ResearchPad - cns-inflammatory-and-thermogenic-influences-of-body-weight https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[OR04-04 Identification of a Novel Transcriptional Regulator of Metabolic Disease in Circulating and Central Myeloid Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6924 Derangement in systemic metabolic homeostasis is tightly associated with widespread activation of resident and circulating immune cells, a phenomenon known as ‘metaflammation’. Numerous studies have explored the role of tissue resident and circulating macrophages in contributing to metaflammation, obesity, and their sequelae; however, there is a dearth of information regarding targetable transcriptional regulators of the genesis and persistence of metabolic disease. Here, we identify myeloid Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) as a novel regulator of metabolic disease. Previous reports demonstrate that KLF2 serves as a critical regulator of myeloid cell quiescence and is downregulated in numerous acute and chronic inflammatory states. Specifically in the context of chronic metaflammation, we note that KLF2 expression is decreased in circulating immune cells of obese patients and in adipose tissue macrophages of high fat diet (HFD) fed mice, which is consistent with the hypothesis that KLF2 regulates metaflammation. To explore this further, we utilized mice with myeloid cell-specific deletion of KLF2 (K2KO) which exhibit accelerated obesity and insulin resistance. K2KO mice have widespread central (i.e. CNS) and peripheral metaflammation both in the basal and HFD-stimulated states. To discern whether the effect of myeloid deletion of KLF2 on metabolism is due to deletion in microglia in the feeding centers of the hypothalamus or in peripheral immune cells, bone marrow chimeras with head shielding were created. 50% reconstitution of circulating immune cells with K2KO cells in wildtype (WT) mice was sufficient to maintain the metabolic disease phenotype, while mice with K2KO microglia + WT circulating cells had only slightly improved outcomes compared to K2KO mice. Conversely, ablation of microglia in K2KO mice using PLX5622 formulated in HFD also successfully attenuated the aberrant feeding behavior, weight gain, and glucose dyshomeostasis seen in K2KO mice. Together, these data demonstrate a role for loss of KLF2 in hematopoietic and CNS resident cells in causing metabolic disease. Given that myeloid KLF2 expression decreases under metabolic stress in WT mice and humans, we sought to explore whether maintenance of KLF2 expression in these cells would be protective against diet-induced metabolic disease. Indeed, mice with myeloid-specific overexpression of KLF2 demonstrated a markedly improved metabolic phenotype when challenged with HFD, providing evidence that targeting KLF2 expression in myeloid cells may prove to be a therapeutic option against metaflammation.

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<![CDATA[OR04-01 MRAP2 Regulates Energy Homeostasis by Promoting Primary Cilia Localization of MC4R]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6663 Genetic studies in humans and mice have demonstrated that the Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R) is essential for adequate regulation of food intake and body weight. MC4R is expressed in a small population of hypothalamic neurons and very little is known about its molecular and cellular dynamics in vivo. We have recently demonstrated that MC4R localizes to and functions at the primary cilia of select hypothalamic neurons to control energy homeostasis. The primary cilium is a solitary hair-like organelle that serves as an antenna sensing extracellular environment. Defective primary cilia lead to a series of conditions known as ciliopathies, that can manifest through a variety of clinical features, including hyperphagia and obesity.

Here we establish that the ciliary localization and the body weight regulating activity of MC4R is dependent on a single-pass transmembrane accessory protein: the Melanocortin Receptor Associated Protein 2 (MRAP2). Specifically, we show that deleting MRAP2 specifically from MC4R neurons (MC4RMRAP2-/-) leads to early onset obesity and hyperphagia. In vitro, co-expression of MRAP2 in ciliated IMCD3 cells increases MC4R localization to the primary cilium. We further demonstrate that MRAP2 and MC4R colocalize specifically at the primary cilium in vivo, and that MC4R fails to localize to the primary cilium when MRAP2 is deleted.

These findings highlight the role of the primary cilium in the control of energy homeostasis, and the importance of accessory proteins for the localization of GPCRs to the primary cilium where they exert their function, in this case being critical for the regulation of energy homeostasis.

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<![CDATA[OR04-06 G Protein GSα in Muscle Is Essential for Survival During Cold Adaptation in the Absence of Thermogenesis of Brown Adipose Tissue]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2906eb27-1212-43e5-8b0c-1d101d21e827 <![CDATA[OR04-02 The Role of the Sympathetic Nervous System in Metabolic Disorder and Adipose Dysfunction in Obesity and Aging]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc251d729-c090-473c-bb62-64a39b27a5fe <![CDATA[OR04-05 MYOD1 Is Associated with Eosinophil-Mediated Browning of Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N35f25b79-b15c-4809-bebd-0dde0b384f37 <![CDATA[OR04-03 Calcitonin Receptor Expressing Neurons in the PVH Regulate Feeding Behavior]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N796f8792-14ba-4eeb-9d28-6e89f7cbe0e4