amoxicillin alone. These promising results demonstrate targeted delivery of amoxicillin to suppress Chlamydia and are of interest for Chlamydiaceae and maybe other intracellular bacteria therapies.

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<![CDATA[Chlamydia trachomatis Pgp3 Antibody Population Seroprevalence before and during an Era of Widespread Opportunistic Chlamydia Screening in England (1994-2012)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc946

Background

Opportunistic chlamydia screening of <25 year-olds was nationally-implemented in England in 2008 but its impact on chlamydia transmission is poorly understood. We undertook a population-based seroprevalence study to explore the impact of screening on cumulative incidence of chlamydia, as measured by C.trachomatis-specific antibody.

Methods

Anonymised sera from participants in the nationally-representative Health Surveys for England (HSE) were tested for C.trachomatis antibodies using two novel Pgp3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) as a marker of past infection. Determinants of being seropositive were explored using logistic regression among 16–44 year-old women and men in 2010 and 2012 (years when sexual behaviour questions were included in the survey) (n = 1,402 women; 1,119 men). Seroprevalence trends among 16–24 year-old women (n = 3,361) were investigated over ten time points from 1994–2012.

Results

In HSE2010/2012, Pgp3 seroprevalence among 16–44 year-olds was 24.4% (95%CI 22.0–27.1) in women and 13.9% (11.8–16.2) in men. Seroprevalence increased with age (up to 33.5% [27.5–40.2] in 30–34 year-old women, 18.7% [13.4–25.6] in 35–39 year-old men); years since first sex; number of lifetime sexual partners; and younger age at first sex. 76.7% of seropositive 16–24 year-olds had never been diagnosed with chlamydia. Among 16–24 year-old women, a non-significant decline in seroprevalence was observed from 2008–2012 (prevalence ratio per year: 0.94 [0.84–1.05]).

Conclusion

Our application of Pgp3 ELISAs demonstrates a high lifetime risk of chlamydia infection among women and a large proportion of undiagnosed infections. A decrease in age-specific cumulative incidence following national implementation of opportunistic chlamydia screening has not yet been demonstrated. We propose these assays be used to assess impact of chlamydia control programmes.

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