ResearchPad - chromosomal-deletions https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Association test using Copy Number Profile Curves (CONCUR) enhances power in rare copy number variant analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14642 Copy number variants comprise a large proportion of variation in human genomes. Large rare CNVs, especially those disrupting genes or changing the dosages of genes, can carry relatively strong risks for neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Kernel-based association methods have been developed for the analysis of rare CNVs and shown to be a valuable tool. Kernel methods model the collective effect of rare CNVs using flexible kernel functions that capture the characteristics of CNVs and measure CNV similarity of individual pairs. Typically kernels are created by summarizing similarity within an artificially defined “CNV locus” and then collapsing across all loci. In this work, we propose a new kernel-based test, CONCUR, that is based on the CNV location information contained in standard processing of the variants and which obviates the need for arbitrarily defined CNV loci. CONCUR quantifies similarity between individual pairs as the common area under their copy number profile curves and is designed to detect CNV dosage, length and dosage-length interaction effects. In simulation studies and real data analysis, we demonstrate the ability of the CONCUR test to detect CNV effects under diverse CNV architectures with power and robustness over existing methods.

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<![CDATA[An 11p15 Imprinting Centre Region 2 Deletion in a Family with Beckwith Wiedemann Syndrome Provides Insights into Imprinting Control at CDKN1C]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3aab0ee8fa60bd4ab9

We report a three generation family with Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) in whom we have identified a 330 kb deletion within the KCNQ1 locus, encompassing the 11p15.5 Imprinting Centre II (IC2). The deletion arose on the paternal chromosome in the first generation and was only associated with BWS when transmitted maternally to subsequent generations. The deletion on the maternal chromosome was associated with a lower median level of CDKN1C expression in the peripheral blood of affected individuals when compared to a cohort of unaffected controls (p<0.05), however was not significantly different to the expression levels in BWS cases with loss of methylation (LOM) within IC2 (p<0.78). Moreover the individual with a deletion on the paternal chromosome did not show evidence of elevated CDKN1C expression or features of Russell Silver syndrome. These observations support a model invoking the deletion of enhancer elements required for CDKN1C expression lying within or close to the imprinting centre and importantly extend and validate a single observation from an earlier study. Analysis of 94 cases with IC2 loss of methylation revealed that KCNQ1 deletion is a rare cause of loss of maternal methylation, occurring in only 3% of cases, or in 1.5% of BWS overall.

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<![CDATA[A Meta-Analysis of Array-CGH Studies Implicates Antiviral Immunity Pathways in the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da83ab0ee8fa60b9b465

Background

The development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is significantly correlated to the accumulation of genomic alterations. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) has been applied to a wide range of tumors including HCCs for the genome-wide high resolution screening of DNA copy number changes. However, the relevant chromosomal variations that play a central role in the development of HCC still are not fully elucidated.

Methods

In present study, in order to further characterize the copy number alterations (CNAs) important to HCC development, we conducted a meta-analysis of four published independent array-CGH datasets including total 159 samples.

Results

Eighty five significant gains (frequency ≥25%) were mostly mapped to five broad chromosomal regions including 1q, 6p, 8q, 17q and 20p, as well as two narrow regions 5p15.33 and 9q34.2-34.3. Eighty eight significant losses (frequency ≥25%) were most frequently present in 4q, 6q, 8p, 9p, 13q, 14q, 16q, and 17p. Significant correlations existed between chromosomal aberrations either located on the same chromosome or the different chromosomes. HCCs with different etiologies largely exhibited surprisingly similar profiles of chromosomal aberrations with only a few exceptions. Furthermore, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that the genes affected by these chromosomal aberrations were significantly enriched in 31 canonical pathways with the highest enrichment observed for antiviral immunity pathways.

Conclusions

Taken together, our findings provide novel and important clues for the implications of antiviral immunity-related gene pathways in the pathogenesis and progression of HCC.

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<![CDATA[A Single Cell Level Based Method for Copy Number Variation Analysis by Low Coverage Massively Parallel Sequencing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafbab0ee8fa60bc49c1

Copy number variations (CNVs), a common genomic mutation associated with various diseases, are important in research and clinical applications. Whole genome amplification (WGA) and massively parallel sequencing have been applied to single cell CNVs analysis, which provides new insight for the fields of biology and medicine. However, the WGA-induced bias significantly limits sensitivity and specificity for CNVs detection. Addressing these limitations, we developed a practical bioinformatic methodology for CNVs detection at the single cell level using low coverage massively parallel sequencing. This method consists of GC correction for WGA-induced bias removal, binary segmentation algorithm for locating CNVs breakpoints, and dynamic threshold determination for final signals filtering. Afterwards, we evaluated our method with seven test samples using low coverage sequencing (4∼9.5%). Four single-cell samples from peripheral blood, whose karyotypes were confirmed by whole genome sequencing analysis, were acquired. Three other test samples derived from blastocysts whose karyotypes were confirmed by SNP-array analysis were also recruited. The detection results for CNVs of larger than 1 Mb were highly consistent with confirmed results reaching 99.63% sensitivity and 97.71% specificity at base-pair level. Our study demonstrates the potential to overcome WGA-bias and to detect CNVs (>1 Mb) at the single cell level through low coverage massively parallel sequencing. It highlights the potential for CNVs research on single cells or limited DNA samples and may prove as a promising tool for research and clinical applications, such as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis/screening, fetal nucleated red blood cells research and cancer heterogeneity analysis.

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<![CDATA[Foxf2: A Novel Locus for Anterior Segment Dysgenesis Adjacent to the Foxc1 Gene]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db11ab0ee8fa60bcc19f

Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) is characterised by an abnormal migration of neural crest cells or an aberrant differentiation of the mesenchymal cells during the formation of the eye's anterior segment. These abnormalities result in multiple tissue defects affecting the iris, cornea and drainage structures of the iridocorneal angle including the ciliary body, trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal. In some cases, abnormal ASD development leads to glaucoma, which is usually associated with increased intraocular pressure. Haploinsufficiency through mutation or chromosomal deletion of the human FOXC1 transcription factor gene or duplications of the 6p25 region is associated with a spectrum of ocular abnormalities including ASD. However, mapping data and phenotype analysis of human deletions suggests that an additional locus for this condition may be present in the same chromosomal region as FOXC1. DHPLC screening of ENU mutagenised mouse archival tissue revealed five novel mouse Foxf2 mutations. Re-derivation of one of these (the Foxf2W174R mouse lineage) resulted in heterozygote mice that exhibited thinning of the iris stroma, hyperplasia of the trabecular meshwork, small or absent Schlemm's canal and a reduction in the iridocorneal angle. Homozygous E18.5 mice showed absence of ciliary body projections, demonstrating a critical role for Foxf2 in the developing eye. These data provide evidence that the Foxf2 gene, separated from Foxc1 by less than 70 kb of genomic sequence (250 kb in human DNA), may explain human abnormalities in some cases of ASD where FOXC1 has been excluded genetically.

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<![CDATA[Uncovering Genomic Causes of Co-Morbidity in Epilepsy: Gene-Driven Phenotypic Characterization of Rare Microdeletions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad1ab0ee8fa60bb66d5

Background

Patients with epilepsy often suffer from other important conditions. The existence of such co-morbidities is frequently not recognized and their relationship with epilepsy usually remains unexplained.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We describe three patients with common, sporadic, non-syndromic epilepsies in whom large genomic microdeletions were found during a study of genetic susceptibility to epilepsy. We performed detailed gene-driven clinical investigations in each patient. Disruption of the function of genes in the deleted regions can explain co-morbidities in these patients.

Conclusions/Significance

Co-morbidities in patients with epilepsy can be part of a genomic abnormality even in the absence of (known) congenital malformations or intellectual disabilities. Gene-driven phenotype examination can also reveal clinically significant unsuspected condition.

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<![CDATA[Focal DNA Copy Number Changes in Neuroblastoma Target MYCN Regulated Genes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0eab0ee8fa60b78a27

Neuroblastoma is an embryonic tumor arising from immature sympathetic nervous system cells. Recurrent genomic alterations include MYCN and ALK amplification as well as recurrent patterns of gains and losses of whole or large partial chromosome segments. A recent whole genome sequencing effort yielded no frequently recurring mutations in genes other than those affecting ALK. However, the study further stresses the importance of DNA copy number alterations in this disease, in particular for genes implicated in neuritogenesis. Here we provide additional evidence for the importance of focal DNA copy number gains and losses, which are predominantly observed in MYCN amplified tumors. A focal 5 kb gain encompassing the MYCN regulated miR-17∼92 cluster as sole gene was detected in a neuroblastoma cell line and further analyses of the array CGH data set demonstrated enrichment for other MYCN target genes in focal gains and amplifications. Next we applied an integrated genomics analysis to prioritize MYCN down regulated genes mediated by MYCN driven miRNAs within regions of focal heterozygous or homozygous deletion. We identified RGS5, a negative regulator of G-protein signaling implicated in vascular normalization, invasion and metastasis, targeted by a focal homozygous deletion, as a new MYCN target gene, down regulated through MYCN activated miRNAs. In addition, we expand the miR-17∼92 regulatory network controlling TGFß signaling in neuroblastoma with the ring finger protein 11 encoding gene RNF11, which was previously shown to be targeted by the miR-17∼92 member miR-19b. Taken together, our data indicate that focal DNA copy number imbalances in neuroblastoma (1) target genes that are implicated in MYCN signaling, possibly selected to reinforce MYCN oncogene addiction and (2) serve as a resource for identifying new molecular targets for treatment.

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<![CDATA[Oxytocin and Vasopressin Are Dysregulated in Williams Syndrome, a Genetic Disorder Affecting Social Behavior]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d1ab0ee8fa60b64444

The molecular and neural mechanisms regulating human social-emotional behaviors are fundamentally important but largely unknown; unraveling these requires a genetic systems neuroscience analysis of human models. Williams Syndrome (WS), a condition caused by deletion of ∼28 genes, is associated with a gregarious personality, strong drive to approach strangers, difficult peer interactions, and attraction to music. WS provides a unique opportunity to identify endogenous human gene-behavior mechanisms. Social neuropeptides including oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) regulate reproductive and social behaviors in mammals, and we reasoned that these might mediate the features of WS. Here we established blood levels of OT and AVP in WS and controls at baseline, and at multiple timepoints following a positive emotional intervention (music), and a negative physical stressor (cold). We also related these levels to standardized indices of social behavior. Results revealed significantly higher median levels of OT in WS versus controls at baseline, with a less marked increase in AVP. Further, in WS, OT and AVP increased in response to music and to cold, with greater variability and an amplified peak release compared to controls. In WS, baseline OT but not AVP, was correlated positively with approach, but negatively with adaptive social behaviors. These results indicate that WS deleted genes perturb hypothalamic-pituitary release not only of OT but also of AVP, implicating more complex neuropeptide circuitry for WS features and providing evidence for their roles in endogenous regulation of human social behavior. The data suggest a possible biological basis for amygdalar involvement, for increased anxiety, and for the paradox of increased approach but poor social relationships in WS. They also offer insight for translating genetic and neuroendocrine knowledge into treatments for disorders of social behavior.

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<![CDATA[Global Analysis of Gene Expression in the Developing Brain of Gtf2ird1 Knockout Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e8ab0ee8fa60b6c079

Background

Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of a 1.5 Mb region on chromosome 7q11.23 encompassing 26 genes. One of these genes, GTF2IRD1, codes for a putative transcription factor that is expressed throughout the brain during development. Genotype-phenotype studies in patients with atypical deletions of 7q11.23 implicate this gene in the neurological features of WBS, and Gtf2ird1 knockout mice show reduced innate fear and increased sociability, consistent with features of WBS. Multiple studies have identified in vitro target genes of GTF2IRD1, but we sought to identify in vivo targets in the mouse brain.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We performed the first in vivo microarray screen for transcriptional targets of Gtf2ird1 in brain tissue from Gtf2ird1 knockout and wildtype mice at embryonic day 15.5 and at birth. Changes in gene expression in the mutant mice were moderate (0.5 to 2.5 fold) and of candidate genes with altered expression verified using real-time PCR, most were located on chromosome 5, within 10 Mb of Gtf2ird1. siRNA knock-down of Gtf2ird1 in two mouse neuronal cell lines failed to identify changes in expression of any of the genes identified from the microarray and subsequent analysis showed that differences in expression of genes on chromosome 5 were the result of retention of that chromosome region from the targeted embryonic stem cell line, and so were dependent upon strain rather than Gtf2ird1 genotype. In addition, specific analysis of genes previously identified as direct in vitro targets of GTF2IRD1 failed to show altered expression.

Conclusions/Significance

We have been unable to identify any in vivo neuronal targets of GTF2IRD1 through genome-wide expression analysis, despite widespread and robust expression of this protein in the developing rodent brain.

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<![CDATA[A One-Step Real-Time Multiplex PCR for Screening Y-Chromosomal Microdeletions without Downstream Amplicon Size Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0fab0ee8fa60bcb897

Backgound

Y-chromosomal microdeletions (YCMD) are one of the major genetic causes for non-obstructive azoospermia. Genetic testing for YCMD by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an established method for quick and robust screening of deletions in the AZF regions of the Y-chromosome. Multiplex PCRs have the advantage of including a control gene in every reaction and significantly reducing the number of reactions needed to screen the relevant genomic markers.

Principal Findings

The widely established “EAA/EMQN best practice guidelines for molecular diagnosis of Y-chromosomal microdeletions (2004)” were used as a basis for designing a real-time multiplex PCR system, in which the YCMD can simply be identified by their melting points. For this reason, some AZF primers were substituted by primers for regions in their genomic proximity, and the ZFX/ZFY control primer was exchanged by the AMELX/AMELY control primer. Furthermore, we substituted the classical SybrGreen I dye by the novel and high-performing DNA-binding dye EvaGreen™ and put substantial effort in titrating the primer combinations in respect to optimal melting peak separation and peak size.

Significance

With these changes, we were able to develop a platform-independent and robust real-time based multiplex PCR, which makes the need for amplicon identification by electrophoretic sizing expendable. By using an open-source system for real-time PCR analysis, we further demonstrate the applicability of automated melting point and YCMD detection.

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<![CDATA[Normal Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines Exhibit Pervasive Mosaic Aneuploidy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db06ab0ee8fa60bc893e

Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines have been considered to be homogeneously euploid. Here we report that normal hPSC – including induced pluripotent - lines are karyotypic mosaics of euploid cells intermixed with many cells showing non-clonal aneuploidies as identified by chromosome counting, spectral karyotyping (SKY) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of interphase/non-mitotic cells. This mosaic aneuploidy resembles that observed in progenitor cells of the developing brain and preimplantation embryos, suggesting that it is a normal, rather than pathological, feature of stem cell lines. The karyotypic heterogeneity generated by mosaic aneuploidy may contribute to the reported functional and phenotypic heterogeneity of hPSCs lines, as well as their therapeutic efficacy and safety following transplantation.

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<![CDATA[Genomic Aberrations in an African American Colorectal Cancer Cohort Reveals a MSI-Specific Profile and Chromosome X Amplification in Male Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da05ab0ee8fa60b75691

Objective

DNA aberrations that cause colorectal cancer (CRC) occur in multiple steps that involve microsatellite instability (MSI) and chromosomal instability (CIN). Herein, we studied CRCs from AA patients for their CIN and MSI status.

Experimental Design

Array CGH was performed on 30 AA colon tumors. The MSI status was established. The CGH data from AA were compared to published lists of 41 TSG and oncogenes in Caucasians and 68 cancer genes, proposed via systematic sequencing for somatic mutations in colon and breast tumors. The patient-by-patient CGH profiles were organized into a maximum parsimony cladogram to give insights into the tumors' aberrations lineage.

Results

The CGH analysis revealed that CIN was independent of age, gender, stage or location. However, both the number and nature of aberrations seem to depend on the MSI status. MSI-H tumors clustered together in the cladogram. The chromosomes with the highest rates of CGH aberrations were 3, 5, 7, 8, 20 and X. Chromosome X was primarily amplified in male patients. A comparison with Caucasians revealed an overall similar aberration profile with few exceptions for the following genes; THRB, RAF1, LPL, DCC, XIST, PCNT, STS and genes on the 20q12-q13 cytoband. Among the 68 CAN genes, all showed some level of alteration in our cohort.

Conclusion

Chromosome X amplification in male patients with CRC merits follow-up. The observed CIN may play a distinctive role in CRC in AAs. The clustering of MSI-H tumors in global CGH data analysis suggests that chromosomal aberrations are not random.

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<![CDATA[Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)-Based Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) Testing by Real Time PCR in Patients Suspect of Myeloproliferative Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f7ab0ee8fa60b70b03

During tumor development, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) often occurs. When LOH is preceded by an oncogene activating mutation, the mutant allele may be further potentiated if the wild-type allele is lost or inactivated. In myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) somatic acquisition of JAK2V617F may be followed by LOH resulting in loss of the wild type allele. The occurrence of LOH in MPN and other proliferative diseases may lead to a further potentiating the mutant allele and thereby increasing morbidity. A real time PCR based SNP profiling assay was developed and validated for LOH detection of the JAK2 region (JAK2LOH). Blood of a cohort of 12 JAK2V617F-positive patients (n = 6 25–50% and n = 6>50% JAK2V617F) and a cohort of 81 patients suspected of MPN was stored with EDTA and subsequently used for validation. To generate germ-line profiles, non-neoplastic formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from each patient was analyzed. Results of the SNP assay were compared to those of an established Short Tandem Repeat (STR) assay. Both assays revealed JAK2LOH in 1/6 patients with 25–50% JAK2V617F. In patients with >50% JAK2V617F, JAK2LOH was detected in 6/6 by the SNP assay and 5/6 patients by the STR assay. Of the 81 patients suspected of MPN, 18 patients carried JAK2V617F. Both the SNP and STR assay demonstrated the occurrence of JAK2LOH in 5 of them. In the 63 JAK2V617F-negative patients, no JAK2LOH was observed by SNP and STR analyses. The presented SNP assay reliably detects JAK2LOH and is a fast and easy to perform alternative for STR analyses. We therefore anticipate the SNP approach as a proof of principle for the development of LOH SNP-assays for other clinically relevant LOH loci.

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<![CDATA[Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Fetal Trisomy 18 and Trisomy 13 by Maternal Plasma DNA Sequencing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3bab0ee8fa60b87e36

Massively parallel sequencing of DNA molecules in the plasma of pregnant women has been shown to allow accurate and noninvasive prenatal detection of fetal trisomy 21. However, whether the sequencing approach is as accurate for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 and 18 is unclear due to the lack of data from a large sample set. We studied 392 pregnancies, among which 25 involved a trisomy 13 fetus and 37 involved a trisomy 18 fetus, by massively parallel sequencing. By using our previously reported standard z-score approach, we demonstrated that this approach could identify 36.0% and 73.0% of trisomy 13 and 18 at specificities of 92.4% and 97.2%, respectively. We aimed to improve the detection of trisomy 13 and 18 by using a non-repeat-masked reference human genome instead of a repeat-masked one to increase the number of aligned sequence reads for each sample. We then applied a bioinformatics approach to correct GC content bias in the sequencing data. With these measures, we detected all (25 out of 25) trisomy 13 fetuses at a specificity of 98.9% (261 out of 264 non-trisomy 13 cases), and 91.9% (34 out of 37) of the trisomy 18 fetuses at 98.0% specificity (247 out of 252 non-trisomy 18 cases). These data indicate that with appropriate bioinformatics analysis, noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 by maternal plasma DNA sequencing is achievable.

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<![CDATA[Retinoic Acid-Treated Pluripotent Stem Cells Undergoing Neurogenesis Present Increased Aneuploidy and Micronuclei Formation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafdab0ee8fa60bc5458

The existence of loss and gain of chromosomes, known as aneuploidy, has been previously described within the central nervous system. During development, at least one-third of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are aneuploid. Notably, aneuploid NPCs may survive and functionally integrate into the mature neural circuitry. Given the unanswered significance of this phenomenon, we tested the hypothesis that neural differentiation induced by all-trans retinoic acid (RA) in pluripotent stem cells is accompanied by increased levels of aneuploidy, as previously described for cortical NPCs in vivo. In this work we used embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells undergoing differentiation into NPCs. Ploidy analysis revealed a 2-fold increase in the rate of aneuploidy, with the prevalence of chromosome loss in RA primed stem cells when compared to naïve cells. In an attempt to understand the basis of neurogenic aneuploidy, micronuclei formation and survivin expression was assessed in pluripotent stem cells exposed to RA. RA increased micronuclei occurrence by almost 2-fold while decreased survivin expression by 50%, indicating possible mechanisms by which stem cells lose their chromosomes during neural differentiation. DNA fragmentation analysis demonstrated no increase in apoptosis on embryoid bodies treated with RA, indicating that cell death is not the mandatory fate of aneuploid NPCs derived from pluripotent cells. In order to exclude that the increase in aneuploidy was a spurious consequence of RA treatment, not related to neurogenesis, mouse embryonic fibroblasts were treated with RA under the same conditions and no alterations in chromosome gain or loss were observed. These findings indicate a correlation amongst neural differentiation, aneuploidy, micronuclei formation and survivin downregulation in pluripotent stem cells exposed to RA, providing evidence that somatically generated chromosomal variation accompanies neurogenesis in vitro.

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<![CDATA[Impaired Spermatogenesis and gr/gr Deletions Related to Y Chromosome Haplogroups in Korean Men]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6cab0ee8fa60b9317a

Microdeletion of the Azoospermia Factor (AZF) regions in Y chromosome is a well-known genetic cause of male infertility resulting from spermatogenetic impairment. However, the partial deletions of AZFc region related to spermatogenetic impairment are controversial. In this study, we characterized partial deletion of AZFc region in Korean patients with spermatogenetic impairment and assessed whether the DAZ and CDY1 contributes to the phenotype in patients with gr/gr deletions. Total of 377 patients with azoo-/oligozoospermia and 217controls were analyzed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), analysis of DAZ-CDY1 sequence family variants (SFVs), and quantitative fluorescent (QF)-PCR. Of the 377 men with impaired spermatogenesis, 59 cases (15.6%) had partial AZFc deletions, including 32 gr/gr (8.5%), 22 b2/b3 (5.8%), four b1/b3 (1.1%) and one b3/b4 (0.3%) deletion. In comparison, 14 of 217 normozoospermic controls (6.5%) had partial AZFc deletions, including five gr/gr (2.3%) and nine b2/b3 (4.1%) deletions. The frequency of gr/gr deletions was significantly higher in the azoo-/oligozoospermic group than in the normozoospermic control group (p = 0.003; OR = 3.933; 95% CI = 1.509–10.250). Concerning Y haplogroup, we observed no significant differences in the frequency of gr/gr deletions between the case and the control groups in the YAP+ lineages, while gr/gr deletion were significantly higher in azoo-/oligozoospermia than normozoospermia in the YAP− lineage (p = 0.004; OR = 6.341; 95% CI = 1.472–27.312). Our data suggested that gr/gr deletion is associated with impaired spermatogenesis in Koreans with YAP− lineage, regardless of the gr/gr subtypes.

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<![CDATA[Contribution of Rare Copy Number Variants to Isolated Human Malformations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da95ab0ee8fa60ba195c

Background

Congenital malformations are present in approximately 2–3% of liveborn babies and 20% of stillborn fetuses. The mechanisms underlying the majority of sporadic and isolated congenital malformations are poorly understood, although it is hypothesized that the accumulation of rare genetic, genomic and epigenetic variants converge to deregulate developmental networks.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We selected samples from 95 fetuses with congenital malformations not ascribed to a specific syndrome (68 with isolated malformations, 27 with multiple malformations). Karyotyping and Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) discarded recurrent genomic and cytogenetic rearrangements. DNA extracted from the affected tissue (46%) or from lung or liver (54%) was analyzed by molecular karyotyping. Validations and inheritance were obtained by MLPA. We identified 22 rare copy number variants (CNV) [>100 kb, either absent (n = 7) or very uncommon (n = 15, <1/2,000) in the control population] in 20/95 fetuses with congenital malformations (21%), including 11 deletions and 11 duplications. One of the 9 tested rearrangements was de novo while the remaining were inherited from a healthy parent. The highest frequency was observed in fetuses with heart hypoplasia (8/17, 62.5%), with two events previously related with the phenotype. Double events hitting candidate genes were detected in two samples with brain malformations. Globally, the burden of deletions was significantly higher in fetuses with malformations compared to controls.

Conclusions/Significance

Our data reveal a significant contribution of rare deletion-type CNV, mostly inherited but also de novo, to human congenital malformations, especially heart hypoplasia, and reinforce the hypothesis of a multifactorial etiology in most cases.

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<![CDATA[Rapid Visualisation of Microarray Copy Number Data for the Detection of Structural Variations Linked to a Disease Phenotype]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da07ab0ee8fa60b763dd

Whilst the majority of inherited diseases have been found to be caused by single base substitutions, small insertions or deletions (<1Kb), a significant proportion of genetic variability is due to copy number variation (CNV). The possible role of CNV in monogenic and complex diseases has recently attracted considerable interest. However, until the development of whole genome, oligonucleotide micro-arrays, designed specifically to detect the presence of copy number variation, it was not easy to screen an individual for the presence of unknown deletions or duplications with sizes below the level of sensitivity of optical microscopy (3–5 Mb). Now that currently available oligonucleotide micro-arrays have in excess of a million probes, the problem of copy number analysis has moved from one of data production to that of data analysis. We have developed CNViewer, to identify copy number variation that co-segregates with a disease phenotype in small nuclear families, from genome-wide oligonucleotide micro-array data. This freely available program should constitute a useful addition to the diagnostic armamentarium of clinical geneticists.

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<![CDATA[Detection, Analysis and Clinical Validation of Chromosomal Aberrations by Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification in Chronic Leukemia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da8dab0ee8fa60b9edb8

Current diagnostic screening strategies based on karyotyping or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for detection of chromosomal abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are laborious, time-consuming, costly, and have limitations in resolution. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) can simultaneously detect copy number changes of multiple loci in one simple PCR reaction, making it an attractive alternative to FISH. To enhance the clinical robustness and further harness MLPA technology for routine laboratory operations, we have developed and validated a protocol for comprehensive, automatic data analysis and interpretation. A training set of 50 normal samples was used to establish reference ranges for each individual probe, for the calling of statistically significant copy number changes. The maximum normal ranges of 2 and 3 standard deviations (SD) are distributed between 0.82 and 1.18 (Mean ± 2SD, 95% CI, P = 0.05), and between 0.73 and 1.27 (Mean ± 3SD, 99% CI, P = 0.01), respectively. We found an excellent correlation between MLPA and FISH with 93.6% concordance (P<0.0001) from a testing cohort of 100 clinically suspected CLL cases. MLPA analyses done on 94/100 patients showed sensitivity and specificity of 94.2% and 92.9%, respectively. MLPA detected additional copy number gains on 18q21.1 and chromosome 19, and novel micro-deletions at 19q13.43 and 19p13.2 loci in six samples. Three FISH-failed samples were tested positive by MLPA, while three 13q- cases with a low percentage of leukemia cells (7%, 12% and 19%) were not detected by MLPA. The improved CLL MLPA represents a high-throughput, accurate, cost-effective and user-friendly platform that can be used as a first-line screening test in a clinical laboratory.

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<![CDATA[Enhancer Chip: Detecting Human Copy Number Variations in Regulatory Elements]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db05ab0ee8fa60bc807d

Critical functional properties are embedded in the non-coding portion of the human genome. Recent successful studies have shown that variations in distant-acting gene enhancer sequences can contribute to disease. In fact, various disorders, such as thalassaemias, preaxial polydactyly or susceptibility to Hirschsprung’s disease, may be the result of rearrangements of enhancer elements. We have analyzed the distribution of enhancer loci in the genome and compared their localization to that of previously described copy-number variations (CNVs). These data suggest a negative selection of copy number variable enhancers. To identify CNVs covering enhancer elements, we have developed a simple and cost-effective test. Here we describe the gene selection, design strategy and experimental validation of a customized oligonucleotide Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH), designated Enhancer Chip. It has been designed to investigate CNVs, allowing the analysis of all the genome with a 300 Kb resolution and specific disease regions (telomeres, centromeres and selected disease loci) at a tenfold higher resolution. Moreover, this is the first aCGH able to test over 1,250 enhancers, in order to investigate their potential pathogenic role. Validation experiments have demonstrated that Enhancer Chip efficiently detects duplications and deletions covering enhancer loci, demonstrating that it is a powerful instrument to detect and characterize copy number variable enhancers.

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