ResearchPad - circadian-oscillators https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Quantitative live imaging of Venus::BMAL1 in a mouse model reveals complex dynamics of the master circadian clock regulator]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13838 Cell-autonomous circadian clocks are transcriptional/translational feedback loops that co-ordinate almost all mammalian physiology and behaviour. Although their genetic basis is well understood, we are largely ignorant of the natural behaviour of clock proteins and how they work within these loops. This is particularly true for the essential transcriptional activator BMAL1. To address this, we created and validated a mouse carrying a fully functional knock-in allele that encodes a fluorescent fusion of BMAL1 (Venus::BMAL1). Quantitative live imaging in tissue explants and cells, including the central clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), revealed the circadian expression, nuclear-cytoplasmic mobility, fast kinetics and surprisingly low molecular abundance of endogenous BMAL1, providing significant quantitative insights into the intracellular mechanisms of circadian timing at single-cell resolution.

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<![CDATA[Podocyte RNA sequencing reveals Wnt- and ECM-associated genes as central in FSGS]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nff231b2e-f2d8-47eb-acf2-c510faf35a1a

Loss of podocyte differentiation can cause nephrotic-range proteinuria and Focal and Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). As specific therapy is still lacking, FSGS frequently progresses to end-stage renal disease. The exact molecular mechanisms of FSGS and gene expression changes in podocytes are complex and widely unknown as marker changes have mostly been assessed on the glomerular level. To gain a better insight, we isolated podocytes of miR-193a overexpressing mice, which suffer from FSGS due to suppression of the podocyte master regulator Wt1. We characterised the podocytic gene expression changes by RNAseq and identified many novel candidate genes not linked to FSGS so far. This included strong upregulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA6 and a massive dysregulation of circadian genes including the loss of the transcriptional activator Arntl. By comparison with podocyte-specific changes in other FSGS models we found a shared dysregulation of genes associated with the Wnt signaling cascade, while classical podocyte-specific genes appeared widely unaltered. An overlap with gene expression screens from human FSGS patients revealed a strong enrichment in genes associated with extra-cellular matrix (ECM) and metabolism. Our data suggest that FSGS progression might frequently depend on pathways that are often overlooked when considering podocyte homeostasis.

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<![CDATA[O-GlcNAcylation of PERIOD regulates its interaction with CLOCK and timing of circadian transcriptional repression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca281d5eed0c48441e509

Circadian clocks coordinate time-of-day-specific metabolic and physiological processes to maximize organismal performance and fitness. In addition to light and temperature, which are regarded as strong zeitgebers for circadian clock entrainment, metabolic input has now emerged as an important signal for clock entrainment and modulation. Circadian clock proteins have been identified to be substrates of O-GlcNAcylation, a nutrient sensitive post-translational modification (PTM), and the interplay between clock protein O-GlcNAcylation and other PTMs is now recognized as an important mechanism by which metabolic input regulates circadian physiology. To better understand the role of O-GlcNAcylation in modulating clock protein function within the molecular oscillator, we used mass spectrometry proteomics to identify O-GlcNAcylation sites of PERIOD (PER), a repressor of the circadian transcriptome and a critical biochemical timer of the Drosophila clock. In vivo functional characterization of PER O-GlcNAcylation sites indicates that O-GlcNAcylation at PER(S942) reduces interactions between PER and CLOCK (CLK), the key transcriptional activator of clock-controlled genes. Since we observe a correlation between clock-controlled daytime feeding activity and higher level of PER O-GlcNAcylation, we propose that PER(S942) O-GlcNAcylation during the day functions to prevent premature initiation of circadian repression phase. This is consistent with the period-shortening behavioral phenotype of per(S942A) flies. Taken together, our results support that clock-controlled feeding activity provides metabolic signals to reinforce light entrainment to regulate circadian physiology at the post-translational level. The interplay between O-GlcNAcylation and other PTMs to regulate circadian physiology is expected to be complex and extensive, and reach far beyond the molecular oscillator.

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<![CDATA[Dynamical differential expression (DyDE) reveals the period control mechanisms of the Arabidopsis circadian oscillator]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca30ed5eed0c48441f086

The circadian oscillator, an internal time-keeping device found in most organisms, enables timely regulation of daily biological activities by maintaining synchrony with the external environment. The mechanistic basis underlying the adjustment of circadian rhythms to changing external conditions, however, has yet to be clearly elucidated. We explored the mechanism of action of nicotinamide in Arabidopsis thaliana, a metabolite that lengthens the period of circadian rhythms, to understand the regulation of circadian period. To identify the key mechanisms involved in the circadian response to nicotinamide, we developed a systematic and practical modeling framework based on the identification and comparison of gene regulatory dynamics. Our mathematical predictions, confirmed by experimentation, identified key transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of circadian period and uncovered the role of blue light in the response of the circadian oscillator to nicotinamide. We suggest that our methodology could be adapted to predict mechanisms of drug action in complex biological systems.

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<![CDATA[Coherency of circadian rhythms in the SCN is governed by the interplay of two coupling factors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c18139dd5eed0c4847755e7

Circadian clocks are autonomous oscillators driving daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. In mammals, a network of coupled neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is entrained to environmental light-dark cycles and orchestrates the timing of peripheral organs. In each neuron, transcriptional feedbacks generate noisy oscillations. Coupling mediated by neuropeptides such as VIP and AVP lends precision and robustness to circadian rhythms. The detailed coupling mechanisms between SCN neurons are debated. We analyze organotypic SCN slices from neonatal and adult mice in wild-type and multiple knockout conditions. Different degrees of rhythmicity are quantified by pixel-level analysis of bioluminescence data. We use empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) to characterize spatio-temporal patterns. Simulations of coupled stochastic single cell oscillators can reproduce the diversity of observed patterns. Our combination of data analysis and modeling provides deeper insight into the enormous complexity of the data: (1) Neonatal slices are typically stronger oscillators than adult slices pointing to developmental changes of coupling. (2) Wild-type slices are completely synchronized and exhibit specific spatio-temporal patterns of phases. (3) Some slices of Cry double knockouts obey impaired synchrony that can lead to co–existing rhythms (“splitting”). (4) The loss of VIP-coupling leads to desynchronized rhythms with few residual local clusters. Additional information was extracted from co–culturing slices with rhythmic neonatal wild-type SCNs. These co–culturing experiments were simulated using external forcing terms representing VIP and AVP signaling. The rescue of rhythmicity via co–culturing lead to surprising results, since a cocktail of AVP-antagonists improved synchrony. Our modeling suggests that these counter-intuitive observations are pointing to an antagonistic action of VIP and AVP coupling. Our systematic theoretical and experimental study shows that dual coupling mechanisms can explain the astonishing complexity of spatio-temporal patterns in SCN slices.

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<![CDATA[Insulin signaling and reduced glucocorticoid receptor activity attenuate postprandial gene expression in liver]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1813afd5eed0c484775904

Hepatic circadian gene transcription is tightly coupled to feeding behavior, which has a profound impact on metabolic disorders associated with diet-induced obesity. Here, we describe a genomics approach to uncover mechanisms controlling hepatic postprandial gene expression. Combined transcriptomic and cistromic analysis identified hundreds of circadian-regulated genes and enhancers controlled by feeding. Postprandial suppression of enhancer activity was associated with reduced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) occupancy of chromatin correlating with reduced serum corticosterone levels and increased serum insulin levels. Despite substantial co-occupancy of feeding-regulated enhancers by GR and FOXO1, selective disruption of corticosteroid and/or insulin signaling resulted in dysregulation of specific postprandial regulated gene programs. In combination, these signaling pathways operate a major part of the genes suppressed by feeding. Importantly, the feeding response was disrupted in diet-induced obese animals, which was associated with dysregulation of several corticosteroid- and insulin-regulated genes, providing mechanistic insights to dysregulated circadian gene transcription associated with obesity.

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<![CDATA[JMJD5 links CRY1 function and proteasomal degradation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ae426d5eed0c484589014

The circadian oscillator is a molecular feedback circuit whose orchestration involves posttranslational control of the activity and protein levels of its components. Although controlled proteolysis of circadian proteins is critical for oscillator function, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains incomplete. Here, we report that JmjC domain–containing protein 5 (JMJD5) interacts with CRYPTOCHROME 1 (CRY1) in an F-box/leucine-rich repeat protein 3 (FBXL3)-dependent manner and facilitates targeting of CRY1 to the proteasome. Genetic deletion of JMJD5 results in greater CRY1 stability, reduced CRY1 association with the proteasome, and disruption of circadian gene expression. We also report that in the absence of JMJD5, AMP-regulated protein kinase (AMPK)-induced CRY1 degradation is impaired, establishing JMJD5 as a key player in this mechanism. JMJD5 cooperates with CRY1 to repress circadian locomotor output cycles protein kaput (CLOCK)–brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1 (BMAL1), thus linking CRY1 destabilization to repressive function. Finally, we find that ablation of JMJD5 impacts FBXL3- and CRY1-related functions beyond the oscillator.

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<![CDATA[Morning boost on individuals’ psychophysiological wellbeing indicators with supportive, dynamic lighting in windowless open-plan workplace in Malaysia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c305a1bd5eed0c484ba8af9

Workplace architectural lighting conditions that are biologically dim during the day are causing healthy individuals to experience light-induced health and performance-related problems. Dynamic lighting was reported beneficial in supporting individuals’ psychological behavior and physiological responses during work period in Europe. It has yet to be investigated in workplaces with minimal/no natural daylight contribution in tropical Malaysia. Hence, an exploratory experimental study was initiated in an experimental windowless open-plan workplace in Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang. The aim was to identify dynamic lighting configurations that were more supportive of a morning boosting effect than the control constant lighting, to support dayshift individuals’ psychophysiological wellbeing indicators during the peak morning work period. The immediate impact of a 2-hour morning exposure to overhead white LED (6500 K) with different horizontal illuminance levels and oscillations (lighting patterns) were investigated on physiological indicator limited to urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, and psychological indicators for alertness, mood, visual comfort, cognitive and visual task performance. Not all of the investigated dynamic lighting configurations were supportive of a morning boost. Only configurations 500increased to750 and 500increased to1000 lx therapeutically supported most of the indicators. Both these configurations suppressed urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, and improved alertness, cognitive performance, positive affect, and visual comfort better than ‘visit 1: 500constant500’ lx (control). The increasing oscillation was observed more beneficial for the morning boost in tropical Malaysia, which is in reverse to that specified in the human rhythmic dynamic lighting protocol developed by researchers from the Netherlands for application during winter. The findings from this study present the feasibility of dynamic architectural lighting acting as an environmental therapeutic solution in supporting the individuals’ psychophysiological wellbeing indicators in windowless open-plan workplace in tropical Malaysia. Further investigations on the two prospective configurations are recommended to determine the better supportive one for the morning boosting effect in Malaysia.

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<![CDATA[Modulation of miR-210 alters phasing of circadian locomotor activity and impairs projections of PDF clock neurons in Drosophila melanogaster]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b600749463d7e39c55261fd

Single microRNAs are usually associated with hundreds of putative target genes that can influence multiple phenotypic traits in Drosophila, ranging from development to behaviour. We investigated the function of Drosophila miR-210 in circadian behaviour by misexpressing it within circadian clock cells. Manipulation of miR-210 expression levels in the PDF (pigment dispersing factor) positive neurons affected the phase of locomotor activity, under both light-dark conditions and constant darkness. PER cyclical expression was not affected in clock neurons, however, when miR-210 was up-regulated, a dramatic alteration in the morphology of PDF ventral lateral neuron (LNv) arborisations was observed. The effect of miR-210 in shaping neuronal projections was confirmed in vitro, using a Drosophila neuronal cell line. A transcriptomic analysis revealed that miR-210 overexpression affects the expression of several genes belonging to pathways related to circadian processes, neuronal development, GTPases signal transduction and photoreception. Collectively, these data reveal the role of miR-210 in modulating circadian outputs in flies and guiding/remodelling PDF positive LNv arborisations and indicate that miR-210 may have pleiotropic effects on the clock, light perception and neuronal development.

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<![CDATA[Altered Entrainment to the Day/Night Cycle Attenuates the Daily Rise in Circulating Corticosterone in the Mouse]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db47ab0ee8fa60bd8e75

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a circadian oscillator entrained to the day/night cycle via input from the retina. Serotonin (5-HT) afferents to the SCN modulate retinal signals via activation of 5-HT1B receptors, decreasing responsiveness to light. Consequently, 5-HT1B receptor knockout (KO) mice entrain to the day/night cycle with delayed activity onsets. Since circulating corticosterone levels exhibit a robust daily rhythm peaking around activity onset, we asked whether delayed entrainment of activity onsets affects rhythmic corticosterone secretion. Wheel-running activity and plasma corticosterone were monitored in mice housed under several different lighting regimens. Both duration of the light∶dark cycle (T cycle) and the duration of light within that cycle was altered. 5-HT1B KO mice that entrained to a 9.5L:13.5D (short day in a T = 23 h) cycle with activity onsets delayed more than 4 h after light offset exhibited a corticosterone rhythm in phase with activity rhythms but reduced 50% in amplitude compared to animals that initiated daily activity <4 h after light offset. Wild type mice in 8L:14D (short day in a T = 22 h) conditions with highly delayed activity onsets also exhibited a 50% reduction in peak plasma corticosterone levels. Exogenous adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) stimulation in animals exhibiting highly delayed entrainment suggested that the endogenous rhythm of adrenal responsiveness to ACTH remained aligned with SCN-driven behavioral activity. Circadian clock gene expression in the adrenal cortex of these same animals suggested that the adrenal circadian clock was also aligned with SCN-driven behavior. Under T cycles <24 h, altered circadian entrainment to short day (winter-like) conditions, manifest as long delays in activity onset after light offset, severely reduces the amplitude of the diurnal rhythm of plasma corticosterone. Such a pronounced reduction in the glucocorticoid rhythm may alter rhythmic gene expression in the central nervous system and in peripheral organs contributing to an array of potential pathophysiologies.

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<![CDATA[Diurnal Variation of Tight Junction Integrity Associates Inversely with Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Xenopus laevis Corneal Epithelium: Implications for Circadian Regulation of Homeostatic Surface Cell Desquamation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdb77e

Background and Objectives

The corneal epithelium provides a protective barrier against pathogen entrance and abrasive forces, largely due to the intercellular junctional complexes between neighboring cells. After a prescribed duration at the corneal surface, tight junctions between squamous surface cells must be disrupted to enable them to desquamate as a component of the tissue homeostatic renewal. We hypothesize that matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) are secreted by corneal epithelial cells and cleave intercellular junctional proteins extracellularly at the epithelial surface. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of specific MMPs and tight junction proteins during both the light and dark phases of the circadian cycle, and to assess their temporal and spatial relationships in the Xenopus laevis corneal epithelium.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Expression of MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of MMP-2 (TIMP-2), membrane type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP) and the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-4 were examined by confocal double-label immunohistochemistry on corneas obtained from Xenopus frogs at different circadian times. Occludin and claudin-4 expression was generally uniformly intact on the surface corneal epithelial cell lateral membranes during the daytime, but was frequently disrupted in small clusters of cells at night. Concomitantly, MMP-2 expression was often elevated in a mosaic pattern at nighttime and associated with clusters of desquamating surface cells. The MMP-2 binding partners, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP were also localized to surface corneal epithelial cells during both the light and dark phases, with TIMP-2 tending to be elevated during the daytime.

Conclusions/Significance

MMP-2 protein expression is elevated in a mosaic pattern in surface corneal epithelial cells during the nighttime in Xenopus laevis, and may play a role in homeostatic surface cell desquamation by disrupting intercellular junctional proteins. The sequence of MMP secretion and activation, tight junction protein cleavage, and subsequent surface cell desquamation and renewal may be orchestrated by nocturnal circadian signals.

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<![CDATA[Relationships between the Circadian System and Alzheimer's Disease-Like Symptoms in Drosophila]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daccab0ee8fa60bb4aca

Circadian clocks coordinate physiological, neurological, and behavioral functions into circa 24 hour rhythms, and the molecular mechanisms underlying circadian clock oscillations are conserved from Drosophila to humans. Clock oscillations and clock-controlled rhythms are known to dampen during aging; additionally, genetic or environmental clock disruption leads to accelerated aging and increased susceptibility to age-related pathologies. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), are associated with a decay of circadian rhythms, but it is not clear whether circadian disruption accelerates neuronal and motor decline associated with these diseases. To address this question, we utilized transgenic Drosophila expressing various Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, which are prone to form aggregates characteristic of AD pathology in humans. We compared development of AD-like symptoms in adult flies expressing Aβ peptides in the wild type background and in flies with clocks disrupted via a null mutation in the clock gene period (per01). No significant differences were observed in longevity, climbing ability and brain neurodegeneration levels between control and clock-deficient flies, suggesting that loss of clock function does not exacerbate pathogenicity caused by human-derived Aβ peptides in flies. However, AD-like pathologies affected the circadian system in aging flies. We report that rest/activity rhythms were impaired in an age-dependent manner. Flies expressing the highly pathogenic arctic Aβ peptide showed a dramatic degradation of these rhythms in tune with their reduced longevity and impaired climbing ability. At the same time, the central pacemaker remained intact in these flies providing evidence that expression of Aβ peptides causes rhythm degradation downstream from the central clock mechanism.

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<![CDATA[Genetically Blocking the Zebrafish Pineal Clock Affects Circadian Behavior]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad2ab0ee8fa60bb69de

The master circadian clock in fish has been considered to reside in the pineal gland. This dogma is challenged, however, by the finding that most zebrafish tissues contain molecular clocks that are directly reset by light. To further examine the role of the pineal gland oscillator in the zebrafish circadian system, we generated a transgenic line in which the molecular clock is selectively blocked in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland by a dominant-negative strategy. As a result, clock-controlled rhythms of melatonin production in the adult pineal gland were disrupted. Moreover, transcriptome analysis revealed that the circadian expression pattern of the majority of clock-controlled genes in the adult pineal gland is abolished. Importantly, circadian rhythms of behavior in zebrafish larvae were affected: rhythms of place preference under constant darkness were eliminated, and rhythms of locomotor activity under constant dark and constant dim light conditions were markedly attenuated. On the other hand, global peripheral molecular oscillators, as measured in whole larvae, were unaffected in this model. In conclusion, characterization of this novel transgenic model provides evidence that the molecular clock in the melatonin-producing cells of the pineal gland plays a key role, possibly as part of a multiple pacemaker system, in modulating circadian rhythms of behavior.

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<![CDATA[Stochastic Simulation of Biomolecular Networks in Dynamic Environments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da79ab0ee8fa60b97bc3

Simulation of biomolecular networks is now indispensable for studying biological systems, from small reaction networks to large ensembles of cells. Here we present a novel approach for stochastic simulation of networks embedded in the dynamic environment of the cell and its surroundings. We thus sample trajectories of the stochastic process described by the chemical master equation with time-varying propensities. A comparative analysis shows that existing approaches can either fail dramatically, or else can impose impractical computational burdens due to numerical integration of reaction propensities, especially when cell ensembles are studied. Here we introduce the Extrande method which, given a simulated time course of dynamic network inputs, provides a conditionally exact and several orders-of-magnitude faster simulation solution. The new approach makes it feasible to demonstrate—using decision-making by a large population of quorum sensing bacteria—that robustness to fluctuations from upstream signaling places strong constraints on the design of networks determining cell fate. Our approach has the potential to significantly advance both understanding of molecular systems biology and design of synthetic circuits.

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<![CDATA[RNA-seq analysis of Drosophila clock and non-clock neurons reveals neuron-specific cycling and novel candidate neuropeptides]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcdd1

Locomotor activity rhythms are controlled by a network of ~150 circadian neurons within the adult Drosophila brain. They are subdivided based on their anatomical locations and properties. We profiled transcripts “around the clock” from three key groups of circadian neurons with different functions. We also profiled a non-circadian outgroup, dopaminergic (TH) neurons. They have cycling transcripts but fewer than clock neurons as well as low expression and poor cycling of clock gene transcripts. This suggests that TH neurons do not have a canonical circadian clock and that their gene expression cycling is driven by brain systemic cues. The three circadian groups are surprisingly diverse in their cycling transcripts and overall gene expression patterns, which include known and putative novel neuropeptides. Even the overall phase distributions of cycling transcripts are distinct, indicating that different regulatory principles govern transcript oscillations. This surprising cell-type diversity parallels the functional heterogeneity of the different neurons.

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<![CDATA[A generalized phase resetting method for phase-locked modes prediction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdbf41

We derived analytically and checked numerically a set of novel conditions for the existence and the stability of phase-locked modes in a biologically relevant master-slave neural network with a dynamic feedback loop. Since neural oscillators even in the three-neuron network investigated here receive multiple inputs per cycle, we generalized the concept of phase resetting to accommodate multiple inputs per cycle. We proved that the phase resetting produced by two or more stimuli per cycle can be recursively computed from the traditional, single stimulus, phase resetting. We applied the newly derived generalized phase resetting definition to predicting the relative phase and the stability of a phase-locked mode that was experimentally observed in this type of master-slave network with a dynamic loop network.

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<![CDATA[Feedback, Mass Conservation and Reaction Kinetics Impact the Robustness of Cellular Oscillations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db1bab0ee8fa60bce3c9

Oscillations occur in a wide variety of cellular processes, for example in calcium and p53 signaling responses, in metabolic pathways or within gene-regulatory networks, e.g. the circadian system. Since it is of central importance to understand the influence of perturbations on the dynamics of these systems a number of experimental and theoretical studies have examined their robustness. The period of circadian oscillations has been found to be very robust and to provide reliable timing. For intracellular calcium oscillations the period has been shown to be very sensitive and to allow for frequency-encoded signaling. We here apply a comprehensive computational approach to study the robustness of period and amplitude of oscillatory systems. We employ different prototype oscillator models and a large number of parameter sets obtained by random sampling. This framework is used to examine the effect of three design principles on the sensitivities towards perturbations of the kinetic parameters. We find that a prototype oscillator with negative feedback has lower period sensitivities than a prototype oscillator relying on positive feedback, but on average higher amplitude sensitivities. For both oscillator types, the use of Michaelis-Menten instead of mass action kinetics in all degradation and conversion reactions leads to an increase in period as well as amplitude sensitivities. We observe moderate changes in sensitivities if replacing mass conversion reactions by purely regulatory reactions. These insights are validated for a set of established models of various cellular rhythms. Overall, our work highlights the importance of reaction kinetics and feedback type for the variability of period and amplitude and therefore for the establishment of predictive models.

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<![CDATA[Sexual Dimorphism in Circadian Physiology Is Altered in LXRα Deficient Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da14ab0ee8fa60b7a96e

The mammalian circadian timing system coordinates key molecular, cellular and physiological processes along the 24-h cycle. Accumulating evidence suggests that many clock-controlled processes display a sexual dimorphism. In mammals this is well exemplified by the difference between the male and female circadian patterns of glucocorticoid hormone secretion and clock gene expression. Here we show that the non-circadian nuclear receptor and metabolic sensor Liver X Receptor alpha (LXRα) which is known to regulate glucocorticoid production in mice modulates the sex specific circadian pattern of plasma corticosterone. Lxrα-/- males display a blunted corticosterone profile while females show higher amplitude as compared to wild type animals. Wild type males are significantly slower than females to resynchronize their locomotor activity rhythm after an 8 h phase advance but this difference is abrogated in Lxrα-/- males which display a female-like phenotype. We also show that circadian expression patterns of liver 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) differ between sexes and are differentially altered in Lxrα-/- animals. These changes are associated with a damped profile of plasma glucose oscillation in males but not in females. Sex specific alteration of the insulin and leptin circadian profiles were observed in Lxα-/- females and could be explained by the change in corticosterone profile. Together this data indicates that LXRα is a determinant of sexually dimorphic circadian patterns of key physiological parameters. The discovery of this unanticipated role for LXRα in circadian physiology underscores the importance of addressing sex differences in chronobiology studies and future LXRα targeted therapies.

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<![CDATA[The Proteomic Landscape of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Clock Reveals Large-Scale Coordination of Key Biological Processes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9daab0ee8fa60b6738c

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) acts as the central clock to coordinate circadian oscillations in mammalian behavior, physiology and gene expression. Despite our knowledge of the circadian transcriptome of the SCN, how it impacts genome-wide protein expression is not well understood. Here, we interrogated the murine SCN proteome across the circadian cycle using SILAC-based quantitative mass spectrometry. Of the 2112 proteins that were accurately quantified, 20% (421 proteins) displayed a time-of-day-dependent expression profile. Within this time-of-day proteome, 11% (48 proteins) were further defined as circadian based on a sinusoidal expression pattern with a ∼24 h period. Nine circadianly expressed proteins exhibited 24 h rhythms at the transcript level, with an average time lag that exceeded 8 h. A substantial proportion of the time-of-day proteome exhibited abrupt fluctuations at the anticipated light-to-dark and dark-to-light transitions, and was enriched for proteins involved in several key biological pathways, most notably, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Additionally, predicted targets of miR-133ab were enriched in specific hierarchical clusters and were inversely correlated with miR133ab expression in the SCN. These insights into the proteomic landscape of the SCN will facilitate a more integrative understanding of cellular control within the SCN clock.

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<![CDATA[Phasic Burst Stimulation: A Closed-Loop Approach to Tuning Deep Brain Stimulation Parameters for Parkinson’s Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da55ab0ee8fa60b8ea82

We propose a novel, closed-loop approach to tuning deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson’s disease (PD). The approach, termed Phasic Burst Stimulation (PhaBS), applies a burst of stimulus pulses over a range of phases predicted to disrupt pathological oscillations seen in PD. Stimulation parameters are optimized based on phase response curves (PRCs), which would be measured from each patient. This approach is tested in a computational model of PD with an emergent population oscillation. We show that the stimulus phase can be optimized using the PRC, and that PhaBS is more effective at suppressing the pathological oscillation than a single phasic stimulus pulse. PhaBS provides a closed-loop approach to DBS that can be optimized for each patient.

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