ResearchPad - clinical-trials https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The effect of monetary incentive on survey response for vulnerable children and youths: A randomized controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13807 In surveys non-responders may introduce bias and lower the validity of the studies. Ways to increase response rates are therefore important. The purpose of the study was to investigate if an unconditional monetary incentive can increase the response rate for vulnerable children and youths in a postal questionnaire survey.MethodsThe study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. The study population consisted of 262 children and youth who participated in an established intervention study aimed at creating networks for different groups of vulnerable children and youths. The mean age of the participants was 16.7 years (range 11–28) and 67.9% were female. The questionnaire was adapted to three different age groups and covered different aspects of the participants’ life situation, including the dimensions from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In the follow-up survey, participants were randomly allocated to two groups that either received a €15 voucher for a supermarket together with the questionnaire or only received the questionnaire. We used Poisson regression to estimate the differences in response rate (Rate Ratio RR) between the intervention group and the control group.ResultsThe response rate was 75.5% in the intervention group and 42.9% in the control group. The response rate in the intervention group was significantly higher than in the control group when adjusting for age and gender (Rate Ratio, RR 1.73; 95% CI 1.38–2.17). We did not find any significant differences in scales scores between the two groups for the five scales of the SDQ. In stratified analyses, we found the effect of the incentive to be higher for males (RR 2.81; 95% CI 1.61–4.91) than for females (1.43; 95% CI 1.12–1.84).ConclusionsMonetary incentives can increase the response rate for vulnerable children and youths in surveys.Trial registrationThe trial was retrospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01741675. ]]> <![CDATA[Pooling individual participant data from randomized controlled trials: Exploring potential loss of information]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7838 Pooling individual participant data to enable pooled analyses is often complicated by diversity in variables across available datasets. Therefore, recoding original variables is often necessary to build a pooled dataset. We aimed to quantify how much information is lost in this process and to what extent this jeopardizes validity of analyses results.MethodsData were derived from a platform that was developed to pool data from three randomized controlled trials on the effect of treatment of cardiovascular risk factors on cognitive decline or dementia. We quantified loss of information using the R-squared of linear regression models with pooled variables as a function of their original variable(s). In case the R-squared was below 0.8, we additionally explored the potential impact of loss of information for future analyses. We did this second step by comparing whether the Beta coefficient of the predictor differed more than 10% when adding original or recoded variables as a confounder in a linear regression model. In a simulation we randomly sampled numbers, recoded those < = 1000 to 0 and those >1000 to 1 and varied the range of the continuous variable, the ratio of recoded zeroes to recoded ones, or both, and again extracted the R-squared from linear models to quantify information loss.ResultsThe R-squared was below 0.8 for 8 out of 91 recoded variables. In 4 cases this had a substantial impact on the regression models, particularly when a continuous variable was recoded into a discrete variable. Our simulation showed that the least information is lost when the ratio of recoded zeroes to ones is 1:1.ConclusionsLarge, pooled datasets provide great opportunities, justifying the efforts for data harmonization. Still, caution is warranted when using recoded variables which variance is explained limitedly by their original variables as this may jeopardize the validity of study results. ]]> <![CDATA[Efficacy and Safety of Ertugliflozin in Patients with Overweight and Obesity with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7109 This study aimed to evaluate ertugliflozin in patients with overweight and obesity with type 2 diabetes mellitus.MethodsData from three placebo‐controlled, randomized, Phase 3 studies were pooled. Patients with baseline BMI ≥ 25 (1,377/1,544; 89%) were assessed with a stratification by BMI subgroup.ResultsAt week 26, reductions from baseline in glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, body weight (BW), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were greater with ertugliflozin versus placebo. For placebo, ertugliflozin 5 mg, and ertugliflozin 15 mg, respectively, least squares mean change was 0.1%, −0.8%, and −0.9% for HbA1c and −1.2 kg, −3.1 kg, and −3.2 kg for BW. HbA1c reductions were consistent across BMI subgroups. For ertugliflozin 5 mg and 15 mg, least squares mean change (placebo adjusted) in absolute BW was −1.4 kg and −1.2 kg for BMI 25 to < 30, −1.8 kg and −1.9 kg for BMI 30 to < 35, and −2.5 kg and −2.9 kg for BMI ≥ 35. Percent BW changes were similar across BMI subgroups. Incidence of adverse events was 52.5%, 44.6%, and 50.1% with placebo, ertugliflozin 5 mg, and ertugliflozin 15 mg, respectively.ConclusionsMeaningful reductions in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, BW, and SBP were observed with ertugliflozin in patients with overweight and obesity with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ertugliflozin improved HbA1c and SBP and reduced BW across BMI subgroups. Ertugliflozin was generally well tolerated. ]]> <![CDATA[Licogliflozin, a Novel SGLT1 and 2 Inhibitor: Body Weight Effects in a Randomized Trial in Adults with Overweight or Obesity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6959 The aim of this study was to explore the dose response of licogliflozin, a dual inhibitor of sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and 2 (SGLT2), by evaluating change in body weight in adults with overweight or obesity.MethodsThis dose‐response analysis evaluated change in body weight following 24 weeks with four once‐daily and twice‐daily licogliflozin doses (2.5‐150 mg) versus placebo (primary end point). A further 24‐week analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of two once‐daily licogliflozin doses in maintaining initial weight reduction.ResultsLicogliflozin once daily or twice daily produced a significant dose‐response signal for weight loss versus placebo (P < 0.0001). However, mean adjusted percent changes in body weight after 24 weeks were modest, ranging from −0.45% to −3.83% (in the 50 mg twice daily group [95% CI: −5.26% to −2.48%]; n = 75). Responder analysis of ≥ 5% weight loss at week 24 revealed significant differences versus placebo, which were most pronounced with highest doses of 50 mg twice daily (45.3%) and 150 mg once daily (42.9%) (both P < 0.01). While weight loss was greater at higher doses, gastrointestinal adverse events were also more frequent. The 50‐mg once‐daily dose had perhaps the best balance between efficacy and tolerability.ConclusionsLicogliflozin produced significant reductions in body weight versus placebo. However, the magnitude of weight reduction was modest. ]]> <![CDATA[OR32-04 Dynamic Interactions Between Luteinizing Hormone and Testosterone in Healthy Community-Dwelling Men: Impact by Age and Body Composition]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6831 Context. Aging is associated with diminished testosterone (Te) secretion, which could be attributed to Leydig cell dysfunction, decreased pituitary stimulation and altered Te feedback. Objective. The goal was to quantify all three regulatory nodes of the GnRH-LH-Leydig cell- axis in the same cohort of healthy men, by measuring (1) indirectly the strength of the endogenous GnRH signal on the gonadotrope, (2) the strength of Te feedback on LH by ketoconazole (KTCZ), and (3) the effect of LH infusions on Te secretion, in relation to age and body composition.

Design. This was a placebo-controlled, blinded, prospectively randomized cross-over study in 40 men, age 19–73 yr, BMI 20–34.3 kg/m2. A submaximal dose of ganirelix (GnRH antagonist) was used to assess outflow of GnRH, by calculating the difference between LH output during the control and ganirelix arm. Ketoconazole (steroidogenic inhibitor) was used to estimate feedback, by the difference in LH output during ketoconazole and control arm. High-dose ganirelix and repeated 6-min LH (18.75 IU) infusions were used to measure testicular responsivity. Blood sampling was at 10-min intervals. The 4 sessions were concluded with, a single submaximally GnRH stimulus to assess the responsiveness of the gonadotrope during ganirelix inhibition.

Setting. The study was performed in a Clinical Translational Research Unit.

Interventions. In 3 of the 4 experiments subjects underwent 5 h of blood sampling at 10-min intervals, starting at 0800 h. At 1100 h GnRH was injected and sampling was continued for another 2 h. Admission was at 1700 h the day before. At 2000 h they received KTCZ, dexamethasone or ganirelix and/or placebo. KTCZ and dexamethasone (or placebo) were administered again at 0700 when the IV catheter was placed. High-dose ganirelix was used to test the testicular responsiveness, and 7 LH pulses (90 min intervals) were given., with blood sampling from 1500 till 1300 h next day.

Outcome measures. Mean concentrations of LH and (bio)Te, deconvolution analysis, endogenous dose-response LH-bioTe relation, and approximate entropy. Abdominal visceral fat (AVF) was calculated from single slice CT.

Results. There were age-, but not body composition-related decreases in estimated endogenous GnRH secretion, Te’s feedback strength on LH, and Leydig cell responsivity to LH, accompanied by changes in approximate entropy. Bioavailable Te levels were negatively related to both age and AVF, without interaction between these variables. The LH response to a submaximal dose of GnRH was independent of age and AVF.

Conclusion. Advancing age is associated with 1) attenuated bioavailable Te secretion caused by diminished GnRH outflow and not by decreased GnRH responsivity of the gonadotrope, 2) diminished testicular responsivity to infused LH pulses, and 3) partial compensation by diminished Te feedback on central gonadotropic regulation.

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<![CDATA[OR30-01 Real-World Minimed™ 670G System Use and Glycemic Outcomes of Pediatric and Adult Individuals Living with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) in the United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6604 Introduction: The MiniMed™ 670G system was FDA-approved in 2016 for adults and adolescents ≥14yrs, and in 2018 for children ages 7-13yrs with T1D. Since then, use of the system has grown to over 180,000 people in the U.S. The glycemic control benefits of real-world MiniMed™ 670G system Auto Mode use in the U.S. were assessed. Methods: System data (aggregated five-minute instances of sensor glucose [SG]) uploaded from March 2017 to July 2019 by individuals (N=118,737) with T1D and ≥7yrs of age who enabled Auto Mode were analyzed to determine the mean % of overall time spent <54mg/dL/<70mg/dL (TBR); between 70-180mg/dL (TIR); and >180mg/dL/>250mg/dL (TAR). The impact of Auto Mode was further assessed in a sub-group of individuals (N=51,254) with, at least, 7 days of SG data for both Auto Mode turned ON and turned OFF. The % of TIR, TBR and TAR, and the associated glucose management indicator (GMI) were evaluated for the overall OFF (2,524,570 days) and ON (6,308,806 days) periods, and across different age groups. Results: System data TIR was 71.3%; TBR was 0.4% and 1.9%, respectively; and TAR was 26.8% and 6.2%, respectively. User-wise data of Auto Mode OFF versus ON showed a mean of 70.3% of the time spent in Auto Mode, that TIR increased from 60.9% to 69.9%; and that both TBR and TAR decreased. For those 7-13yrs (N=1,417), TIR increased from 48.7% to 61.5%; TBR increased from 0.5% to 0.6% and from 2.0% to 2.2%, respectively; and TAR decreased from 49.3% to 36.3% and from 20.5% to 13.0%, respectively. For those 14-21yrs (N=4,194), TIR increased from 51.0% to 61.5%; TBR decreased from 0.7% to 0.6% and from 2.3% to 2.0%, respectively; and TAR decreased from 46.7% to 36.5% and from 18.5% to 12.5%, respectively. For those ≥22yrs (N=45,643), TIR increased from 62.2% to 70.9%; TBR decreased from 0.7% to 0.5% and from 2.6% to 1.9%, respectively; and TAR decreased from 35.2% to 27.3% and from 9.9% to 6.3%, respectively. The mean GMI decreased by 0.23% (overall), 0.48% (7-13yrs), 0.35% (14-21yrs), and 0.22% (22yrs), respectively, with Auto Mode ON versus OFF. Discussion: In over 6 million days of real-world MiniMed™ 670G system Auto Mode use in the U.S., TIR of a large pediatric and adult population with T1D improved by 9% compared to when Auto Mode was OFF, which was comparable to or exceeded the TIR observed in the smaller pivotal trials. These results further support outcomes of the pivotal trials and increased glycemic control with system use.

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<![CDATA[OR30-03 Racial Differences in Technology Use Among Type 1 Diabetes in a Safety-Net Hospital]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6410 Objective: There is limited data regarding the use of diabetes technology such as continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) among patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a minority serving and safety-net hospital. We examined racial differences in the use of CGM and CSII in this setting.

Methods: A retrospective review of 227 patients ≥ 18 years of age with T1D seen in the Endocrinology clinic at a safety-net hospital from October 2016 and September 2017 was completed. Statistical analysis assessed the likelihood of diabetes technology use among different races.

Results: The mean age was 39, 59% male, mean duration of diabetes was 21 years, 30% overweight, 22% obesity, 80% English speaking, and 50% had government insurance. In terms of the distribution of race/ethnicity, 43% were Caucasian, 25% African American (AA), 15% Hispanic, 15% defined as other, and 2% Asian. Mean HbA1c ± standard deviation (SD) of any technology (either CGM or CSII or both) and non-technology users were 8.27 ± 1.58 and 9.49 ± 2.04, respectively. Patients who had government health insurance were found to have lower odds of using technology (odds ratio [OR], 0.43; 95% confidential interval [CI], 0.25 - 0.74) compared to patients who had private health insurance. Overall, 26% of the patients used CSII with 43% of this population Caucasian, 10.5% AA and 14.2% Hispanic. The overall CGM use was 30% with 47% of users Caucasian, 14% AA and 22% Hispanic. In a multivariable logistic regression model that adjusted for insurance and language, AA or other were found to have statistically significant lower odds of using technology (AA OR 0.25 [95% CI 0.11 - 0.53] and other OR 0.33 [95% CI 0.12 - 0.89]) compared to the Caucasian group.

Conclusion: Our study showed that the use of technology in the Caucasian group was statistically significantly higher than in the non-Caucasian groups except for the Asian group. After adjusting for insurance and language, AA and other demonstrated statistically lower rates of technology use. Racial differences in diabetes technology use were observed in our study as well as the association between technology use and lowered HbA1c. Given diabetes technology is a useful tool in reducing HbA1c and hypoglycemia, the barriers to accessing diabetes technology in non-Caucasian individuals should be addressed to decrease health disparities.

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<![CDATA[Topical moistening of mastectomy wounds with diluted tranexamic acid to reduce bleeding: randomized clinical trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0c45a190-1ecc-40c0-95c2-561fa05c6b26

Background

Topical administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) may be an alternative to intravenous administration to reduce bleeding with a lower risk of systemic adverse events. The aim of this study was to investigate whether moistening a surgical wound with TXA before closure, leaving a thin film of drug only, would reduce postoperative bleeding.

Methods

This was a two‐centre, stratified, parallel‐group, placebo‐controlled, double‐blind RCT. Patients undergoing mastectomy with or without axillary lymph node clearance were randomized 1 : 1 to moistening of wound surface before closure with either 25 mg/ml TXA or 0·9 per cent sodium chloride (placebo). The primary endpoint was postoperative bleeding as measured by drain production in the first 24 h. Secondary endpoints were early haematoma, total drain production, postoperative complications and late aspirations of seroma within 3 months.

Results

Between 1 January 2016 and 31 August 2018, 208 patients were randomized. Two patients were converted to a different surgical procedure at surgery, and four did not receive the intervention owing to technical error. Thus, 202 patients were included in the study (101 in the TXA and 101 in the placebo group). TXA reduced mean drain production at 24 h (110 versus 144 ml; mean difference 34 (95 per cent c.i. 8 to 60) ml, P = 0·011). One patient in the TXA group had early haematoma compared with seven in the placebo group (odds ratio (OR) 0·13 (95 per cent c.i. 0·02 to 1·07); P = 0·057). There was no significant difference in postoperative complications between TXA and placebo (13 versus 10; OR 1·11 (0·45 to 2·73), P = 0·824) or need for late seroma aspirations (79 versus 67 per cent; OR 1·83 (0·91 to 3·68), P = 0·089).

Conclusion

Moistening the wound with TXA 25 mg/ml before closure reduces postoperative bleeding within the first 24 h in patients undergoing mastectomy. Registration number: NCT02627560 (https://clinicaltrials.gov).

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<![CDATA[Dialkylcarbamoyl chloride‐coated versus alginate dressings after pilonidal sinus excision: a randomized clinical trial (SORKYSA study)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N897cff3c-ae05-43e4-846d-7bcdd46fb6bc

Background

Disease of the pilonidal sinus is a common condition that affects mainly young adults. Options for management include excision of the sinus tracts, leaving the wound open to heal by secondary intention. The aim of this study was to compare wound healing with dialkylcarbamoyl chloride (DACC)‐coated dressings versus alginate dressings.

Methods

This multicentre trial randomized consecutive patients undergoing surgery for pilonidal disease to postoperative wound care with either DACC‐coated or alginate dressings. The primary outcome was the proportion of wounds healed after 75 days. Secondary outcomes were the local status of wounds during the healing process, the quality assessment of the dressings by the patient, and the time needed to return to usual activities.

Results

A total of 246 patients were included: 120 in the DACC‐coated group and 126 in the alginate group. In per‐protocol analysis, there were significantly more patients with completely healed wounds after 75 days in the DACC group than in the alginate group: 78 of 103 (75·7 per cent) versus 58 of 97 (60 per cent) respectively (odds ratio 2·55, 95 per cent c.i. 1·12 to 5·92; P = 0·023). During follow‐up, wounds with alginate dressings had more fibrin than those with DACC‐coated dressings, but the difference was not significant (P = 0·079). There was no difference between the two arms in patients' assessment of the dressings.

Conclusion

The number of wounds completely healed at 75 days was significantly higher for DACC‐coated compared with alginate dressings. However, the preplanned, clinically significant improvement in healing of 20 per cent was not reached. Registration number: NCT02011802 ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/).

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<![CDATA[Prophylactic use of antibiotics in endoscopic injection of tissue adhesive for the elective treatment of gastric varices: A randomized controlled study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3eceded9-55a7-47e5-a2c3-82b1676d8f9c

Abstract

Background

Tissue adhesive injection is the first‐line treatment for gastric varices rebleeding. Available studies are focused on antibiotic usage in emergency endoscopy, while the use of antibiotics in selective endoscopic tissue adhesive treatment remains controversial.

Methods

This is a randomized controlled study conducted in a tertiary referral hospital. Consecutive patients were enrolled from February 16, 2016, to November 19, 2016, and blindly randomized into two treatment groups. Patients in the prophylactic group received 2 g of cefotiam during endoscopic injection of tissue adhesive. All the subjects were observed for rebleeding, fever, and changes in laboratory indicators in hospital and post‐discharge.

Result

One hundred and seven patients who received endoscopic therapy for gastroesophageal varices were included. Fifty‐three patients were allocated to the antibiotic prophylactic group and 54 patients to the on‐demand group. The two groups had similar baseline characteristics. The incidence of fever in hospital was 2/53 (3.8%) vs 9/54 (16.7%) (P = 0.028). Perioperative and postoperative clinical events were significantly lower in the antibiotic prophylactic group (5.7% vs 24.1%, P = 0.018; 7.5% vs 20.4%, P = 0.050). Inflammation indices were elevated on the first day after endoscopic therapy; however, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. The cumulative rebleeding free rate within 2 months was lower in the antibiotic prophylactic group (1.9% vs 9.3%, P = 0.100).

Conclusion

Our study illustrated that prophylactic use of antibiotics in selective endoscopic injection of tissue adhesive reduced the incidence of the total clinical events in perioperative period and had a trend towards lower rebleeding in 2 months.

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<![CDATA[Effectiveness of the Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) in reducing intimate partner violence and hazardous alcohol use in Zambia (VATU): A randomized controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3889b1ed-7187-41ba-b4d5-94f42ba3d649

Background

Both intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol misuse are highly prevalent, and partner alcohol misuse is a significant contributor to women’s risk for IPV. There are few evidence-based interventions to address these problems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We evaluated the effectiveness of an evidence-based, multi-problem, flexible, transdiagnostic intervention, the Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) in reducing (a) women’s experience of IPV and (b) their male partner’s alcohol misuse among couples in urban Zambia.

Methods and findings

This was a single-blind, parallel-assignment randomized controlled trial in Lusaka, Zambia. Women who reported moderate or higher levels of IPV and their male partners with hazardous alcohol use were enrolled as a couple and randomized to CETA or treatment as usual plus safety checks (TAU-Plus). The primary outcome, IPV, was assessed by the Severity of Violence Against Women Scale (SVAWS) physical/sexual violence subscale, and the secondary outcome, male alcohol misuse, by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Assessors were blinded. Analyses were intent-to-treat. Primary outcome assessments were planned at post-treatment, 12 months post-baseline, and 24 months post-baseline. Enrollment was conducted between May 23, 2016, and December 17, 2016. In total, 123 couples were randomized to CETA, 125 to TAU-Plus. The majority of female (66%) and a plurality of male (48%) participants were between 18 and 35 years of age. Mean reduction in IPV (via SVAWS subscale score) at 12 months post-baseline was statistically significantly greater among women who received CETA compared to women who received TAU-Plus (−8.2, 95% CI −14.9 to −1.5, p = 0.02, Cohen’s d effect size = 0.49). Similarly, mean reduction in AUDIT score at 12 months post-baseline was statistically significantly greater among men who received CETA compared to men who received TAU (−4.5, 95% CI −6.9 to −2.2, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d effect size = 0.43). The Data and Safety Monitoring Board recommended the trial be stopped early due to treatment effectiveness following the 12-month post-baseline assessment, and CETA was offered to control participants. Limitations of the trial included the lack of a true control condition (i.e., that received no intervention), self-reported outcomes that may be subject to social desirability bias, and low statistical power for secondary IPV outcomes.

Conclusions

Results showed that CETA was more effective than TAU-Plus in reducing IPV and hazardous alcohol use among high-risk couples in Zambia. Future research and programming should include tertiary prevention approaches to IPV, such as CETA, rather than offering only community mobilization and primary prevention.

Trial registration

The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02790827).

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<![CDATA[Reporting quality and spin in abstracts of randomized clinical trials of periodontal therapy and cardiovascular disease outcomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5a52c97b-59d0-4564-8bd9-d8b1530b3570

Objective

Poor reporting in randomized clinical trial (RCT) abstracts reduces quality and misinforms readers. Spin, a biased presentation of findings, could frequently mislead clinicians to accept a clinical intervention despite non-significant primary outcome. Therefore, good reporting practices and absence of spin enhances research quality. We aim to assess the reporting quality and spin in abstracts of RCTs evaluating the effect of periodontal therapy on cardiovascular (CVD) outcomes.

Methods

PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and 17 trial registration platforms were searched. Cohort, non-randomized, non-English studies, and pediatric studies were excluded. RCT abstracts were reviewed by 2 authors using the CONSORT for abstracts and spin checklists for data extraction. Cohen’s Kappa statistic was used to assess inter-rater agreement. Data on the selected RCT publication metrics were collected. Descriptive analysis was performed with non-parametric methods. Correlation analysis between quality, spin and bibliometric parameters was conducted.

Results

24 RCTs were selected for CONSORT analysis and 14 fulfilled the criteria for spin analysis. Several important RCT elements per CONSORT were neglected in the abstract including description of the study population (100%), explicitly stated primary outcome (87%), methods of randomization and blinding (100%), trial registration (87%). No RCT examined true outcomes (CVD events). A significant fraction of the abstracts appeared with at least one form of spin in the results and conclusions (86%) and claimed some treatment benefit in spite of non-significant primary outcome (64%). High-quality reporting had a significant positive correlation with reporting of trial registration (p = 0.04) and funding (p = 0.009). Spinning showed marginal negative correlation with reporting quality (p = 0.059).

Conclusion

Poor adherence to the CONSORT guidelines and high levels of data spin were found in abstracts of RCTs exploring the effects of periodontal therapy on CVD outcomes. Our findings indicate that journal editors and reviewers should consider strict adherence to proper reporting guidelines to improve reporting quality and reduce waste.

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<![CDATA[Transcription levels and prognostic significance of the NFI family members in human cancers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N35666724-4e6d-4d2d-8133-baacdd6e75c7

Background

The nuclear factor I (NFI) is a family of transcription factors consisting of four distinct but closely related genes, NFIA, NFIB, NFIC and NFIX, which are important in the development of various tissues and organs in mammals. Recent study results have shown that NFI family may play a critical role in the progression of various human tumors and have been identified as key tumor suppressors and oncogenes for many cancers. However, the expression levels and distinctive prognostic values of the NFI family remain poorly explored in most cancers.

Materials and Methods

In the present study, the differences in mRNA expression of the NFI family in various cancers were investigated using the Oncomine and TCGA databases, and the mRNA expression, genetic alteration and DNA methylation of the NFI family members in various cancers were examined using cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics. In addition, the prognostic significance of the NFI family was assessed in multiple cancers using the Kaplan–Meier plotter (KM plotter) and SurvExpress databases.

Results

The mRNA expression levels in the NFI family were significantly downregulated in most cancers compared with normal tissues and DNA hypermethylation might downregulate the NFI family expression. Although NFIX expression was not downregulated in kidney, colorectal and prostate cancers. Furthermore, NFIB expression was upregulated in gastric cancer. Further survival analyses based on the KM plotter and SurvExpress databases showed dysregulations of the NFI genes were significantly correlated with survival outcomes in breast, lung, and head and neck cancers. Decreased expression levels of NFIA, NFIB and NFIC were associated with poor overall survival (OS) in head and neck cancer. Low mRNA expression of NFIA and NFIB was significantly associated with OS and first progression in lung adenocarcinoma, but not in lung squamous cell carcinoma. In addition, potential correlations between NFI family members and survival outcomes were also observed in liver, esophageal, kidney and cervical cancer.

Conclusion

The results from the present study indicated certain members of the NFI family could be promising therapeutic targets and novel prognostic biomarkers for human cancers.

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<![CDATA[Lupus patient decisions about clinical trial participation: a qualitative evaluation of perceptions, facilitators and barriers]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5ec0b436-29ab-43a0-986b-73cc3a2f1ef4

Objective

Although SLE disproportionately affects minority racial groups, they are significantly under-represented in clinical trials in the USA. This may lead to misleading conclusions in race-based subgroup analyses. We conducted focus groups to evaluate the perceptions of diverse patients with lupus about clinical trial participation.

Methods

A qualitative research design employed three 90 min focus groups led by a trained moderator and guided by the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Open-ended questions about trial participation included advantages and disadvantages (behavioural beliefs), approving and disapproving significant others (normative beliefs), and participation enhancers and barriers (control beliefs). Discussions were recorded, transcribed and analysed to identify emerging themes.

Results

Patients with SLE (n=23) aged 21–72, with increased proportion of minority groups (65%), participated. Reported advantages of trial participation included altruism and personal benefit. Disadvantages included uncertainties, disappointment, information burden, and life–health balance. Although some patients had discussed research participation with approving or disapproving family or friends, self-approval superseded external approval. Barriers included logistics and time, and facilitators included flexibility in scheduling, advance notice of studies, streamlined forms, and hope for SLE improvement.

Conclusions

Knowledge about potential benefits of clinical trial participation was high. Minority patients demonstrated confidence in making their own informed decisions, but major barriers for all participants included burdensome forms, travel, childcare, and work. These suggest a major impact on minority and all recruitment from behavioural and control aspects, which should be considered in the logistics of trial design. This does not minimise the potential importance of improved access and education about clinical research.

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<![CDATA[Sarcopenia in male patients with head and neck cancer receiving chemoradiotherapy: a longitudinal pilot study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7165119a-ee16-4afd-a46c-f8d8b59ea91b

Introduction

Muscle wasting conditions such as sarcopenia may be highly prevalent in advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) patients (16–71%), with these prevalence rates substantially greater in those who have received chemo-radiotherapy (CRT). According to the updated European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People consensus statement, sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of muscle strength, muscle mass and physical performance. The high prevalence of sarcopenia in HNC patients is concerning as it has been associated with substantially increased risk of CRT toxicity, respiratory complications and early mortality. With the high prevalence of HNC and sarcopenia in India and the strong link between sarcopenia and poor HNC patient outcomes, it is important to screen for the presence of sarcopenia in Indian patients receiving CRT for HNC.

Methods

This longitudinal pilot study aimed to routinely monitor 19 men receiving CRT for their HNC for a variety of sarcopenic-related outcomes over three time points during their 7 weeks of CRT. Participants were required to be male, with a minimum age of 30 years, with a Stage III, IVa or IVb diagnosis of HNC and be currently undergoing a 7 weeks course of CRT in an oncology department. Outcomes included probable sarcopenic diagnosis were estimated by the SARC-F, handgrip strength, skeletal muscle mass was estimated by bioelectrical impedance and physical performance was assessed by the Timed Up and Go. Repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc tests were used to identify significant differences at the three time points with a p < 0.05.

Results

The 19 participants in this trial at a mean age of 56.5 ± 10.2 years (range = 39–75 years), with most (n = 13, 68.4%) employed in laboring occupations. At baseline, 31.5% (n = 6) of the participants already had probable sarcopenia based on their total SARC-F score, with this increasing to 89.4% (n = 17) at the end of 7 weeks CRT. In addition, significant decreases in strength, skeletal muscle mass and Timed Up and Go performance were observed, with these declines significantly greater at 7 weeks than 3 weeks after commencing CRT.

Conclusions

Patients with HNC undergoing 7 weeks of CRT showed clinically significant increases in the incidence of probable sarcopenia based on their total SARC-F score as well as clinically significant declines in handgrip strength, skeletal muscle mass and Timed Up and Go performance. Due to the relationship between sarcopenia and a host of adverse events related to CRT in HNC patients, these results suggest that oncologists and their allied health teams should routinely monitor these patients during CRT and provide the relevant exercise therapy and nutritional support to those patients in need.

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<![CDATA[Week 48 Resistance Analyses of the Once-Daily, Single-Tablet Regimen Darunavir/Cobicistat/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Alafenamide (D/C/F/TAF) in Adults Living with HIV-1 from the Phase III Randomized AMBER and EMERALD Trials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8484012e-98e0-46be-9ca2-ec38c4d9c1d0

Darunavir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (D/C/F/TAF) 800/150/200/10 mg is being investigated in two Phase III trials, AMBER (NCT02431247; treatment-naive adults) and EMERALD (NCT02269917; treatment-experienced, virologically suppressed adults). Week 48 AMBER and EMERALD resistance analyses are presented. Postbaseline samples for genotyping/phenotyping were analyzed from protocol-defined virologic failures (PDVFs) with viral load (VL) ≥400 copies/mL at failure/later time points. Post hoc analyses were deep sequencing in AMBER, and HIV-1 proviral DNA from baseline samples (VL <50 copies/mL) in EMERALD. Through week 48 across both studies, no darunavir, primary PI, or tenofovir resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) were observed in HIV-1 viruses of 1,125 participants receiving D/C/F/TAF or 629 receiving boosted darunavir plus emtricitabine/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate. In AMBER, the nucleos(t)ide analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (N(t)RTI) RAM M184I/V was identified in HIV-1 of one participant during D/C/F/TAF treatment. M184V was detected pretreatment as a minority variant (9%). In EMERALD, in participants with prior VF and genoarchive data (N = 140; 98 D/C/F/TAF and 42 control), 4% had viruses with darunavir RAMs, 38% with emtricitabine RAMs, mainly at position 184 (41% not fully susceptible to emtricitabine), 4% with tenofovir RAMs, and 21% ≥ 3 thymidine analog-associated mutations (24% not fully susceptible to tenofovir) detected at screening. All achieved VL <50 copies/mL at week 48 or prior discontinuation. D/C/F/TAF has a high genetic barrier to resistance; no darunavir, primary PI, or tenofovir RAMs were observed through 48 weeks in AMBER and EMERALD. Only one postbaseline M184I/V RAM was observed in HIV-1 of an AMBER participant. In EMERALD, baseline archived RAMs to darunavir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir in participants with prior VF did not preclude virologic response.

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<![CDATA[Ivermectin as an adjuvant to anti-epileptic treatment in persons with onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy: A randomized proof-of-concept clinical trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2a703e18-6320-408f-bd4d-1f677396d877

Introduction

Recent findings from onchocerciasis-endemic foci uphold that increasing ivermectin coverage reduces the epilepsy incidence, and anecdotal evidence suggests seizure frequency reduction in persons with onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy, when treated with ivermectin. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to assess whether ivermectin treatment decreases seizure frequency.

Methods

A proof-of-concept randomized clinical trial was conducted in the Logo health zone in the Ituri province, Democratic Republic of Congo, to compare seizure frequencies in onchocerciasis-infected persons with epilepsy (PWE) randomized to one of two treatment arms: the anti-epileptic drug phenobarbital supplemented with ivermectin, versus phenobarbital alone. The primary endpoint was defined as the probability of being seizure-free at month 4. A secondary endpoint was defined as >50% reduction in seizure frequency at month 4, compared to baseline. Both endpoints were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. In longitudinal analysis, the probability of seizure freedom during the follow-up period was assessed for both treatment arms by fitting a logistic regression model using generalized estimating equations (GEE).

Results

Ninety PWE enrolled between October and November 2017 were eligible for analysis. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed a borderline association between ivermectin treatment and being seizure-free at month 4 (OR: 1.652, 95% CI 0.975–2.799; p = 0.062). There was no significant difference in the probability of experiencing >50% reduction of the seizure frequency at month 4 between the two treatment arms. Also, treatment with ivermectin did not significantly increase the odds of being seizure-free during the individual follow-up visits.

Conclusion

Whether ivermectin has an added value in reducing the frequency of seizures in PWE treated with AED remains to be determined. A larger study in persons with OAE on a stable AED regimen and in persons with recent epilepsy onset should be considered to further investigate the potential beneficial effect of ivermectin treatment in persons with OAE.

Trial registration

Registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT03052998.

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<![CDATA[Randomized clinical trial of the effect of intraoperative humidified carbon dioxide insufflation in open laparotomy for colorectal resection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9a02081b-a3fe-4873-889e-f784d99685f1

Background

Animal studies have shown that peritoneal injury can be minimized by insufflating the abdominal cavity with warm humidified carbon dioxide gas.

Methods

A single‐blind RCT was performed at a tertiary colorectal unit. Inclusion criteria were patient aged 18 years and over undergoing open elective surgery. The intervention group received warmed (37°C), humidified (98 per cent relative humidity) carbon dioxide (WHCO2 group). Multiple markers of peritoneal inflammation and oxidative damage were used to compare groups, including cytokines and chemokines, apoptosis, the 3‐chlorotyrosine/native tyrosine ratio, and light microscopy on peritoneal biopsies at the start (T0) and end (Tend) of the operation. Postoperative clinical outcomes were compared between the groups.

Results

Of 40 patients enrolled, 20 in the WHCO2 group and 19 in the control group were available for analysis. A significant log(Tend/T0) difference between control and WHCO2 groups was documented for interleukin (IL) 2 (5·3 versus 2·8 respectively; P = 0·028) and IL‐4 (3·5 versus 2·0; P = 0·041), whereas apoptosis assays documented no significant change in caspase activity, and similar apoptosis rates were documented along the peritoneal edge in both groups. The 3‐chlorotyrosine/tyrosine ratio had increased at Tend by 1·1‐fold in the WHCO2 group and by 3·1‐fold in the control group. Under light microscopy, peritoneum was visible in 11 of 19 samples from the control group and in 19 of 20 samples from the WHCO2 group (P = 0·006). The only difference in clinical outcomes between intervention and control groups was the number of days to passage of flatus (2·5 versus 5·0 days respectively; P = 0·008).

Conclusion

The use of warmed, humidified carbon dioxide appears to reduce some markers related to peritoneal oxidative damage during laparotomy. No difference was observed in clinical outcomes, but the study was underpowered for analysis of surgical results. Registration number: NCT02975947 ( http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/).

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<![CDATA[Adjuvant statin therapy for oesophageal adenocarcinoma: the STAT‐ROC feasibility study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf3b85b4a-3f75-4404-bd07-720fad428bdb

Background

Statins inhibit proliferative signalling in oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) and their use is associated with better survival in observational studies. The present study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of assessing adjuvant statin therapy in patients with operable OAC in a phase III RCT.

Methods

For this multicentre, double‐blind, parallel‐group, randomized, placebo‐controlled feasibility trial, adults with OAC (including Siewert I–II lesions) who had undergone oesophagectomy were centrally allocated (1 : 1) to simvastatin 40 mg or matching placebo by block randomization, stratified by centre. Participants, clinicians and investigators were blinded to treatment allocation. Patients received treatment for up to 1 year. Feasibility outcomes were recruitment, retention, drug absorption, adherence, safety, quality of life, generalizability and survival.

Results

A total of 120 patients were assessed for eligibility at four centres, of whom 32 (26·7 per cent) were randomized, 16 in each group. Seven patients withdrew. Participants allocated to simvastatin had lower low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 3 months (adjusted mean difference −0·83 (95 per cent c.i. −1·4 to −0·22) mmol/l; P = 0·009). Median adherence to medication was greater than 90 per cent between 3 and 12 months' follow‐up. Adverse events were similar between the groups. Quality‐of‐life data were complete for 98·3 per cent of questionnaire items. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and aspirin use were more prevalent in the non‐randomized group, whereas tumour site, stage and grade were similar between groups. Survival estimates were imprecise.

Conclusion

This RCT supports the conduct and informs the design considerations for a future phase III trial of adjuvant statin therapy in patients with OAC. Registration number: ISRCTN98060456 (http://www.isrctn/com).

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<![CDATA[Randomized Crossover Trial Evaluating the Impact of Senofilcon A Photochromic Lens on Driving Performance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc5a06654-0b9e-4ef6-b8ec-52d30ee4bbd7

SIGNIFICANCE

The first contact lens to incorporate a photochromic additive was cleared by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration last year. Because any ophthalmic lens that absorbs visible wavelengths will reduce retinal illuminance, it is important to understand the impact of this new photochromic contact lens on vision and both daytime and nighttime driving performance.

PURPOSE

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of senofilcon A photochromic contact lens wear on vision and driving performance under real-world conditions by comparison with a nonphotochromic contact lens and plano photochromic spectacles.

METHODS

In this randomized four-visit bilateral crossover study, 24 licensed regular drivers and established wearers of soft contact lenses were enrolled. Subjects wore in random order each of three study lens types: the investigational photochromic soft contact lens (test), a nonphotochromic soft contact lens (control 1), and plano photochromic spectacle lenses (control 2). Driver performance was assessed on a closed-circuit driving track under challenging controlled conditions. The primary endpoint was overall driving performance score calculated as a composite Z score of six objective metrics.

RESULTS

All 24 subjects (mean age, 29.8 years) completed the study. For nighttime driving, the adjusted mean differences in Z score (95% confidence interval) between test and control 1 and between test and control 2 were 0.069 (−0.045 to +0.183) and 0.117 (0.003 to 0.231), respectively. For daytime driving, mean differences were 0.101 (−0.013 to +0.216) between test and control 1 and 0.044 (−0.070 to +0.158) between test and control 2. Results demonstrated noninferiority of the test lens relative to controls for nighttime and daytime driving performance using a noninferiority margin of −0.25 Z score. Noninferiority was also demonstrated on all logMAR and contrast threshold testing. No adverse events were reported during the study.

CONCLUSIONS

Study results revealed no evidence of concerns with either driving performance or vision while wearing photochromic contact lenses.

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