ResearchPad - clinical-review https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Management of Acute Severe Ulcerative Colitis in a Pregnant Woman With COVID-19 Infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12367 First detected in Wuhan, China, the novel 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped RNA beta-coronavirus responsible for an unprecedented, worldwide pandemic caused by COVID-19. Optimal management of immunosuppression in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with COVID-19 infection currently is based on expert opinion, given the novelty of the infection and the corresponding lack of high-level evidence in patients with immune-mediated conditions. There are limited data regarding IBD patients with COVID-19 and no data regarding early pregnancy in the era of COVID-19. This article describes a patient with acute severe ulcerative colitis (UC) during her first trimester of pregnancy who also has COVID-19. The case presentation is followed by a review of the literature to date on COVID-19 in regard to inflammatory bowel disease and pregnancy, respectively.

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<![CDATA[Elective neck treatment in sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: Systematic review and meta‐analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7002 Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas (SNUCs), being an aggressive malignancy with dismal survival outcome, have given limited consideration regarding management of regional failures. A total of 12 studies, published between 1999 and 2019, met inclusion criteria. We performed a meta‐analysis assessing regional (neck) relapse after elective neck treatment compared to observation in clinically node negative (N0) necks. Clinical data of 255 patients were used for meta‐analysis. Among them, 83.4% of patients presented with T4 tumors and 14.1% had positive neck nodes. Elective neck treatment was applied in 49.5% of analyzed patients. Regional relapses occurred in 3.7% of patients who have undergone elective neck treatment compared to 26.4% in patients who had not. Elective neck treatment significantly reduced the risk of regional recurrence (odds ratio 0.20; 95% confidence interval 0.08‐0.49; P = .0004). The meta‐analysis indicates that elective neck treatment could significantly reduce the risk of regional failures in patients with SNUCs.

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<![CDATA[Relationship(s) between obesity and inflammatory bowel diseases: possible intertwined pathogenic mechanisms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8928daf4-6083-4b12-a123-e3844cf237a2

The inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis have increased in incidence and prevalence from the mid-eighteen to the late nineteen centuries. From then to the current twenty-first century there has been a more rapid expansion of these disease to areas previously experiencing low rates. This latter expansion coincides with the current obesity pandemic which also began toward the end of the last century. Although the two diseases have radically different frequencies, there are interesting links between them. Four areas link the diseases. On an epidemiological level, IBD tends to follow a north–south gradient raising the importance of vitamin D in protection. Obesity has very weak relationship with latitude, but both diseases follow adult lactase distributions colliding in this plane. Is it possible that obesity (a low vitamin D condition with questionable response to supplements) reduces effects in IBD? On a pathogenic level, pro-inflammatory processes mark both IBD and obesity. The similarity raises the question of whether obesity could facilitate the development of IBD. Features of the metabolic syndrome occur in both, with or without obesity in IBD. The fourth interaction between the two diseases is the apparent effect of obesity on the course of IBD. There are suggestions that obesity may reduce the efficacy of biologic agents. Yet there is some suggestion also that obesity may reduce the need for hospitalization and surgery. The apparent co-expansion of both obesity and IBD suggests similar environmental changes may be involved in the promotion of both.

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<![CDATA[Bronichiloitis obliterms-current concepts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N966da19d-029e-439f-a149-fdad63c2d6d6

Abstract

We review current concepts abut the clinical manifestations,diagnosis and treatment of patients with bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) with emphasis on clinical/pathological correlations and recent developments. BO is a relatively rare disease, but its incidence is probably higher than generally believed and is continuously rising, partly because of better recognition, but also because of increased exposure to industrial fumes, and its occurrence in lung transplantation. BO is characterized histologically by varying degrees of obliteration of the lumen of the respiratory bronchioles by organizing connective tissue often extending into the alveoli (‘proliferative’ BO with organizing pneumoni+BOOP) or by more extensive fibrosis and scarring of the more proximal, conductive bronchioles (‘constrictive’ BO). Diverse clinical conditions have been associated with the development of BO, notably viral and mycoplasma infection, toxic fume exposure and immune reactions in the setting of a collagen vascular disease, drug reaction or organ transplantation. The clinical course and features of BO may vary considerably according to the aetiology, histological pattern and stage of the disease. The most common presentation is that of a progressive dry cough and dyspnea, associated with diffuse patchy interstitial lung infiltrates on chest X-ray. In the more advanced cases, lung function tests show either restrictive or obstructive defects, depending on the extent of alveolar involvement, and hypoxemia without CO2 retention. The diagnosis is often possible on clinical grounds, however, in a seriously ill patient uncertainty should be resolved by tissue diagnosis, preferably by open lung biopsy. Treatment is based on symptomatic therapy. The use of corticosteroids is controversial, but common. Patients with BOOP are exceptional, in that there may be no underlying condition (‘idiopathic’ BOOP or cryptogenic organizing pneumonia—COP), a restrictive ventilatory defect is usual and the response to corticosteroids often remarkable.

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<![CDATA[Screening for atrial fibrillation: a call for evidence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0ac50dad-a287-4e9c-ab89-92ad9afb38a0

Abstract

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and prevalence is predicted to double over the next 30 years due to changing demographics and the rise in prevalence of risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes. Atrial fibrillation is associated with a five-fold increased stroke risk, but anticoagulation in eligible patients can reduce this risk by around 65%. Many people with AF currently go undetected and therefore untreated, either because they are asymptomatic or because they have paroxysmal AF. Screening has been suggested as one approach to increase AF detection rates and reduce the incidence of ischaemic stroke by earlier initiation of anticoagulation therapy. However, international taskforces currently recommend against screening, citing the cost implications and uncertainty over the benefits of a systematic screening programme compared to usual care. A number of large randomized controlled trials have commenced to determine the cost-effectiveness and clinical benefit of screening using a range of devices and across different populations. The recent AppleWatch study demonstrates how advances in technology are providing the public with self-screening devices that are increasingly affordable and accessible. Health care professionals should be aware of the implications of these emerging data for diagnostic pathways and treatment. This review provides an overview of the gaps in the current evidence and a summary of the arguments for and against screening.

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<![CDATA[Herpes Zoster in Patients Receiving JAK Inhibitors For Ulcerative Colitis: Mechanism, Epidemiology, Management, and Prevention]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8ad85fd5eed0c48499f507

Abstract

Increased risk of herpes zoster (HZ) has been observed in patients with immune-mediated diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis (PsO), and inflammatory bowel disease; this risk can be further increased by the use of immunosuppressive therapy. One advancing modality of therapy for these diseases is Janus kinase (JAK) inhibition. Tofacitinib is an oral JAK inhibitor for the treatment of RA and psoriatic arthritis, which is currently under investigation for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) and was previously investigated for psoriasis. JAK inhibitors have been associated with HZ events in patients across a number of indications. The pathogenesis underlying this risk of HZ is currently unknown. An increased risk of HZ has been noted in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapies for UC, including tofacitinib. In clinical trials, there was a dose-dependent risk of HZ (higher dose linked with increased risk). However, the majority of HZ cases are nonserious and noncomplicated, mild to moderate in severity, and manageable without permanent discontinuation of treatment. This review will discuss HZ risk in patients receiving JAK inhibitors, focusing on tofacitinib with respect to the potential mechanisms and epidemiology of HZ. Current guidelines for the prevention of HZ will be highlighted, and proposed management reviewed.

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<![CDATA[Nonrestorative Treatments for Caries: Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c394719d5eed0c484a3a9ab

The goal of nonrestorative or non- and microinvasive caries treatment (fluoride- and nonfluoride-based interventions) is to manage the caries disease process at a lesion level and minimize the loss of sound tooth structure. The purpose of this systematic review and network meta-analysis was to summarize the available evidence on nonrestorative treatments for the outcomes of 1) arrest or reversal of noncavitated and cavitated carious lesions on primary and permanent teeth and 2) adverse events. We included parallel and split-mouth randomized controlled trials where patients were followed for any length of time. Studies were identified with MEDLINE and Embase via Ovid, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Pairs of reviewers independently conducted the selection of studies, data extraction, risk-of-bias assessments, and assessment of the certainty in the evidence with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Data were synthesized with a random effects model and a frequentist approach. Forty-four trials (48 reports) were eligible, which included 7,378 participants and assessed the effect of 22 interventions in arresting or reversing noncavitated or cavitated carious lesions. Four network meta-analyses suggested that sealants + 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish, resin infiltration + 5% NaF varnish, and 5,000-ppm F (1.1% NaF) toothpaste or gel were the most effective for arresting or reversing noncavitated occlusal, approximal, and noncavitated and cavitated root carious lesions on primary and/or permanent teeth, respectively (low- to moderate-certainty evidence). Study-level data indicated that 5% NaF varnish was the most effective for arresting or reversing noncavitated facial/lingual carious lesions (low certainty) and that 38% silver diamine fluoride solution applied biannually was the most effective for arresting advanced cavitated carious lesions on any coronal surface (moderate to high certainty). Preventing the onset of caries is the ultimate goal of a caries management plan. However, if the disease is present, there is a variety of effective interventions to treat carious lesions nonrestoratively.

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<![CDATA[Pacemaker‐mediated arrhythmias]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0fc14ed5eed0c4841143a7

Abstract

Pacemakers can be directly involved in initiating or sustaining different forms of arrhythmia. These can cause symptoms such as dyspnea, palpitations, and decompensated heart failure. Early detection of these arrhythmias and optimal pacemaker programming is pivotal. The aim of this review article is to summarize the different types of pacemaker‐mediated arrhythmias, their predisposing factors, and mechanisms of prevention or termination.

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<![CDATA[Health implications associated with exposure to farmed and wild sea turtles]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ac99426463d7e1bfbb84fd1

Exposure to sea turtles may be increasing with expanding tourism, although reports of problems arising from interaction with free-living animals appear of negligible human health and safety concern. Exposure both to wild-caught and captive-housed sea turtles, including consumption of turtle products, raises several health concerns for the public, including: microbiological (bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi), macrobiological (macroparasites), and organic and inorganic toxic contaminants (biotoxins, organochlorines and heavy metals). We conducted a review of sea turtle associated human disease and its causative agents as well as a case study of the commercial sea turtle facility known as the Cayman Turtle Farm (which receives approximately 240,000 visitors annually) including the use of water sampling and laboratory microbial analysis which identified Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. Our assessment is that pathogens and toxic contaminants may be loosely categorized to represent the following levels of potential risk: viruses and fungi = very low; protozoan parasites = very low to low; metazoan parasites, bacteria and environmental toxic contaminants = low or moderate to high; and biotoxin contaminant = moderate to very high. Farmed turtles and their consumable products may constitute a significant reservoir of potential human pathogen and toxin contamination. Greater awareness among health-care professionals regarding both potential pathogens and toxic contaminants from sea turtles, as well as key signs and symptoms of sea turtle-related human disease, is important for the prevention and control of salient disease.

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<![CDATA[Maternal morbidity and mortality associated with retroperitoneal haematomas in pregnancy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b479eed463d7e73d008efbc

Retroperitoneal haematomas in obstetrics are uncommon. The causes and pathogenesis of retroperitoneal haematomas lack clarity and the aim of this review is to recognise retroperitoneal haematomas as a separate entity from commonly seen vaginal and pelvic haematomas. It is time to raise awareness among obstetricians to recognise retroperitoneal haematomas as an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality which requires high clinical suspicion and multidisciplinary input. As retroperitoneal haematomas are rare but can cause serious threat to maternal wellbeing, resources should be directed towards their management. Existing guidelines of maternal collapse and morbidity during pregnancy and puerperium need to include retroperitoneal haematomas as one of the important causes of maternal shock or morbidity. New learning pathways should be opted for to increase awareness of retroperitoneal haematomas among obstetricians enabling them to reflect on their implications while managing retroperitoneal haematomas. Management of retroperitoneal haematomas is complex and continues to improve with advancements in the investigative strategies, treatment options and multidisciplinary involvement.

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<![CDATA[Preserving residual renal function in dialysis patients: an update on evidence to assist clinical decision making]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ae6b093463d7e61d62f9c5e

It has been documented that preservation of residual renal function in dialysis patients improves quality of life as well as survival. Clinical trials on strategies to preserve residual renal function are clearly lacking. While waiting for more results from clinical trials, patients will benefit from clinicians being aware of available knowledge. The aim of this review was to offer an update on current evidence assisting doctors in clinical practice.

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<![CDATA[Therapeutic drug monitoring in a developing nation: a clinical guide]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ba768bf40307c28b79a969f

Therapeutic drug monitoring is aimed at using drug concentration measurements to manage a patient’s medication requirement and optimise clinical outcome, particularly in respect of drugs with narrow therapeutic index. Typically, immunoassay methods of various techniques are employed with the advantage of rapid turnaround time and ease of operation. The chromatographic methods are specific and cost effective, though more demanding and require technical expertise. The most crucial aspect of any therapeutic drug monitoring service is the expert clinical interpretation of drug concentration measurements taking into consideration individual pharmacokinetic variability in drug disposition across different populations. The setting up of a therapeutic drug monitoring service requires enormous resources, both in terms of equipment and trained personnel. This poses considerable constraints in developing countries due to limited scarce resources, coupled with ignorance among health practitioners on the relevance of therapeutic drug monitoring in clinical practice. Consequently, the need for advocacy, training and encouragement of health practitioners on the usefulness of therapeutic drug monitoring in enhancing patient care and overall clinical outcome in a developing country such as Nigeria can never be over-emphasised.

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<![CDATA[Anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5af71341463d7e70c3fe9833

Atrial fibrillation increases the risk of stroke, which is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The use of oral anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation at moderate or high risk of stroke, estimated by established criteria, improves outcomes. However, to ensure that the benefits exceed the risks of bleeding, appropriate patient selection is essential. Vitamin K antagonism has been the mainstay of treatment; however, newer drugs with novel mechanisms are also available. These novel oral anticoagulants (direct thrombin inhibitors and factor Xa inhibitors) obviate many of warfarin’s shortcomings, and they have demonstrated safety and efficacy in large randomized trials of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. However, the management of patients taking warfarin or novel agents remains a clinical challenge. There are several important considerations when selecting anticoagulant therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation. This review will discuss the rationale for anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation; risk stratification for treatment; available agents; the appropriate implementation of these agents; and additional, specific clinical considerations for treatment.

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