ResearchPad - clinical-reviews https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Elective neck treatment in sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: Systematic review and meta‐analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7002 Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas (SNUCs), being an aggressive malignancy with dismal survival outcome, have given limited consideration regarding management of regional failures. A total of 12 studies, published between 1999 and 2019, met inclusion criteria. We performed a meta‐analysis assessing regional (neck) relapse after elective neck treatment compared to observation in clinically node negative (N0) necks. Clinical data of 255 patients were used for meta‐analysis. Among them, 83.4% of patients presented with T4 tumors and 14.1% had positive neck nodes. Elective neck treatment was applied in 49.5% of analyzed patients. Regional relapses occurred in 3.7% of patients who have undergone elective neck treatment compared to 26.4% in patients who had not. Elective neck treatment significantly reduced the risk of regional recurrence (odds ratio 0.20; 95% confidence interval 0.08‐0.49; P = .0004). The meta‐analysis indicates that elective neck treatment could significantly reduce the risk of regional failures in patients with SNUCs.

]]>
<![CDATA[What causes sudden death in patients with chronic heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2ae8ca0d-0984-42d5-93a4-fb99576bd49e Sudden death characterizes the mode of demise in 30–50% of patients with chronic heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction. Occasionally, these events have an identifiable pathophysiological trigger, e.g. myocardial infarction, catecholamine surges, or electrolyte imbalances, but in most circumstances, there is no acute precipitating mechanism. Instead, adverse left ventricular remodelling and fibrosis creates an exceptionally fragile and highly vulnerable substrate, which can be characterized using the model developed in theoretical physics of ‘self-organizing criticality’. This framework has been applied to describe the genesis of avalanches, nodes of traffic congestion unrelated to an accident, the abrupt system-wide failure of electrical grids, and the initiation of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Self-organizing criticality within the ventricular myocardium relies on complex adaptations to progressive stress and stretch, which evolve inevitably to an abrupt end (termed ‘cascading failure’), even though the rate of deterioration of the underlying disease process has not changed. The result is acute circulatory collapse (i.e. sudden death) in the absence of an identifiable triggering event. Cascading failure in a severely remodelled or fibrotic heart can become manifest electrically as a first-time ventricular tachyarrhythmia that is responsive to the shock delivered by an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Alternatively, it may present as an acute mechanical failure, which is manifest as (i) asystole, bradyarrhythmia, or electromechanical dissociation; or (ii) incessant ventricular fibrillation that persists despite repetitive ICD discharges; in both instances, the sudden deaths cannot be prevented by an ICD. This conceptual framework explains why anti-remodelling and antifibrotic interventions (i.e. neurohormonal antagonists and cardiac resynchronization) reduce the risk of sudden death in patients with heart failure in the absence of an ICD and provide incremental benefits in those with an ICD. The adoption of anti-remodelling and antifibrotic treatments may explain why the incidence of sudden death in clinical trials of heart failure has declined dramatically over the past 10–15 years, independent of the use of ICDs.

]]>
<![CDATA[Influence of immune aging on vaccine responses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8b432954-2754-4442-8957-2f44e150cabf Impaired vaccine responses in older individuals are associated with alterations in both the quantity and quality of the T-cell compartment with age. As reviewed herein, the T-cell response to vaccination requires a fine balance between the generation of inflammatory effector T cells versus follicular helper T (TFH) cells that mediate high-affinity antibody production in tandem with the induction of long-lived memory cells for effective recall immunity. During aging, we find that this balance is tipped where T cells favor short-lived effector but not memory or TFH responses. Consistently, vaccine-induced antibodies commonly display a lower protective capacity. Mechanistically, multiple, potentially targetable, changes in T cells have been identified that contribute to these age-related defects, including posttranscription regulation, T-cell receptor signaling, and metabolic function. Although research into the induction of tissue-specific immunity by vaccines and with age is still limited, current mechanistic insights provide a framework for improved design of age-specific vaccination strategies that require further evaluation in a clinical setting.

]]>
<![CDATA[Global, Regional, and National Levels and Trends in Burden of Oral Conditions from 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease 2017 Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nccf08358-c6c9-494b-8c51-fd99a098e7d5

Government and nongovernmental organizations need national and global estimates on the descriptive epidemiology of common oral conditions for policy planning and evaluation. The aim of this component of the Global Burden of Disease study was to produce estimates on prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability for oral conditions from 1990 to 2017 by sex, age, and countries. In addition, this study reports the global socioeconomic pattern in burden of oral conditions by the standard World Bank classification of economies as well as the Global Burden of Disease Socio-demographic Index. The findings show that oral conditions remain a substantial population health challenge. Globally, there were 3.5 billion cases (95% uncertainty interval [95% UI], 3.2 to 3.7 billion) of oral conditions, of which 2.3 billion (95% UI, 2.1 to 2.5 billion) had untreated caries in permanent teeth, 796 million (95% UI, 671 to 930 million) had severe periodontitis, 532 million (95% UI, 443 to 622 million) had untreated caries in deciduous teeth, 267 million (95% UI, 235 to 300 million) had total tooth loss, and 139 million (95% UI, 133 to 146 million) had other oral conditions in 2017. Several patterns emerged when the World Bank’s classification of economies and the Socio-demographic Index were used as indicators of economic development. In general, more economically developed countries have the lowest burden of untreated dental caries and severe periodontitis and the highest burden of total tooth loss. The findings offer an opportunity for policy makers to identify successful oral health strategies and strengthen them; introduce and monitor different approaches where oral diseases are increasing; plan integration of oral health in the agenda for prevention of noncommunicable diseases; and estimate the cost of providing universal coverage for dental care.

]]>
<![CDATA[Pacemaker‐mediated arrhythmias]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0fc14ed5eed0c4841143a7

Abstract

Pacemakers can be directly involved in initiating or sustaining different forms of arrhythmia. These can cause symptoms such as dyspnea, palpitations, and decompensated heart failure. Early detection of these arrhythmias and optimal pacemaker programming is pivotal. The aim of this review article is to summarize the different types of pacemaker‐mediated arrhythmias, their predisposing factors, and mechanisms of prevention or termination.

]]>
<![CDATA[Current Challenges and the Management of Chronic Hepatitis C in Mainland China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ba6fb5540307c4d1c2820a2

Despite decreasing prevalence, new cases of hepatitis C in China are increasing recently with growing percentage of patients who are with advanced disease, aging, or not eligible for interferon-based treatments. Hepatitis C infection represents a serious public health burden. This review was based on expert’s consensus during a medical forum on hepatitis sponsored by the Beijing Wu Jie-Ping Medical Foundation. The literature searches were conducted in PubMed and critical publications in Chinese journals. Data on hepatitis C prevalence, risk factors, viral or host features, and treatment modalities were extracted and reviewed. Recent large-scale surveys reported reducing prevalence of hepatitis C to approximately 0.4% in China, partly because of regulation changes to safer medical practices and illegalizing commercial blood donations. Patient demographics evolved from being dominated by former paid blood donors to include intravenous drug users and others. Although hepatitis C genotype 1 is the most common, other genotypes are emerging in prevalence. The current standard of care is interferon-based without direct acting antivirals. However, many patients failed therapy because of high treatment costs, substantial needs to manage side effects, difficulties with treatment monitoring in the rural areas, and growing populations of elderly and cirrhotic patients. The lack of high efficacy therapies with good safety profile and low disease awareness in China resulted in increasing public burden of advanced hepatitis C disease. Despite significant reduction of hepatitis C prevalence, iatrogenic, nosocomial, and community transmissions are still significant. In addition to promoting disease awareness, interferon-free regimens are needed to reduce the public health burden.

]]>