ResearchPad - chromatin https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Revisiting promyelocytic leukemia protein targeting by human cytomegalovirus immediate-early protein 1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14655 Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies are liquid droplet-like structures organized by the eponymous PML proteins in the nuclei of our cells. PML bodies have been implicated in the antiviral host cell response to infection. Consequently, viruses have evolved mechanisms that target the proteins composing PML bodies. Immediate-early protein 1 (IE1) is considered the principal antagonist of PML bodies produced by the human cytomegalovirus, one of eight human herpesviruses. Previous work suggested that the interaction between IE1 and PML and the consequent disruption of PML bodies serves a critical role in viral replication by counteracting the cellular antiviral response. However, this picture has emerged largely from studying mutant IE1 proteins known or predicted to be unstable. We systematically screened for stable IE1 variants and identified a mutant protein selectively defective for PML interaction. Unexpectedly, the IE1 mutant supported viral replication almost as efficiently as the wild-type protein. Moreover, lower instead of higher (as expected) levels of antiviral gene expression were observed with the mutant compared to the wild-type. These results suggest that disruption of PML bodies is linked to the induction rather than inhibition of antiviral gene expression. Our findings challenge current views regarding the role of PML bodies in viral infection.

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<![CDATA[DIRS retrotransposons amplify via linear, single-stranded cDNA intermediates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N30100509-7403-4d6b-ab57-9d48ac1b834d The Dictyostelium Intermediate Repeat Sequence 1 (DIRS-1) is the name-giving member of the DIRS order of tyrosine recombinase retrotransposons. In Dictyostelium discoideum, DIRS-1 is highly amplified and enriched in heterochromatic centromers of the D. discoideum genome. We show here that DIRS-1 it tightly controlled by the D. discoideum RNA interference machinery and is only mobilized in mutants lacking either the RNA dependent RNA polymerase RrpC or the Argonaute protein AgnA. DIRS retrotransposons contain an internal complementary region (ICR) that is thought to be required to reconstitute a full-length element from incomplete RNA transcripts. Using different versions of D. discoideum DIRS-1 equipped with retrotransposition marker genes, we show experimentally that the ICR is in fact essential to complete retrotransposition. We further show that DIRS-1 produces a mixture of single-stranded, mostly linear extrachromosomal cDNA intermediates. If this cDNA is isolated and transformed into D. discoideum cells, it can be used by DIRS-1 proteins to complete productive retrotransposition. This work provides the first experimental evidence to propose a general retrotransposition mechanism of the class of DIRS like tyrosine recombinase retrotransposons.

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<![CDATA[The embryonic linker histone dBigH1 alters the functional state of active chromatin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N388d0fd7-b8dc-4cb7-a70d-240928a40596 Linker histones H1 are principal chromatin components, whose contribution to the epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure and function is not fully understood. In metazoa, specific linker histones are expressed in the germline, with female-specific H1s being normally retained in the early-embryo. Embryonic H1s are present while the zygotic genome is transcriptionally silent and they are replaced by somatic variants upon activation, suggesting a contribution to transcriptional silencing. Here we directly address this question by ectopically expressing dBigH1 in Drosophila S2 cells, which lack dBigH1. We show that dBigH1 binds across chromatin, replaces somatic dH1 and reduces nucleosome repeat length (NRL). Concomitantly, dBigH1 expression down-regulates gene expression by impairing RNApol II binding and histone acetylation. These effects depend on the acidic N-terminal ED-domain of dBigH1 since a truncated form lacking this domain binds across chromatin and replaces dH1 like full-length dBigH1, but it does not affect NRL either transcription. In vitro reconstitution experiments using Drosophila preblastodermic embryo extracts corroborate these results. Altogether these results suggest that the negatively charged N-terminal tail of dBigH1 alters the functional state of active chromatin compromising transcription.

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<![CDATA[A multi-layered structure of the interphase chromocenter revealed by proximity-based biotinylation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N382b99e6-f1ce-4953-9869-866ded198e81 During interphase centromeres often coalesce into a small number of chromocenters, which can be visualized as distinct, DAPI dense nuclear domains. Intact chromocenters play a major role in maintaining genome stability as they stabilize the transcriptionally silent state of repetitive DNA while ensuring centromere function. Despite its biological importance, relatively little is known about the molecular composition of the chromocenter or the processes that mediate chromocenter formation and maintenance. To provide a deeper molecular insight into the composition of the chromocenter and to demonstrate the usefulness of proximity-based biotinylation as a tool to investigate those questions, we performed super resolution microscopy and proximity-based biotinylation experiments of three distinct proteins associated with the chromocenter in Drosophila. Our work revealed an intricate internal architecture of the chromocenter suggesting a complex multilayered structure of this intranuclear domain.

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<![CDATA[A novel transcriptional cascade is involved in Fzr-mediated endoreplication]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5393560d-c6db-42ef-8f22-d24e3b895dbd Endoreplication, known as endocycle, is a variant of the cell cycle that differs from mitosis and occurs in specific tissues of different organisms. Endoreplicating cells generally undergo multiple rounds of genome replication without chromosome segregation. Previous studies demonstrated that Drosophila fizzy-related protein (Fzr) and its mammalian homolog Cdh1 function as key regulators of endoreplication entrance by activating the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome to initiate the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of cell cycle factors such as Cyclin B (CycB). However, the molecular mechanism underlying Fzr-mediated endoreplication is not completely understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the transcription factor Myc acts downstream of Fzr during endoreplication in Drosophila salivary gland. Mechanistically, Fzr interacts with chromatin-associated histone H2B to enhance H2B ubiquitination in the Myc promoter and promotes Myc transcription. In addition to negatively regulating CycB transcription, the Fzr-ubiquitinated H2B (H2Bub)-Myc signaling cascade also positively regulates the transcription of the MCM6 gene that is involved in DNA replication by directly binding to specific motifs within their promoters. We further found that the Fzr-H2Bub-Myc signaling cascade regulating endoreplication progression is conserved between insects and mammalian cells. Altogether, our work uncovers a novel transcriptional cascade that is involved in Fzr-mediated endoreplication.

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<![CDATA[Locally acting transcription factors regulate p53-dependent <i>cis-</i>regulatory element activity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N516c8c43-e5e2-472a-aff9-4910d6eb5f06 The master tumor suppressor p53 controls transcription of a wide-ranging gene network involved in apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA damage repair, and senescence. Recent studies revealed pervasive binding of p53 to cis-regulatory elements (CREs), which are non-coding segments of DNA that spatially and temporally control transcription through the combinatorial binding of local transcription factors. Although the role of p53 as a strong trans-activator of gene expression is well known, the co-regulatory factors and local sequences acting at p53-bound CREs are comparatively understudied. We designed and executed a massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA) to investigate the effect of transcription factor binding motifs and local sequence context on p53-bound CRE activity. Our data indicate that p53-bound CREs are both positively and negatively affected by alterations in local sequence context and changes to co-regulatory TF motifs. Our data suggest p53 has the flexibility to cooperate with a variety of transcription factors in order to regulate CRE activity. By utilizing different sets of co-factors across CREs, we hypothesize that global p53 activity is guarded against loss of any one regulatory partner, allowing for dynamic and redundant control of p53-mediated transcription.

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<![CDATA[Host factors that promote retrotransposon integration are similar in distantly related eukaryotes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ab4e87b463d7e0cbd0422e6

Retroviruses and Long Terminal Repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons have distinct patterns of integration sites. The oncogenic potential of retrovirus-based vectors used in gene therapy is dependent on the selection of integration sites associated with promoters. The LTR-retrotransposon Tf1 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is studied as a model for oncogenic retroviruses because it integrates into the promoters of stress response genes. Although integrases (INs) encoded by retroviruses and LTR-retrotransposons are responsible for catalyzing the insertion of cDNA into the host genome, it is thought that distinct host factors are required for the efficiency and specificity of integration. We tested this hypothesis with a genome-wide screen of host factors that promote Tf1 integration. By combining an assay for transposition with a genetic assay that measures cDNA recombination we could identify factors that contribute differentially to integration. We utilized this assay to test a collection of 3,004 S. pombe strains with single gene deletions. Using these screens and immunoblot measures of Tf1 proteins, we identified a total of 61 genes that promote integration. The candidate integration factors participate in a range of processes including nuclear transport, transcription, mRNA processing, vesicle transport, chromatin structure and DNA repair. Two candidates, Rhp18 and the NineTeen complex were tested in two-hybrid assays and were found to interact with Tf1 IN. Surprisingly, a number of pathways we identified were found previously to promote integration of the LTR-retrotransposons Ty1 and Ty3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, indicating the contribution of host factors to integration are common in distantly related organisms. The DNA repair factors are of particular interest because they may identify the pathways that repair the single stranded gaps flanking the sites of strand transfer following integration of LTR retroelements.

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<![CDATA[CDK-Mediator and FBXL19 prime developmental genes for activation by promoting atypical regulatory interactions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N11ca1284-a0f4-4beb-a795-57f169ac3685

Abstract

Appropriate developmental gene regulation relies on the capacity of gene promoters to integrate inputs from distal regulatory elements, yet how this is achieved remains poorly understood. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), a subset of silent developmental gene promoters are primed for activation by FBXL19, a CpG island binding protein, through its capacity to recruit CDK-Mediator. How mechanistically these proteins function together to prime genes for activation during differentiation is unknown. Here we discover that in mouse ESCs FBXL19 and CDK-Mediator support long-range interactions between silent gene promoters that rely on FBXL19 for their induction during differentiation and gene regulatory elements. During gene induction, these distal regulatory elements behave in an atypical manner, in that the majority do not acquire histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation and no longer interact with their target gene promoter following gene activation. Despite these atypical features, we demonstrate by targeted deletions that these distal elements are required for appropriate gene induction during differentiation. Together these discoveries demonstrate that CpG-island associated gene promoters can prime genes for activation by communicating with atypical distal gene regulatory elements to achieve appropriate gene expression.

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<![CDATA[HDAC8 cooperates with SMAD3/4 complex to suppress SIRT7 and promote cell survival and migration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc01d7b81-adab-49fa-b94d-35802c971e97

Abstract

NAD+-dependent SIRT7 deacylase plays essential roles in ribosome biogenesis, stress response, genome integrity, metabolism and aging, while how it is transcriptionally regulated is still largely unclear. TGF-β signaling is highly conserved in multicellular organisms, regulating cell growth, cancer stemness, migration and invasion. Here, we demonstrate that histone deacetylase HDAC8 forms complex with SMAD3/4 heterotrimer and occupies SIRT7 promoter, wherein it deacetylates H4 and thus suppresses SIRT7 transcription. Treatment with HDAC8 inhibitor compromises TGF-β signaling via SIRT7-SMAD4 axis and consequently, inhibits lung metastasis and improves chemotherapy efficacy in breast cancer. Our data establish a regulatory feedback loop of TGF-β signaling, wherein HDAC8 as a novel cofactor of SMAD3/4 complex, transcriptionally suppresses SIRT7 via local chromatin remodeling and thus further activates TGF-β signaling. Targeting HDAC8 exhibits therapeutic potential for TGF-β signaling related diseases.

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<![CDATA[Dynamic changes in cis-regulatory occupancy by Six1 and its cooperative interactions with distinct cofactors drive lineage-specific gene expression programs during progressive differentiation of the auditory sensory epithelium]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf8600942-3ae7-4902-8013-329fe2e04afc

Abstract

The transcription factor Six1 is essential for induction of sensory cell fate and formation of auditory sensory epithelium, but how it activates gene expression programs to generate distinct cell-types remains unknown. Here, we perform genome-wide characterization of Six1 binding at different stages of auditory sensory epithelium development and find that Six1-binding to cis-regulatory elements changes dramatically at cell-state transitions. Intriguingly, Six1 pre-occupies enhancers of cell-type-specific regulators and effectors before their expression. We demonstrate in-vivo cell-type-specific activity of Six1-bound novel enhancers of Pbx1, Fgf8, Dusp6, Vangl2, the hair-cell master regulator Atoh1 and a cascade of Atoh1’s downstream factors, including Pou4f3 and Gfi1. A subset of Six1-bound sites carry consensus-sequences for its downstream factors, including Atoh1, Gfi1, Pou4f3, Gata3 and Pbx1, all of which physically interact with Six1. Motif analysis identifies RFX/X-box as one of the most significantly enriched motifs in Six1-bound sites, and we demonstrate that Six1-RFX proteins cooperatively regulate gene expression through binding to SIX:RFX-motifs. Six1 targets a wide range of hair-bundle regulators and late Six1 deletion disrupts hair-bundle polarity. This study provides a mechanistic understanding of how Six1 cooperates with distinct cofactors in feedforward loops to control lineage-specific gene expression programs during progressive differentiation of the auditory sensory epithelium.

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<![CDATA[WDR5 is a conserved regulator of protein synthesis gene expression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne30cf564-9d30-4323-b37a-b6d2f383205b

Abstract

WDR5 is a highly-conserved nuclear protein that performs multiple scaffolding functions in the context of chromatin. WDR5 is also a promising target for pharmacological inhibition in cancer, with small molecule inhibitors of an arginine-binding pocket of WDR5 (the ‘WIN’ site) showing efficacy against a range of cancer cell lines in vitro. Efforts to understand WDR5, or establish the mechanism of action of WIN site inhibitors, however, are stymied by its many functions in the nucleus, and a lack of knowledge of the conserved gene networks—if any—that are under its control. Here, we have performed comparative genomic analyses to identify the conserved sites of WDR5 binding to chromatin, and the conserved genes regulated by WDR5, across a diverse panel of cancer cell lines. We show that a specific cohort of protein synthesis genes (PSGs) are invariantly bound by WDR5, demonstrate that the WIN site anchors WDR5 to chromatin at these sites, and establish that PSGs are bona fide, acute, and persistent targets of WIN site blockade. Together, these data reveal that WDR5 plays a predominant transcriptional role in biomass accumulation and provide further evidence that WIN site inhibitors act to repress gene networks linked to protein synthesis homeostasis.

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<![CDATA[PRMT5-mediated histone arginine methylation antagonizes transcriptional repression by polycomb complex PRC2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N13fb5240-f83f-48b9-97ab-12cf40c6cf71

Abstract

Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) catalyzes the symmetric di-methylation of arginine residues in histones H3 and H4, marks that are generally associated with transcriptional repression. However, we found that PRMT5 inhibition or depletion led to more genes being downregulated than upregulated, indicating that PRMT5 can also act as a transcriptional activator. Indeed, the global level of histone H3K27me3 increases in PRMT5 deficient cells. Although PRMT5 does not directly affect PRC2 enzymatic activity, methylation of histone H3 by PRMT5 abrogates its subsequent methylation by PRC2. Treating AML cells with an EZH2 inhibitor partially restored the expression of approximately 50% of the genes that are initially downregulated by PRMT5 inhibition, suggesting that the increased H3K27me3 could directly or indirectly contribute to the transcription repression of these genes. Indeed, ChIP-sequencing analysis confirmed an increase in the H3K27me3 level at the promoter region of a quarter of these genes in PRMT5-inhibited cells. Interestingly, the anti-proliferative effect of PRMT5 inhibition was also partially rescued by treatment with an EZH2 inhibitor in several leukemia cell lines. Thus, PRMT5-mediated crosstalk between histone marks contributes to its functional effects.

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<![CDATA[A crucial RNA-binding lysine residue in the Nab3 RRM domain undergoes SET1 and SET3-responsive methylation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nba1ee733-7864-4683-b6ce-42ce86dac1fa

Abstract

The Nrd1–Nab3–Sen1 (NNS) complex integrates molecular cues to direct termination of noncoding transcription in budding yeast. NNS is positively regulated by histone methylation as well as through Nrd1 binding to the initiating form of RNA PolII. These cues collaborate with Nrd1 and Nab3 binding to target RNA sequences in nascent transcripts through their RRM RNA recognition motifs. In this study, we identify nine lysine residues distributed amongst Nrd1, Nab3 and Sen1 that are methylated, suggesting novel molecular inputs for NNS regulation. We identify mono-methylation of one these residues (Nab3-K363me1) as being partly dependent on the H3K4 methyltransferase, Set1, a known regulator of NNS function. Moreover, the accumulation of Nab3-K363me1 is essentially abolished in strains lacking SET3, a SET domain containing protein that is positively regulated by H3K4 methylation. Nab3-K363 resides within its RRM and physically contacts target RNA. Mutation of Nab3-K363 to arginine (Nab3-K363R) decreases RNA binding of the Nab3 RRM in vitro and causes transcription termination defects and slow growth. These findings identify SET3 as a potential contextual regulator of Nab3 function through its role in methylation of Nab3-K363. Consistent with this hypothesis, we report that SET3 exhibits genetic activation of NAB3 that is observed in a sensitized context.

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<![CDATA[The euchromatic histone mark H3K36me3 preserves heterochromatin through sequestration of an acetyltransferase complex in fission yeast]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6e6814c4-789d-40ff-9c7e-0c71246e620c

Maintaining the identity of chromatin states requires mechanisms that ensure their structural integrity through the concerted actions of histone modifiers, readers, and erasers. Histone H3K9me and H3K27me are hallmarks of repressed heterochromatin, whereas H3K4me and H3K36me are associated with actively transcribed euchromatin. Paradoxically, several studies have reported that loss of Set2, the methyltransferase responsible for H3K36me, causes de-repression of heterochromatin. Here we show that unconstrained activity of the acetyltransferase complex Mst2C, which antagonizes heterochromatin, is the main cause of the silencing defects observed in Set2-deficient cells. As previously shown, Mst2C is sequestered to actively transcribed chromatin via binding to H3K36me3 that is recognized by the PWWP domain protein Pdp3. We demonstrate that combining deletions of set2+ and pdp3+ results in an epistatic silencing phenotype. In contrast, deleting mst2+, or other members of Mst2C, fully restores silencing in Set2-deficient cells. Suppression of the silencing defect in set2Δ cells is specific for pericentromeres and subtelomeres, which are marked by H3K9me, but is not seen for loci that lack genuine heterochromatin. Mst2 is known to acetylate histone H3K14 redundantly with the HAT Gnc5. Further, it is involved in the acetylation of the non-histone substrate and E3 ubiquitin ligase Brl1, resulting in increased H2B-K119 ubiquitylation at euchromatin. However, we reveal that none of these mechanisms are responsible for the Set2-dependent silencing pathway, implying that Mst2 targets another, unknown substrate critical for heterochromatin silencing. Our findings demonstrate that maintenance of chromatin states requires spatial constraint of opposing chromatin activities.

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<![CDATA[Native elongation transcript sequencing reveals temperature dependent dynamics of nascent RNAPII transcription in Arabidopsis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N58b15aaa-ff1f-492a-b8ab-bf9a1399ecac

Abstract

Temperature profoundly affects the kinetics of biochemical reactions, yet how large molecular complexes such as the transcription machinery accommodate changing temperatures to maintain cellular function is poorly understood. Here, we developed plant native elongating transcripts sequencing (plaNET-seq) to profile genome-wide nascent RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription during the cold-response of Arabidopsis thaliana with single-nucleotide resolution. Combined with temporal resolution, these data revealed transient genome-wide reprogramming of nascent RNAPII transcription during cold, including characteristics of RNAPII elongation and thousands of non-coding transcripts connected to gene expression. Our results suggest a role for promoter–proximal RNAPII stalling in predisposing genes for transcriptional activation during plant–environment interactions. At gene 3′-ends, cold initially facilitated transcriptional termination by limiting the distance of read-through transcription. Within gene bodies, cold reduced the kinetics of co-transcriptional splicing leading to increased intragenic stalling. Our data resolved multiple distinct mechanisms by which temperature transiently altered the dynamics of nascent RNAPII transcription and associated RNA processing, illustrating potential biotechnological solutions and future focus areas to promote food security in the context of a changing climate.

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<![CDATA[Lysine acetylation of the housekeeping sigma factor enhances the activity of the RNA polymerase holoenzyme]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1ff61d35-07d5-4b63-a8d0-fc8ba7e5a190

Abstract

Protein lysine acetylation, one of the most abundant post-translational modifications in eukaryotes, occurs in prokaryotes as well. Despite the evidence of lysine acetylation in bacterial RNA polymerases (RNAPs), its function remains unknown. We found that the housekeeping sigma factor (HrdB) was acetylated throughout the growth of an actinobacterium, Streptomyces venezuelae, and the acetylated HrdB was enriched in the RNAP holoenzyme complex. The lysine (K259) located between 1.2 and 2 regions of the sigma factor, was determined to be the acetylated residue of HrdB in vivo by LC–MS/MS analyses. Specifically, the label-free quantitative analysis revealed that the K259 residues of all the HrdB subunits were acetylated in the RNAP holoenzyme. Using mutations that mimic or block acetylation (K259Q and K259R), we found that K259 acetylation enhances the interaction of HrdB with the RNAP core enzyme as well as the binding activity of the RNAP holoenzyme to target promoters in vivo. Taken together, these findings provide a novel insight into an additional layer of modulation of bacterial RNAP activity.

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<![CDATA[Unique repression domains of Pumilio utilize deadenylation and decapping factors to accelerate destruction of target mRNAs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7d0323da-d1bb-42ca-9655-4aa262d8e849

Abstract

Pumilio is an RNA-binding protein that represses a network of mRNAs to control embryogenesis, stem cell fate, fertility and neurological functions in Drosophila. We sought to identify the mechanism of Pumilio-mediated repression and find that it accelerates degradation of target mRNAs, mediated by three N-terminal Repression Domains (RDs), which are unique to Pumilio orthologs. We show that the repressive activities of the Pumilio RDs depend on specific subunits of the Ccr4–Not (CNOT) deadenylase complex. Depletion of Pop2, Not1, Not2, or Not3 subunits alleviates Pumilio RD-mediated repression of protein expression and mRNA decay, whereas depletion of other CNOT components had little or no effect. Moreover, the catalytic activity of Pop2 deadenylase is important for Pumilio RD activity. Further, we show that the Pumilio RDs directly bind to the CNOT complex. We also report that the decapping enzyme, Dcp2, participates in repression by the N-terminus of Pumilio. These results support a model wherein Pumilio utilizes CNOT deadenylase and decapping complexes to accelerate destruction of target mRNAs. Because the N-terminal RDs are conserved in mammalian Pumilio orthologs, the results of this work broadly enhance our understanding of Pumilio function and roles in diseases including cancer, neurodegeneration and epilepsy.

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<![CDATA[Physical and functional interaction between SET1/COMPASS complex component CFP-1 and a Sin3S HDAC complex in C. elegans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N93561f14-dd0f-436d-8b34-1e49c1bc279b

Abstract

The CFP1 CXXC zinc finger protein targets the SET1/COMPASS complex to non-methylated CpG rich promoters to implement tri-methylation of histone H3 Lys4 (H3K4me3). Although H3K4me3 is widely associated with gene expression, the effects of CFP1 loss vary, suggesting additional chromatin factors contribute to context dependent effects. Using a proteomics approach, we identified CFP1 associated proteins and an unexpected direct link between Caenorhabditis elegans CFP-1 and an Rpd3/Sin3 small (SIN3S) histone deacetylase complex. Supporting a functional connection, we find that mutants of COMPASS and SIN3 complex components genetically interact and have similar phenotypic defects including misregulation of common genes. CFP-1 directly binds SIN-3 through a region including the conserved PAH1 domain and recruits SIN-3 and the HDA-1/HDAC subunit to H3K4me3 enriched promoters. Our results reveal a novel role for CFP-1 in mediating interaction between SET1/COMPASS and a Sin3S HDAC complex at promoters.

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<![CDATA[CTCF-dependent chromatin boundaries formed by asymmetric nucleosome arrays with decreased linker length]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbbb1e976-9b68-465c-8263-cbec6c9f1f49

Abstract

The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) organises the genome in 3D through DNA loops and in 1D by setting boundaries isolating different chromatin states, but these processes are not well understood. Here we investigate chromatin boundaries in mouse embryonic stem cells, defined by the regions with decreased Nucleosome Repeat Length (NRL) for ∼20 nucleosomes near CTCF sites, affecting up to 10% of the genome. We found that the nucleosome-depleted region (NDR) near CTCF is asymmetrically located >40 nucleotides 5′-upstream from the centre of CTCF motif. The strength of CTCF binding to DNA and the presence of cohesin is correlated with the decrease of NRL near CTCF, and anti-correlated with the level of asymmetry of the nucleosome array. Individual chromatin remodellers have different contributions, with Snf2h having the strongest effect on the NRL decrease near CTCF and Chd4 playing a major role in the symmetry breaking. Upon differentiation, a subset of preserved, common CTCF sites maintains asymmetric nucleosome pattern and small NRL. The sites which lost CTCF upon differentiation are characterized by nucleosome rearrangement 3′-downstream, with unchanged NDR 5′-upstream of CTCF motifs. Boundaries of topologically associated chromatin domains frequently contain several inward-oriented CTCF motifs whose effects, described above, add up synergistically.

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<![CDATA[RB, p130 and p107 differentially repress G1/S and G2/M genes after p53 activation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1b856345-8858-4298-9dcc-f76d07807d3b

Abstract

Cell cycle gene expression occurs in two waves. The G1/S genes encode factors required for DNA synthesis and the G2/M genes contribute to mitosis. The Retinoblastoma protein (RB) and DREAM complex (DP, RB-like, E2F4 and MuvB) cooperate to repress all cell cycle genes during G1 and inhibit entry into the cell cycle. DNA damage activates p53 leading to increased levels of p21 and inhibition of cell cycle progression. Whether the G1/S and G2/M genes are differentially repressed by RB and the RB-like proteins p130 and p107 in response to DNA damage is not known. We performed gene expression profiling of primary human fibroblasts upon DNA damage and assessed the effects on G1/S and G2/M genes. Upon p53 activation, p130 and RB cooperated to repress the G1/S genes. In addition, in the absence of RB and p130, p107 contributed to repression of G1/S genes. In contrast, G2/M genes were repressed by p130 and p107 after p53 activation. Furthermore, repression of G2/M genes by p107 and p130 led to reduced entry into mitosis. Our data demonstrates specific roles for RB, p130-DREAM, and p107-DREAM in p53 and p21 mediated repression of cell cycle genes.

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