ResearchPad - clinical-trial-protocol https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Efficacy of eye drops containing crosslinked hyaluronic acid and CoQ10 in restoring ocular health exposed to chlorinated water]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15529 A prospective, open-label study in 20 professional swimmers evaluated the efficacy and safety of an ophthalmic solution containing crosslinked hyaluronic acid, coenzyme Q10, and vitamin E TPGS in releasing eye irritation and restoring ocular surface damages after prolonged exposure to chlorinated water.Methods:Individually, one eye was instilled with the ophthalmic solution and the other used as a comparator. Eye drops were self-administered three times a day for 2 months. Tear film breakup time (primary endpoint), Schirmer I test, beating of eyelashes/min, tear osmolarity, corneal and conjunctival staining with fluorescein, Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, subject satisfaction, visual acuity (secondary endpoints), and Efron Grading Scale were evaluated at screening/baseline (V1), week 1 (V2), week 2 (V3), week 4 (V4), and week 8 (V5).Results:After 2 months, breakup time test significantly improved in the treated eyes (+1.67 s) compared to control (−3.00 s) (p = 0.0002). Corneal and conjunctival surfaces of treated eyes recovered significantly compared to control eyes when assessed by fluorescein staining (p < 0.0001), Ocular Surface Disease Index (p < 0.05), and visual analog scale (p = 0.0348) scores. Improvements were also observed with Schirmer I test, beating of eyelashes, and tear osmolarity, despite without statistical significance. Efron Grading Scale was consistent with the other tests. The ocular tolerability was excellent.Conclusion:The adequate combination of crosslinked hyaluronic acid, coenzyme Q10, and vitamin E TPGS, contained in the ophthalmic solution VisuXL®, has been shown to protect ocular surface from potential damages originating from prolonged exposure to chlorinated water. VisuXL may represent a compelling treatment in other situations beyond dry eye syndrome. ]]> <![CDATA[Ceftobiprole versus daptomycin in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a novel protocol for a double-blind, Phase III trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf680d6f8-766c-4553-a981-fa077c7274c5

Although Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of bacteremia, treatment options are limited. The need for new therapies is particularly urgent for methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia (SAB). Ceftobiprole is an advanced-generation, broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against both methicillin-susceptible and -resistant S. aureus. This is a Phase III, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter, two-part study to establish the efficacy and safety of ceftobiprole compared with daptomycin in the treatment of SAB, including infective endocarditis. Anticipated enrollment is 390 hospitalized adult patients, aged ≥18 years, with confirmed or suspected complicated SAB. The primary end point is overall success rate. Target completion of the study is in the second half of 2021.

Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT03138733

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<![CDATA[Campath, calcineurin inhibitor reduction and chronic allograft nephropathy (3C) study: background, rationale, and study protocol]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9efab0ee8fa60b6de02

Background

Kidney transplantation is the best treatment for patients with end-stage renal failure, but uncertainty remains about the best immunosuppression strategy. Long-term graft survival has not improved substantially, and one possible explanation is calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity. CNI exposure could be minimized by using more potent induction therapy or alternative maintenance therapy to remove CNIs completely. However, the safety and efficacy of such strategies are unknown.

Methods/Design

The Campath, Calcineurin inhibitor reduction and Chronic allograft nephropathy (3C) Study is a multicentre, open-label, randomized controlled trial with 852 participants which is addressing two important questions in kidney transplantation. The first question is whether a Campath (alemtuzumab)-based induction therapy strategy is superior to basiliximab-based therapy, and the second is whether, from 6 months after transplantation, a sirolimus-based maintenance therapy strategy is superior to tacrolimus-based therapy. Recruitment is complete, and follow-up will continue for around 5 years post-transplant. The primary endpoint for the induction therapy comparison is biopsy-proven acute rejection by 6 months, and the primary endpoint for the maintenance therapy comparison is change in estimated glomerular filtration rate from baseline to 2 years after transplantation. The study is sponsored by the University of Oxford and endorsed by the British Transplantation Society, and 18 centers for adult kidney transplant are participating.

Discussion

Late graft failure is a major issue for kidney-transplant recipients. If our hypothesis that minimizing CNI exposure with Campath-based induction therapy and/or an elective conversion to sirolimus-based maintenance therapy can improve long-term graft function and survival is correct, then patients should experience better graft function for longer. A positive outcome could change clinical practice in kidney transplantation.

Trial registration

ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01120028 and ISRCTN88894088

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<![CDATA[Protocol TOP-Study (tacrolimus organ perfusion): a prospective randomized multicenter trial to reduce ischemia reperfusion injury in transplantation of marginal liver grafts with an ex vivo tacrolimus perfusion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da52ab0ee8fa60b8e152

Background

Critical organ shortage results in the utilization of extended donor criteria (EDC) liver grafts. These marginal liver grafts are prone to increased ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) which may contribute to deteriorated graft function and survival. Experimental data have shown that the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus exerts protective effects on hepatic IRI when applied intravenously or directly as a hepatic rinse. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the effects of an ex vivo tacrolimus perfusion on IRI in transplantation of EDC liver grafts.

Methods/Design

The TOP-Study (tacrolimus organ perfusion) is a randomized multicenter trial comparing the ex vivo tacrolimus perfusion of marginal liver grafts with placebo. We hypothesize that a tacrolimus rinse reduces IRI, potentially improving organ survival following transplantation of EDC livers. The study includes livers with two or more EDC, according to Eurotransplant International Foundation’s definition of EDC livers. Prior to implantation, livers randomized to the treatment group are rinsed with tacrolimus at a concentration of 20 ng/ml in 1000 ml Custodiol solution and in the placebo group with Custodiol alone. The primary endpoint is the maximum serum alanine transamninase (ALT) level within the first 48 hours after surgery; however, the study design also includes a 1-year observation period following transplantation. The TOP-Study is an investigator-initiated trial sponsored by the University of Munich Hospital. Seven other German transplant centers are participating (Berlin, Frankfurt, Heidelberg, Mainz, Münster, Regensburg, Tübingen) and aim to include a total of 86 patients.

Discussion

Tacrolimus organ perfusion represents a promising strategy to reduce hepatic IRI following the transplantation of marginal liver grafts. This treatment may help to improve the function of EDC grafts and therefore safely expand the donor pool in light of critical organ shortage.

Trial register

EudraCT number: 2010-021333-31, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01564095

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<![CDATA[An in-progress, open-label, multi-centre study (SAILOR) evaluating whether a steroid-free immunosuppressive protocol, based on ATG induction and a low tacrolimus dose, reduces the incidence of new onset diabetes after transplantation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da8dab0ee8fa60b9e85f

Background

Corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are included in renal transplantation immunosuppressive protocols around the world. Well-known side effects are associated with the use of these drugs, including new onset of diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). Long-term patient survival rates are lower among patients with NODAT. The optimal immunosuppressive protocol would therefore include not using corticosteroids and minimization of CNI use.

Methods/Design

This is a prospective, multi-centre, controlled, randomized, parallel group, open-label study involving kidney transplant patients. The study compares a steroid-free immunosuppressive protocol (study arm A), which is based on low-dose tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) maintenance therapy together with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) induction, with the conventional immunosuppressive protocol (study arm B), being based on low-dose tacrolimus, MMF and steroids together with interleukin-2 receptor (IL2-R) induction. The study is designed to include most normal-risk patients. It will exclude patients seen as at a high risk of rejection. The primary objective of the study is to assess the cumulative incidence of NODAT in the two study arms 12 months after transplantation using the American Diabetes Association type 2 diabetes diagnostic criteria. The composite measure of freedom from acute rejection, graft survival and patient survival will be evaluated. Renal function and chronic changes in the transplanted kidney will be assessed.

Discussion

If this study confirms conceptual expectations, namely decreased incidence of NODAT, the steroid-free study protocol could be used with all patients. The regimen could be especially beneficial for patients at a high risk of diabetes mellitus.

Trial registration

Trial registration: EudraCT 2012-000451-13.

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<![CDATA[Extended pancreas donor program – the EXPAND study rationale and study protocol]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9eaab0ee8fa60b6c68a

Background

Simultaneous pancreas kidney transplantation (SPK), pancreas transplantation alone (PTA) or pancreas transplantation after kidney (PAK) are the only curative treatment options for patients with type 1 (juvenile) diabetes mellitus with or without impaired renal function. Unfortunately, transplant waiting lists for this indication are increasing because the current organ acceptability criteria are restrictive; morbidity and mortality significantly increase with time on the waitlist. Currently, only pancreas organs from donors younger than 50 years of age and with a body mass index (BMI) less than 30 are allocated for transplantation in the Eurotransplant (ET) area. To address this issue we designed a study to increase the available donor pool for these patients.

Methods/Design

This study is a prospective, multicenter (20 German centers), single blinded, non-randomized, two armed trial comparing outcome after SPK, PTA or PAK between organs with the currently allowed donor criteria versus selected organs from donors with extended criteria. Extended donor criteria are defined as organs procured from donors with a BMI of 30 to 34 or a donor age between 50 and 60 years. Immunosuppression is generally standardized using induction therapy with Myfortic, tacrolimus and low dose steroids. In principle, all patients on the waitlist for primary SPK, PTA or PAK are eligible for the clinical trial when they consent to possibly receiving an extended donor criteria organ. Patients receiving an organ meeting the current standard criteria for pancreas allocation (control arm) are compared to those receiving extended criteria organ (study arm); patients are blinded for a follow-up period of one year. The combined primary endpoint is survival of the pancreas allograft and pancreas allograft function after three months, as an early relevant outcome parameter for pancreas transplantation.

Discussion

The EXPAND Study has been initiated to investigate the hypothesis that locally allocated extended criteria organs can be transplanted with similar results compared to the currently allowed standard ET organ allocation. If our study shows a favorable comparison to standard organ allocation criteria, the morbidity and mortality for patients waiting for transplantation could be reduced in the future.

Trial registration

Trial registered at: NCT01384006

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<![CDATA[The role of CYP3A5 polymorphism and dose adjustments following conversion of twice-daily to once-daily tacrolimus in renal transplant recipients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db39ab0ee8fa60bd44c2

Background

Tacrolimus is available as twice-daily Prograf® (Tac-BID) and the once-daily formulation, Advagraf® (Tac-OD). Although therapeutically equivalent, some transplant recipients require dose adjustments to achieve similar tacrolimus trough concentrations [Tac C0] after conversion between formulations. Tacrolimus is primarily metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5). We sought to determine whether genetic polymorphisms in the CYP3A5 enzyme; CYP3A5 *1/*1 and CYP3A5 *1/*3 (expressers) compared to CYP3A5 *3/*3 (non-expressers) could account for discrepancies in dose requirements following conversion from Tac-BID to Tac-OD.

Methods

A cohort of 60 renal transplant recipients (RTR) from our larger conversion study of 496 patients underwent additional testing for CY3A5 genetic polymorphisms. Analysis included demographics, tac dosing and [Tac C0] pre- and post-conversion and dosing changes relative to CYP3A5 genotypes. CYP3A5 genetic polymorphisms were identified through analysis of genomic DNA.

Results

Conversion from tac bid to tac OD in this cohort required a mean (SD) dose increase from 3.1 (1.0) mg/day to 3.8 (1.3) mg/day (p = 0.007), to achieve similar [Tac C0]. The *1/*3 expresser group required a greater percentage dose adjustment (56.7 %) in converting from Tac-BID to Tac-OD as compared to the *3/*3 non-expresser group (26.6 %). Similar findings were observed with the both expresser groups combined (*1/*1 &*1/*3). The expressers were significantly more highly represented in the East Asian cohort.

Conclusions

The CYP3A5 expresser polymorphism necessitates an increase in dosing upon conversion from Tac-BID to Tac-OD, with the expresser genotypes contributing significantly to this finding. Given the variability in frequency of CYP3A5 genotypes in various ethnic groups, future studies should account for both isoenzyme polymorphism and ethnicity in optimizing dosing requirements.

Trial registration

Clinical trials.gov identifier: NCT01884480

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<![CDATA[Protocol for a prospective randomized controlled trial of recipient remote ischaemic preconditioning in orthotopic liver transplantation (RIPCOLT trial)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabaab0ee8fa60bae5a3

Abstract

Ischaemic reperfusion (IR) injury is a major cause of graft loss, morbidity and mortality following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Demand for liver transplantation has resulted in increasing use of marginal grafts that are more prone to IR injury. Remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) reduces IR injury in experimental models, but recipient RIPC has not been evaluated clinically.

Methods

A single-centre double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) is planned to test the hypothesis that recipient RIPC will reduce IR injury. RIPC will be performed following recipient anaesthetic induction but prior to skin incision. The protocol involves 3 cycles of 5 min of lower limb occlusion with a pneumatic tourniquet inflated to 200 mmHg alternating with 5 min of reperfusion. In the control group, the sham will involve the cuff being placed on the thigh but without being inflated.

The primary endpoint is ability to recruit patients to the trial and safety of RIPC. The key secondary endpoint is a reduction in serum aspartate transferase levels on the third post-operative day.

Discussion

RIPC is a promising strategy to reduce IR injury in liver transplant recipients as there is a clear experimental basis, and the intervention is both inexpensive and easy to perform. This is the first trial to investigate RIPC in liver transplant recipients.

Trial registration

Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00796588

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13737-016-0033-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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