ResearchPad - coagulation-its-disorders https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Relationship between factor VIII activity, bleeds and individual characteristics in severe hemophilia A patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11014 Pharmacokinetic-based prophylaxis of replacement factor VIII (FVIII) products has been encouraged in recent years, but the relationship between exposure (factor VIII activity) and response (bleeding frequency) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between FVIII dose, plasma FVIII activity, and bleeding patterns and individual characteristics in severe hemophilia A patients. Pooled pharmacokinetic and bleeding data during prophylactic treatment with BAY 81-8973 (octocog alfa) were obtained from the three LEOPOLD trials. The population pharmacokinetics of FVIII activity and longitudinal bleeding frequency, as well as bleeding severity, were described using non-linear mixed effects modeling in NONMEM. In total, 183 patients [median age 22 years (range, 1-61); weight 60 kg (11-124)] contributed with 1,535 plasma FVIII activity observations, 633 bleeds and 11 patient/study characteristics [median observation period 12 months (3.1-13.1)]. A parametric repeated time-to-categorical bleed model, guided by plasma FVIII activity from a 2-compartment population pharmacokinetic model, described the time to the occurrence of bleeds and their severity. Bleeding probability decreased with time of study, and a bleed was not found to affect the time of the next bleed. Several covariate effects were identified, including the bleeding history in the 12-month pre-study period increasing the bleeding hazard. However, unexplained inter-patient variability in the phenotypic bleeding pattern remained large (111%CV). Further studies to translate the model into a tool for dose individualization that considers the individual bleeding risk are required. Research was based on a post-hoc analysis of the LEOPOLD studies registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: 01029340, 01233258 and 01311648.

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<![CDATA[Accuracy of the Ottawa score in risk stratification of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer-associated venous thromboembolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11007 In patients with cancer-associated venous thromboembolism, knowledge of the estimated rate of recurrent events is important for clinical decision-making regarding anticoagulant therapy. The Ottawa score is a clinical prediction rule designed for this purpose, stratifying patients according to their risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism during the first six months of anticoagulation. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies validating either the Ottawa score in its original or modified versions. Two investigators independently reviewed the relevant articles published from 1st June 2012 to 15th December 2018 and indexed in MEDLINE and EMBASE. Nine eligible studies were identified; these included a total of 14,963 patients. The original score classified 49.3% of the patients as high-risk, with a sensitivity of 0.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6-0.8], a 6-month pooled rate of recurrent venous thromboembolism of 18.6% (95%CI: 13.9-23.9). In the low-risk group, the recurrence rate was 7.4% (95%CI: 3.4-12.5). The modified score classified 19.8% of the patients as low-risk, with a sensitivity of 0.9 (95%CI: 0.4-1.0) and a 6-month pooled rate of recurrent venous thromboembolism of 2.2% (95%CI: 1.6-2.9). In the high-risk group, recurrence rate was 10.2% (95%CI: 6.4-14.6). Limitations of our analysis included type and dosing of anticoagulant therapy. We conclude that new therapeutic strategies are needed in patients at high risk for recurrent cancer-associated venous thromboembolism. Low-risk patients, as per the modified score, could be good candidates for oral anticoagulation. (This systematic review was registered with the International Prospective Registry of Systematic Reviews as: PROSPERO CRD42018099506).

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<![CDATA[Analyses of the FranceCoag cohort support differences in immunogenicity among one plasma-derived and two recombinant factor VIII brands in boys with severe hemophilia A]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bf50e67d5eed0c4848624c8

Around one third of boys with severe hemophilia A develop inhibitors (neutralizing antibodies) against their therapeutic factor VIII product. This adverse effect may result in more life-threatening bleeding, disability, impaired quality of life, and costly care. We compared the incidence of inhibitors in boys treated with the three factor VIII products most used in France: one plasma-derived (Factane) and two recombinant products (Advate and Kogenate Bayer). A previously untreated cohort of patients was created in 1994 to investigate risk factors for inhibitor development. We selected boys with severe hemophilia A (factor VIII <1 IU/dL) first treated with one of the three factor VIII products studied. Details of product infusions, inhibitor assays and main fixed and time-varying inhibitor risk factors were recorded for the first 75 exposure days. Three outcomes (all inhibitors, high-titer inhibitors and subsequently treated inhibitors) were analyzed by univariate and multivariate Cox models. We studied 395 boys first treated between 2001 and 2016 (131, 137, and 127 with Factane, Advate, and Kogenate Bayer, respectively). Clinically significant inhibitors were diagnosed in 121 patients (70 high-titer). The incidence of high-titer inhibitors was significantly associated with the factor VIII product received (P=0.005): the cumulative incidence at 75 exposure days was 12.7% (95% CI: 7.7–20.6) with Factane, 20.4% (95% CI: 14.0–29.1) with Advate, and 31.6% (95% CI: 23.5–41.7) with Kogenate Bayer. The low inhibitor incidence observed with Factane is concordant with recent findings from the SIPPET randomized trial. These consistent results from observational and experimental studies should lead to improved care for previously untreated patients and cost savings for healthcare systems worldwide.

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<![CDATA[Comparative profiling of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ associated factor VIII peptides presented by monocyte-derived dendritic cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bf50e65d5eed0c484862496

The development of anti-factor VIII antibodies is a major complication of the treatment of patients with hemophilia A. Generation of high affinity anti-factor VIII antibodies is dependent on help provided by CD4+ T cells that recognize factor VIII-derived peptides presented on class II major histocompatibility complex on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. In order to identify the immune-dominant epitopes that can be presented to CD4+ T cells, we previously developed a mass spectrometry-based method to identify factor VIII-derived peptides that are presented on human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR. In the present work, we compared the repertoire of FVIII-derived peptide presented on HLA-DR and HLA-DQ. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells from nine HLA-typed healthy donors were pulsed with recombinant factor VIII. HLA-DR and HLA-DQ molecules were purified using monoclonal antibodies. Our data show that HLA-DQ and HLA-DR present a similar repertoire of factor VIII-derived peptides. However, the number of peptides associated with HLA-DQ was lower than that with HLA-DR. We also identified a peptide, within the acidic a3 domains of factor VIII, which is presented with higher frequency on HLA-DQ. Interestingly, this peptide was found to have a higher predicted affinity for HLA-DQ than for HLA-DR. Taken together, our data suggest that HLA-DQ participates in the presentation of factor VIII peptides, thereby contributing to the development of inhibitory antibodies in a proportion of patients with severe hemophilia A.

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