ResearchPad - chromosome-mapping https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Genome-wide identification of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and expression profiling of <i>CmMAPKs</i> in melon (<i>Cucumis melo</i> L.)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14577 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a form of serine/threonine protein kinase that activated by extracellular stimulation acting through the MAPK cascade (MAPKKK-MAPKK-MAPK). The MAPK cascade gene family, an important family of protein kinases, plays a vital role in responding to various stresses and hormone signal transduction processes in plants. In this study, we identified 14 CmMAPKs, 6 CmMAPKKs and 64 CmMAPKKKs in melon genome. Based on structural characteristics and a comparison of phylogenetic relationships of MAPK gene families from Arabidopsis, cucumber and watermelon, CmMAPKs and CmMAPKKs were categorized into 4 groups, and CmMAPKKKs were categorized into 3 groups. Furthermore, chromosome location revealed an unevenly distribution on chromosomes of MAPK cascade genes in melon, respectively. Eventually, qRT-PCR analysis showed that all 14 CmMAPKs had different expression patterns under drought, salt, salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), red light (RL), and Podosphaera xanthii (P. xanthii) treatments. Overall, the expression levels of CmMAPK3 and CmMAPK7 under different treatments were higher than those in control. Our study provides an important basis for future functional verification of MAPK genes in regulating responses to stress and signal substance in melon.

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<![CDATA[A framework for gene mapping in wheat demonstrated using the Yr7 yellow rust resistance gene]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8aa5bdf2-6390-43c2-aef2-b7a76659179a

We used three approaches to map the yellow rust resistance gene Yr7 and identify associated SNPs in wheat. First, we used a traditional QTL mapping approach using a double haploid (DH) population and mapped Yr7 to a low-recombination region of chromosome 2B. To fine map the QTL, we then used an association mapping panel. Both populations were SNP array genotyped allowing alignment of QTL and genome-wide association scans based on common segregating SNPs. Analysis of the association panel spanning the QTL interval, narrowed the interval down to a single haplotype block. Finally, we used mapping-by-sequencing of resistant and susceptible DH bulks to identify a candidate gene in the interval showing high homology to a previously suggested Yr7 candidate and to populate the Yr7 interval with a higher density of polymorphisms. We highlight the power of combining mapping-by-sequencing, delivering a complete list of gene-based segregating polymorphisms in the interval with the high recombination, low LD precision of the association mapping panel. Our mapping-by-sequencing methodology is applicable to any trait and our results validate the approach in wheat, where with a near complete reference genome sequence, we are able to define a small interval containing the causative gene.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of genetic control and QTL mapping of essential wheat grain quality traits in a recombinant inbred population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897730d5eed0c4847d2663

Wheat cultivars are genetically crossed to improve end-use quality for traits as per demands of baking industry and broad consumer preferences. The processing and baking qualities of bread wheat are influenced by a variety of genetic make-ups, environmental factors and their interactions. Two wheat cultivars, WL711 and C306, derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs) with a population of 206, were used for phenotyping of quality-related traits. The genetic analysis of quality traits showed considerable variation for measurable quality traits, with normal distribution and transgressive segregation across the years. From the 206 RILs, few RILs were found to be superior to those of the parental cultivars for key quality traits, indicating their potential use for the improvement of end-use quality and suggesting the probability of finding new alleles and allelic combinations from the RIL population. Mapping analysis identified 38 putative QTLs for 13 quality-related traits, with QTLs explaining 7.9–16.8% phenotypic variation spanning over 14 chromosomes, i.e., 1A, 1B, 1D, 2A, 2D, 3B, 3D, 4A, 4B, 4D, 5D, 6A, 7A and 7B. In-silico analysis based on homology to the annotated wheat genes present in database, identified six putative candidate genes within QTL for total grain protein content, qGPC.1B.1 region. Major QTL regions for other quality traits such as TKW have been identified on 1B, 2A, and 7A chromosomes in the studied RIL population. This study revealed the importance of the combination of stable QTLs with region-specific QTLs for better phenotyping, and the QTLs presented in our study will be useful for the improvement of wheat grain and bread-making quality.

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<![CDATA[A novel resistance gene for bacterial blight in rice, Xa43(t) identified by GWAS, confirmed by QTL mapping using a bi-parental population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75dbd5eed0c4843d0337

Bacterial blight (BB) caused by the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) pathogen is a significant disease in most rice cultivation areas. The disease is estimated to cause annual rice production losses of 20–30 percent throughout rice-growing countries in Asia. The discovery and deployment of durable resistance genes for BB is an effective and sustainable means of mitigating production losses. In this study QTL analysis and fine mapping were performed using an F2 and a BC2F2 population derived from a cross with a new R-donor having broad spectrum resistance to Korean BB races. The QTL qBB11 was identified by composite interval mapping and explained 31.25% of the phenotypic variation (R2) with LOD values of 43.44 harboring two SNP markers. The single major R-gene was designated Xa43 (t). Through dissection of the target region we were able to narrow the region to within 27.83–27.95 Mbp, a physical interval of about 119-kb designated by the two flanking markers IBb27os11_14 and S_BB11.ssr_9. Of nine ORFs in the target region two ORFs revealed significantly different expression levels of the candidate genes. From these results we developed a marker specific to this R-gene, which will have utility for future BB resistance breeding and/or R-gene pyramiding using marker assisted selection. Further characterization of the R-gene would be helpful to enhance understanding of mechanisms of BB resistance in rice.

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<![CDATA[Fine mapping of the major QTL for seed coat color in Brassica rapa var. Yellow Sarson by use of NIL populations and transcriptome sequencing for identification of the candidate genes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e930d5eed0c48496f960

Yellow seed is a desirable trait in Brassica oilseed crops. The B. rapa var. Yellow Sarson carry unique yellow seed color genes which are not only important for the development of yellow-seeded oilseed B. rapa cultivars but this variant can also be used to develop yellow-seeded B. napus. In this study, we developed near-isogenic lines (NILs) of Yellow Sarson for the major seed coat color QTL SCA9-2 of the chromosome A9 and used the NILs to fine map this QTL region and to identify the candidate genes through linkage mapping and transcriptome sequencing of the developing seeds. From the 18.4 to 22.79 Mb region of SCA9-2, six SSR markers showing 0.63 to 5.65% recombination were developed through linkage analysis and physical mapping. A total of 55 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the SCA9-2 region through transcriptome analysis; these included three transcription factors, Bra028039 (NAC), Bra023223 (C2H2 type zinc finger), Bra032362 (TIFY), and several other genes which encode unknown or nucleic acid binding protein; these genes might be the candidates and involved in the regulation of seed coat color in the materials used in this study. Several biosynthetic pathways, including the flavonoid, phenylpropanoid and suberin biosynthetic pathways were significantly enriched through GO and KEGG enrichment analysis of the DEGs. This is the first comprehensive study to understand the yellow seed trait of Yellow Sarson through employing linkage mapping and global transcriptome analysis approaches.

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<![CDATA[Transcription of human endogenous retroviruses in human brain by RNA-seq analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b793d5eed0c484490502

Background

Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) comprise 8% of the human genome and can be classified into at least 31 families. Increased levels of transcripts from the W and H families of HERV have been observed in association with human diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia. Although HERV transcripts have been detected in many tissues and cell-types based on microarray and PCR studies, the extent of HERV expression in different cell-types and diseases state has been less comprehensively studied.

Results

We examined overall transcription of HERV, and particularly of HERV-W and HERV-H elements in human postmortem brain samples obtained from individuals with psychiatric diagnoses (n = 111) and healthy controls (n = 51) by analyzing publicly available RNA sequencing datasets. Sequence reads were aligned to prototypical sequences representing HERV, downloaded from Repbase. We reported a consistent expression (0.1~0.2% of mappable reads) of different HERV families across three regions of human brains. Spearman correlations revealed highly correlated expression levels between three brain regionsacross 475 consensus sequences. By mapping sequences that aligned to the consensus sequences of HERV-W and HERV-H families to individual loci on chromosome 7, more than 60 loci from each family were identified, part of which are being transcribed. The ERVWE1, locus located at chr7q21.2, exhibited high levels of transcription across the three datasets. Notably, we demonstrated a trend of increased expression of overall HERV, as well as HERV-W family in samples from both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients.

Conclusions

The current analyses indicate that RNA sequencing is a useful approach for investigating global expression of repetitive elements, such as HERV, in the human genome. HERV-W/H with the tendency of transcription up-regulation in patients suggests potential implication of HERV-W/H in psychiatric diseases.

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<![CDATA[Walking along chromosomes with super-resolution imaging, contact maps, and integrative modeling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2d2eb1d5eed0c484d9b21a

Chromosome organization is crucial for genome function. Here, we present a method for visualizing chromosomal DNA at super-resolution and then integrating Hi-C data to produce three-dimensional models of chromosome organization. Using the super-resolution microscopy methods of OligoSTORM and OligoDNA-PAINT, we trace 8 megabases of human chromosome 19, visualizing structures ranging in size from a few kilobases to over a megabase. Focusing on chromosomal regions that contribute to compartments, we discover distinct structures that, in spite of considerable variability, can predict whether such regions correspond to active (A-type) or inactive (B-type) compartments. Imaging through the depths of entire nuclei, we capture pairs of homologous regions in diploid cells, obtaining evidence that maternal and paternal homologous regions can be differentially organized. Finally, using restraint-based modeling to integrate imaging and Hi-C data, we implement a method–integrative modeling of genomic regions (IMGR)–to increase the genomic resolution of our traces to 10 kb.

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<![CDATA[Efficient algorithms for Longest Common Subsequence of two bucket orders to speed up pairwise genetic map comparison]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2e7ff1d5eed0c48451c5d0

Genetic maps order genetic markers along chromosomes. They are, for instance, extensively used in marker-assisted selection to accelerate breeding programs. Even for the same species, people often have to deal with several alternative maps obtained using different ordering methods or different datasets, e.g. resulting from different segregating populations. Having efficient tools to identify the consistency and discrepancy of alternative maps is thus essential to facilitate genetic map comparisons. We propose to encode genetic maps by bucket order, a kind of order, which takes into account the blurred parts of the marker order while being an efficient data structure to achieve low complexity algorithms. The main result of this paper is an O(n log(n)) procedure to identify the largest agreements between two bucket orders of n elements, their Longest Common Subsequence (LCS), providing an efficient solution to highlight discrepancies between two genetic maps. The LCS of two maps, being the largest set of their collinear markers, is used as a building block to compute pairwise map congruence, to visually emphasize maker collinearity and in some scaffolding methods relying on genetic maps to improve genome assembly. As the LCS computation is a key subroutine of all these genetic map related tools, replacing the current LCS subroutine of those methods by ours –to do the exact same work but faster– could significantly speed up those methods without changing their accuracy. To ease such transition we provide all required algorithmic details in this self contained paper as well as an R package implementing them, named LCSLCIS, which is freely available at: https://github.com/holtzy/LCSLCIS.

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<![CDATA[Chain organization of human interphase chromosome determines the spatiotemporal dynamics of chromatin loci]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ed753d5eed0c484f13f19

We investigate spatiotemporal dynamics of human interphase chromosomes by employing a heteropolymer model that incorporates the information of human chromosomes inferred from Hi-C data. Despite considerable heterogeneities in the chromosome structures generated from our model, chromatins are organized into crumpled globules with space-filling (SF) statistics characterized by a single universal scaling exponent (ν = 1/3), and this exponent alone can offer a quantitative account of experimentally observed, many different features of chromosome dynamics. The local chromosome structures, whose scale corresponds to that of topologically associated domains (∼ 0.1 − 1 Mb), display dynamics with a fast relaxation time (≲ 1 − 10 sec); in contrast, the long-range spatial reorganization of the entire chromatin (O(102) Mb) occurs on a much slower time scale (≳ hour), providing the dynamic basis of cell-to-cell variability and glass-like behavior of chromosomes. Biological activities, modeled using stronger isotropic white noises added to active loci, accelerate the relaxation dynamics of chromatin domains associated with the low frequency modes and induce phase segregation between the active and inactive loci. Surprisingly, however, they do not significantly change the dynamics at local scales from those obtained under passive conditions. Our study underscores the role of chain organization of chromosome in determining the spatiotemporal dynamics of chromatin loci.

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<![CDATA[Is the Karyotype of Neotropical Boid Snakes Really Conserved? Cytotaxonomy, Chromosomal Rearrangements and Karyotype Organization in the Boidae Family]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da2aab0ee8fa60b82242

Boids are primitive snakes from a basal lineage that is widely distributed in Neotropical region. Many of these species are both morphologically and biogeographically divergent, and the relationship among some species remains uncertain even with evolutionary and phylogenetic studies being proposed for the group. For a better understanding of the evolutionary relationship between these snakes, we cytogenetically analysed 7 species and 3 subspecies of Neotropical snakes from the Boidae family using different chromosomal markers. The karyotypes of Boa constrictor occidentalis, Corallus hortulanus, Eunectes notaeus, Epicrates cenchria and Epicrates assisi are presented here for the first time with the redescriptions of the karyotypes of Boa constrictor constrictor, B. c. amarali, Eunectes murinus and Epicrates crassus. The three subspecies of Boa, two species of Eunectes and three species of Epicrates exhibit 2n = 36 chromosomes. In contrast, C. hortulanus presented a totally different karyotype composition for the Boidae family, showing 2n = 40 chromosomes with a greater number of macrochromosomes. Furthermore, chromosomal mapping of telomeric sequences revealed the presence of interstitial telomeric sites (ITSs) on many chromosomes in addition to the terminal markings on all chromosomes of all taxa analysed, with the exception of E. notaeus. Thus, we demonstrate that the karyotypes of these snakes are not as highly conserved as previously thought. Moreover, we provide an overview of the current cytotaxonomy of the group.

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<![CDATA[Construction of High-Density Linkage Maps of Populus deltoides × P. simonii Using Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db2cab0ee8fa60bd1673

Although numerous linkage maps have been constructed in the genus Populus, they are typically sparse and thus have limited applications due to low throughput of traditional molecular markers. Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq) technology allows us to identify a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) across genomes of many individuals in a fast and cost-effective way, and makes it possible to construct high-density genetic linkage maps. We performed RADSeq for 299 progeny and their two parents in an F1 hybrid population generated by crossing the female Populus deltoides ‘I-69’ and male Populus simonii ‘L3’. A total of 2,545 high quality SNP markers were obtained and two parent-specific linkage maps were constructed. The female genetic map contained 1601 SNPs and 20 linkage groups, spanning 4,249.12 cM of the genome with an average distance of 2.69 cM between adjacent markers, while the male map consisted of 940 SNPs and also 20 linkage groups with a total length of 3,816.24 cM and an average marker interval distance of 4.15 cM. Finally, our analysis revealed that synteny and collinearity are highly conserved between the parental linkage maps and the reference genome of P. trichocarpa. We demonstrated that RAD sequencing is a powerful technique capable of rapidly generating a large number of SNPs for constructing genetic maps in outbred forest trees. The high-quality linkage maps constructed here provided reliable genetic resources to facilitate locating quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control growth and wood quality traits in the hybrid population.

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<![CDATA[HvDep1 Is a Positive Regulator of Culm Elongation and Grain Size in Barley and Impacts Yield in an Environment-Dependent Manner]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da5eab0ee8fa60b907c5

Heterotrimeric G proteins are intracellular membrane-attached signal transducers involved in various cellular processes in both plants and animals. They consist of three subunits denoted as α, β and γ. The γ-subunits of the so-called AGG3 type, which comprise a transmembrane domain, are exclusively found in plants. In model species, these proteins have been shown to participate in the control of plant height, branching and seed size and could therefore impact the harvestable yield of various crop plants. Whether AGG3-type γ-subunits influence yield in temperate cereals like barley and wheat remains unknown. Using a transgenic complementation approach, we show here that the Scottish malting barley cultivar (cv.) Golden Promise carries a loss-of-function mutation in HvDep1, an AGG3-type subunit encoding gene that positively regulates culm elongation and seed size in barley. Somewhat intriguingly, agronomic field data collected over a 12-year period reveals that the HvDep1 loss-of-function mutation in cv. Golden Promise has the potential to confer either a significant increase or decrease in harvestable yield depending on the environment. Our results confirm the role of AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes in shaping plant architecture, but interestingly also indicate that the impact HvDep1 has on yield in barley is both genotypically and environmentally sensitive. This may explain why widespread exploitation of variation in AGG3-type subunit-encoding genes has not occurred in temperate cereals while in rice the DEP1 locus is widely exploited to improve harvestable yield.

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<![CDATA[QTLs associated with agronomic traits in the Attila × CDC Go spring wheat population evaluated under conventional management]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb91d

Recently, we investigated the effect of the wheat 90K single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) array and three gene-specific (Ppd-D1, Vrn-A1 and Rht-B1) markers on quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection in a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from a cross between two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ‘Attila’ and ‘CDC Go’, and evaluated for eight agronomic traits at three environments under organic management. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of conventional management on QTL detection in the same mapping population using the same set of markers as the organic management and compare the results with organic management. Here, we evaluated 167 RILs for number of tillers (tillering), flowering time, maturity, plant height, test weight (grain volume weight), 1000 kernel weight, grain yield, and grain protein content at seven conventionally managed environments from 2008 to 2014. Using inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) on phenotypic data averaged across seven environments and a subset of 1203 informative markers (1200 SNPs and 3 gene specific markers), we identified a total of 14 QTLs associated with flowering time (1), maturity (2), plant height (1), grain yield (1), test weight (2), kernel weight (4), tillering (1) and grain protein content (2). Each QTL individually explained from 6.1 to 18.4% of the phenotypic variance. Overall, the QTLs associated with each trait explained from 9.7 to 35.4% of the phenotypic and from 22.1 to 90.8% of the genetic variance. Three chromosomal regions on chromosomes 2D (61–66 cM), 4B (80–82 cM) and 5A (296–297 cM) harbored clusters of QTLs associated with two to three traits. The coincidental region on chromosome 5A harbored QTL clusters for both flowering and maturity time, and mapped about 2 cM proximal to the Vrn-A1 gene, which was in high linkage disequilibrium (0.70 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.75) with SNP markers that mapped within the QTL confidence interval. Six of the 14 QTLs (one for flowering time and plant height each, and two for maturity and kernel weight each) were common between the conventional and organic management systems, which suggests issues in directly utilizing gene discovery results based on conventional management to make in detail selection (decision) for organic management.

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<![CDATA[Exploiting repetitive sequences and BAC clones in Festuca pratensis karyotyping]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5dab0ee8fa60be040e

The Festuca genus is thought to be the most numerous genus of the Poaceae family. One of the most agronomically important forage grasses, Festuca pratensis Huds. is treated as a model plant to study the molecular mechanisms associated with tolerance to winter stresses, including frost. However, the precise mapping of the genes governing stress tolerance in this species is difficult as its karyotype remains unrecognized. Only two F. pratensis chromosomes with 35S and 5S rDNA sequences can be easily identified, but its remaining chromosomes have not been distinguished to date. Here, two libraries derived from F. pratensis nuclear DNA with various contents of repetitive DNA sequences were used as sources of molecular probes for fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH), a BAC library and a library representing sequences most frequently present in the F. pratensis genome. Using FISH, six groups of DNA sequences were revealed in chromosomes on the basis of their signal position, including dispersed-like sequences, chromosome painting-like sequences, centromeric-like sequences, knob-like sequences, a group without hybridization signals, and single locus-like sequences. The last group was exploited to develop cytogenetic maps of diploid and tetraploid F. pratensis, which are presented here for the first time and provide a remarkable progress in karyotype characterization.

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<![CDATA[Identification and evaluation of resistance to powdery mildew and yellow rust in a wheat mapping population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60bdff86

Deployment of cultivars with genetic resistance is an effective approach to control the diseases of powdery mildew (PM) and yellow rust (YR). Chinese wheat cultivar XK0106 exhibits high levels of resistance to both diseases, while cultivar E07901 has partial, adult plant resistance (APR). The aim of this study was to map resistance loci derived from the two cultivars and analyze their effects against PM and YR in a range of environments. A doubled haploid population (388 lines) was used to develop a framework map consisting of 117 SSR markers, while a much higher density map using the 90K Illumina iSelect SNP array was produced with a subset of 80 randomly selected lines. Seedling resistance was characterized against a range of PM and YR isolates, while field scores in multiple environments were used to characterize APR. Composite interval mapping (CIM) of seedling PM scores identified two QTLs (QPm.haas-6A and QPm.haas-2A), the former being located at the Pm21 locus. These QTLs were also significant in field scores, as were Qpm.haas-3A and QPm.haas-5A. QYr.haas-1B-1 and QYr.haas-2A were identified in field scores of YR and were located at the Yr24/26 and Yr17 chromosomal regions respectively. A second 1B QTL, QYr.haas-1B-2 was also identified. QPm.haas-2A and QYr.haas-1B-2 are likely to be new QTLs that have not been previously identified. Effects of the QTLs were further investigated in multiple environments through the testing of selected lines predicted to contain various QTL combinations. Significant additive interactions between the PM QTLs highlighted the ability to pyramid these loci to provide higher level of resistance. Interactions between the YR QTLs gave insights into the pathogen populations in the different locations as well as showing genetic interactions between these loci.

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<![CDATA[Meta-QTL for resistance to white mold in common bean]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc84f

White mold, caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a major disease that limits common bean production and quality worldwide. The host-pathogen interaction is complex, with partial resistance in the host inherited as a quantitative trait with low to moderate heritability. Our objective was to identify meta-QTL conditioning partial resistance to white mold from individual QTL identified across multiple populations and environments. The physical positions for 37 individual QTL were identified across 14 recombinant inbred bi-parental populations (six new, three re-genotyped, and five from the literature). A meta-QTL analysis of the 37 QTL was conducted using the genetic linkage map of Stampede x Red Hawk population as the reference. The 37 QTL condensed into 17 named loci (12 previously named and five new) of which nine were defined as meta-QTL WM1.1, WM2.2, WM3.1, WM5.4, WM6.2, WM7.1, WM7.4, WM7.5, and WM8.3. The nine meta-QTL had confidence intervals ranging from 0.65 to 9.41 Mb. Candidate genes shown to express under S. sclerotiorum infection in other studies, including cell wall receptor kinase, COI1, ethylene responsive transcription factor, peroxidase, and MYB transcription factor, were found within the confidence interval for five of the meta-QTL. The nine meta-QTL are recommended as potential targets for MAS for partial resistance to white mold in common bean.

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<![CDATA[Fine Mapping and Whole-Genome Resequencing Identify the Seed Coat Color Gene in Brassica rapa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabbab0ee8fa60baeb6b

A yellow seed coat is a desirable agronomic trait in the seeds of oilseed-type Brassica crops. In this study, we identified a candidate gene for seed coat color in Dahuang, a landrace of Brassica rapa. A previous study of Dahuang mapped the seed coat color gene Brsc1 to a 2.8-Mb interval on chromosome A9 of B. rapa. In the present study, the density of the linkage map for Brsc1 was increased by adding simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and the candidate region for Brsc1 was narrowed to 1.04 Mb. In addition, whole-genome resequencing with bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was conducted to identify candidate intervals for Brsc1. A genome-wide comparison of SNP profiles was performed between yellow-seeded and brown-seeded bulk samples. SNP index analyses identified a major candidate interval on chromosome A9 (A09:18,255,838–18,934,000, 678 kb) containing a long overlap with the target region recovered from the fine mapping results. According to gene annotation, Bra028067 (BrTT1) is an important candidate gene for Brsc1 in the overlapping region. Quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR revealed that BrTT1 mainly functions in the seed. Point mutations and small deletions in BrTT1 were found between yellow- and brown-seeded Dahuang plants. Collectively, the expression and sequence analysis results provide preliminary evidence that BrTT1 is a candidate gene for the seed coat color trait in Dahuang.

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<![CDATA[High density mapping and haplotype analysis of the major stem-solidness locus SSt1 in durum and common wheat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdccd5

Breeding for solid-stemmed durum (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) and common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars is one strategy to minimize yield losses caused by the wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Norton). Major stem-solidness QTL have been localized to the long arm of chromosome 3B in both wheat species, but it is unclear if these QTL span a common genetic interval. In this study, we have improved the resolution of the QTL on chromosome 3B in a durum (Kofa/W9262-260D3) and common wheat (Lillian/Vesper) mapping population. Coincident QTL (LOD = 94–127, R2 = 78–92%) were localized near the telomere of chromosome 3BL in both mapping populations, which we designate SSt1. We further examined the SSt1 interval by using available consensus maps for durum and common wheat and compared genetic to physical intervals by anchoring markers to the current version of the wild emmer wheat (WEW) reference sequence. These results suggest that the SSt1 interval spans a physical distance of 1.6 Mb in WEW (positions 833.4–835.0 Mb). In addition, minor QTL were identified on chromosomes 2A, 2D, 4A, and 5A that were found to synergistically enhance expression of SSt1 to increase stem-solidness. These results suggest that developing new wheat cultivars with improved stem-solidness is possible by combining SSt1 with favorable alleles at minor loci within both wheat species.

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<![CDATA[Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Anther Extrusion in Hexaploid Spring Wheat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da69ab0ee8fa60b92939

In a number of crop species hybrids are able to outperform line varieties. The anthers of the autogamous bread wheat plant are normally extruded post anthesis, a trait which is unfavourable for the production of F1 hybrid grain. Higher anther extrusion (AE) promotes cross fertilization for more efficient hybrid seed production. Therefore, this study aimed at the genetic dissection of AE by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and determination of the main effect QTL. We applied GWAS approach to identify DArT markers potentially linked to AE to unfold its genetic basis in a panel of spring wheat accessions. Phenotypic data were collected for three years and best linear unbiased estimate (BLUE) values were calculated across all years. The extent of the AE correlation between growing years and BLUE values ranged from r = +0.56 (2013 vs 2015) to 0.91 (2014 vs BLUE values). The broad sense heritability was 0.84 across all years. Six accessions displayed stable AE >80% across all the years. Genotyping data included 2,575 DArT markers (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied). AE was influenced both by genotype and by the growing environment. In all, 131 significant marker trait associations (MTAs) (|log10 (P)| >FDR) were established for AE. AE behaved as a quantitative trait, with five consistently significant markers (significant across at least two years with a significant BLUE value) contributing a minor to modest proportion (4.29% to 8.61%) of the phenotypic variance and affecting the trait either positively or negatively. For this reason, there is potential for breeding for improved AE by gene pyramiding. The consistently significant markers linked to AE could be helpful for marker assisted selection to transfer AE to high yielding varieties allowing to promote the exploitation of hybrid-heterosis in the key crop wheat.

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<![CDATA[Genome-Wide Association Study for Indicator Traits of Sexual Precocity in Nellore Cattle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da95ab0ee8fa60ba1a69

The objective of this study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to detect chromosome regions associated with indicator traits of sexual precocity in Nellore cattle. Data from Nellore animals belonging to farms which participate in the DeltaGen® and Paint® animal breeding programs, were used. The traits used in this study were the occurrence of early pregnancy (EP) and scrotal circumference (SC). Data from 72,675 females and 83,911 males with phenotypes were used; of these, 1,770 females and 1,680 males were genotyped. The SNP effects were estimated with a single-step procedure (WssGBLUP) and the observed phenotypes were used as dependent variables. All animals with available genotypes and phenotypes, in addition to those with only phenotypic information, were used. A single-trait animal model was applied to predict breeding values and the solutions of SNP effects were obtained from these breeding values. The results of GWAS are reported as the proportion of variance explained by windows with 150 adjacent SNPs. The 10 windows that explained the highest proportion of variance were identified. The results of this study indicate the polygenic nature of EP and SC, demonstrating that the indicator traits of sexual precocity studied here are probably controlled by many genes, including some of moderate effect. The 10 windows with large effects obtained for EP are located on chromosomes 5, 6, 7, 14, 18, 21 and 27, and together explained 7.91% of the total genetic variance. For SC, these windows are located on chromosomes 4, 8, 11, 13, 14, 19, 22 and 23, explaining 6.78% of total variance. GWAS permitted to identify chromosome regions associated with EP and SC. The identification of these regions contributes to a better understanding and evaluation of these traits, and permits to indicate candidate genes for future investigation of causal mutations.

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