ResearchPad - colon https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Anti-cancer effects of <i>Bifidobacterium</i> species in colon cancer cells and a mouse model of carcinogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14495 Probiotics are suggested to prevent colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate the anticancer properties of some potential probiotics in vitro and in vivo.Materials and methodsAnticancer effects of potential probiotic groups were investigated following of in LS174T cancer cells compared to IEC-18 normal cells. 1. a single strain of Bifidobacterium. breve, 2. a single strain of Lactobacillus. reuteri, 3. a cocktail of 5 strains of Lactobacilli (LC), 4. a cocktail of 5 strains of Bifidobacteria (BC), 5. a cocktail of 10 strains from Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (L+B). Apoptosis rate, EGFR, HER-2 and PTGS-2 (COX-2 protein) expression levels were assessed as metrics of evaluating anticancer properties. Effect of BC, as the most effective group in vitro, was further assessed in mice models.ResultsBC induced ~21% and only ~3% apoptosis among LS174T and IEC-18 cells respectively. BC decreased the expression of EGFR by 4.4 folds, HER-2 by 6.7 folds, and PTGS-2 by 20 folds among the LS174T cells. In all these cases, BC did not interfere significantly with the expression of the genes in IEC-18 cells. This cocktail has caused only 1.1 folds decrease, 1.8 folds increase and 1.7 folds decrease in EGFR, HER-2 and PTGS-2 expression, respectively. Western blot analysis confirmed these results in the protein level. BC significantly ameliorated the disease activity index, restored colon length, inhibited the increase in incidence and progress of tumors to higher stages and grades.ConclusionsBC was the most efficient treatment in this study. It had considerable “protective” anti-cancer properties and concomitantly down regulated EGFR, HER-2 and PTGS-2 (COX-2), while having significant anti-CRC effects on CRC mice models. In general, this potential probiotic could be considered as a suitable nutritional supplement to treat and prevent CRC. ]]> <![CDATA[Exploiting differential Wnt target gene expression to generate a molecular biomarker for colorectal cancer stratification]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14464 Pathological Wnt pathway activation is a conserved hallmark of colorectal cancer. Wnt-activating mutations can be divided into: i) ligand-independent (LI) alterations in intracellular signal transduction proteins (Adenomatous polyposis coli, β-catenin), causing constitutive pathway activation and ii) ligand-dependent (LD) mutations affecting the synergistic R-Spondin axis (RNF43, RSPO-fusions) acting through amplification of endogenous Wnt signal transmembrane transduction. Our aim was to exploit differential Wnt target gene expression to generate a mutation-agnostic biomarker for LD tumours.DesignWe undertook harmonised multi-omic analysis of discovery (n=684) and validation cohorts (n=578) of colorectal tumours collated from publicly available data and the Stratification in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. We used mutation data to establish molecular ground truth and subdivide lesions into LI/LD tumour subsets. We contrasted transcriptional, methylation, morphological and clinical characteristics between groups.ResultsWnt disrupting mutations were mutually exclusive. Desmoplastic stromal upregulation of RSPO may compensate for absence of epithelial mutation in a subset of stromal-rich tumours. Key Wnt negative regulator genes were differentially expressed between LD/LI tumours, with targeted hypermethylation of some genes (AXIN2, NKD1) occurring even in CIMP-negative LD cancers. AXIN2 mRNA expression was used as a discriminatory molecular biomarker to distinguish LD/LI tumours (area under the curve >0.93).ConclusionsEpigenetic suppression of appropriate Wnt negative feedback loops is selectively advantageous in LD tumours and differential AXIN2 expression in LD/LI lesions can be exploited as a molecular biomarker. Distinguishing between LD/LI tumour types is important; patients with LD tumours retain sensitivity to Wnt ligand inhibition and may be stratified at diagnosis to clinical trials of Porcupine inhibitors. ]]> <![CDATA[Recapitulation of the accessible interface of biopsy-derived canine intestinal organoids to study epithelial-luminal interactions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N24a1d01a-2f11-47b7-a628-8330af6f7455

Recent advances in canine intestinal organoids have expanded the option for building a better in vitro model to investigate translational science of intestinal physiology and pathology between humans and animals. However, the three-dimensional geometry and the enclosed lumen of canine intestinal organoids considerably hinder the access to the apical side of epithelium for investigating the nutrient and drug absorption, host-microbiome crosstalk, and pharmaceutical toxicity testing. Thus, the creation of a polarized epithelial interface accessible from apical or basolateral side is critical. Here, we demonstrated the generation of an intestinal epithelial monolayer using canine biopsy-derived colonic organoids (colonoids). We optimized the culture condition to form an intact monolayer of the canine colonic epithelium on a nanoporous membrane insert using the canine colonoids over 14 days. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy revealed a physiological brush border interface covered by the microvilli with glycocalyx, as well as the presence of mucin granules, tight junctions, and desmosomes. The population of stem cells as well as differentiated lineage-dependent epithelial cells were verified by immunofluorescence staining and RNA in situ hybridization. The polarized expression of P-glycoprotein efflux pump was confirmed at the apical membrane. Also, the epithelial monolayer formed tight- and adherence-junctional barrier within 4 days, where the transepithelial electrical resistance and apparent permeability were inversely correlated. Hence, we verified the stable creation, maintenance, differentiation, and physiological function of a canine intestinal epithelial barrier, which can be useful for pharmaceutical and biomedical researches.

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<![CDATA[Head-to-Head Comparison of Family History of Colorectal Cancer and a Genetic Risk Score for Colorectal Cancer Risk Stratification]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8b441e80-8715-4c1e-80df-457cddceaa68

OBJECTIVES:

Family history (FH) is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to examine the potential for CRC risk stratification by known common genetic variants beyond FH in a large population-based case-control study from Germany.

METHODS:

Four thousand four hundred forty-seven cases and 3,480 controls recruited in 2003–2016 were included for whom comprehensive interview, medical, and genomic data were available. Associations with CRC risk were estimated from multiple logistic regression models for FH and a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 90 previously identified risk variants.

RESULTS:

CRC in a first-degree relative was associated with a 1.71-fold (95% confidence interval 1.47–2.00) increase in CRC risk. A higher risk increase (odds ratio 2.06, 95% confidence interval 1.78–2.39) was estimated for the GRS when it was dichotomized at a cutoff yielding the same positivity rate as FH among controls. Furthermore, the GRS provides substantial additional risk stratification in both people with and especially without FH. Equal or even slightly higher risks were observed for participants without FH with a GRS in the upper 20% compared with participants with FH with a GRS below median. The observed patterns were confirmed in a replication study.

DISCUSSION:

In contrast to common perception, known genetic variants do not primarily reflect some minor share of the familial excess risk of CRC, but rather reflect a substantial share of risk independent of FH.

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<![CDATA[Efficacy of Sox10 Promoter Methylation in the Diagnosis of Intestinal Neuronal Dysplasia From the Peripheral Blood]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne191a4e7-b444-4354-8b12-562720b9127d

OBJECTIVES:

Intestinal neuronal dysplasia (IND) is a common malformation of the enteric nervous system. Diagnosis requires a full-thickness colonic specimen and an experienced pathologist, emphasizing the need for noninvasive analytical methods. Recently, the methylation level of the Sox10 promoter has been found to be critical for enteric nervous system development. However, whether it can be used for diagnostic purposes in IND is unclear.

METHODS:

Blood and colon specimens were collected from 32 patients with IND, 60 patients with Hirschsprung disease (HD), and 60 controls. Sox10 promoter methylation in the blood and the Sox10 expression level in the colon were determined, and their correlation was analyzed. The diagnostic efficacy of blood Sox10 promoter methylation was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve.

RESULTS:

The blood level of Sox10 promoter methylation at the 32nd locus was 100% (90%–100%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 92.29%–96.37%) in control, 90% (80%–90%; 95% CI, 82.84%–87.83%) in HD, and 60% (50%–80%; 95% CI, 57.12%–69.76%) in IND specimens. Sox10 promoter methylation in the peripheral blood was negatively correlated with Sox10 expression in the colon, which was low in control, moderate in HD, and high in IND specimens (r = −0.89). The area under the curve of Sox10 promoter methylation in the diagnosis of IND was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.874–1.000, P = 0.000), with a cutoff value of 85% (sensitivity, 90.6%; specificity, 95.0%). By applying a cutoff value of 65%, promoter methylation was more indicative of IND than HD.

DISCUSSION:

The analysis of Sox10 promoter methylation in the peripheral blood can be used as a noninvasive method for IND diagnosis.

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<![CDATA[Molecular Biomarkers of Sessile Serrated Adenoma/Polyps]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N33b11bfd-2813-48ef-8fd7-1283836df0a3

OBJECTIVES:

Sessile serrated adenoma/polyps (SSA/Ps) contribute up to 30% of all colon cancers. There is considerable histological overlap between SSA/Ps and hyperplastic polyps. Inadequate consensus exists among pathologists, and no molecular biomarkers exist to differentiate these lesions with high accuracy. Lack of reliable diagnosis adversely affects clinical care. We previously defined a novel 7-gene panel by RNA sequencing that differentiates SSA/Ps from hyperplastic polyps. Here, we use the 7-gene panel as a molecular approach to differentiate SSA/Ps and HPs with higher sensitivity and specificity in a large sample set from a tertiary health care center.

METHODS:

Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction of the 7-gene panel was performed on 223 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded serrated polyp and normal colon samples. We compare the sensitivity and specificity of the 7-gene panel with the BRAF and KRAS mutation incidence in differentiating SSA/Ps and HPs. We also evaluate the clinical data of patients with SSA/Ps showing high and low expression of the gene panel.

RESULTS:

The 7-gene RNA expression panel differentiates SSA/Ps and HPs with 89.2% sensitivity and 88.4% specificity. The gene panel outperforms BRAF mutation in identification of SSA/Ps. Clinical data suggest that expression of the 7-gene panel correlates with the development of SSA/Ps in the future.

DISCUSSION:

This study describes a novel 7-gene panel that identifies SSA/Ps with improved accuracy. Our data show that RNA markers of SSA/Ps advance the distinction of serrated lesions and contribute to the study of the serrated pathway to colon cancer.

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<![CDATA[Cecal Perforation in the Setting of Campylobacter jejuni Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf94c1151-ced1-48fe-9d02-ab594ee418f9

ABSTRACT

Campylobacter infection is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, yet life-threatening complications are extremely rare. We present a 32-year-old previously healthy man who presented with dysentery from Campylobacter jejuni, which was complicated by cecal perforation and secondary bacterial peritonitis.

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<![CDATA[Low plasma vitamin D is associated with adverse colorectal cancer survival after surgical resection, independent of systemic inflammatory response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1ba9cecc-9f94-492a-bcb8-ba64e640fdd4

Objective

We assessed the effect of surgical resection of colorectal cancer (CRC) on perioperative plasma vitamin D (25OHD) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level. We investigated the relationship between circulating vitamin D level and CRC survival.

Design

We sequentially sampled 92 patients undergoing CRC resection, and measured plasma 25OHD and CRP. For survival analyses, we assayed 25OHD and CRP in two temporally distinct CRC patient cohorts (n=2006, n=2100) and investigated the association between survival outcome, circulating vitamin D and systemic inflammatory response.

Results

Serial sampling revealed a postoperative fall (mean 17.3 nmol/L; p=3.6e-9) in plasma 25OHD (nadir days 1–2). CRP peaked 3–5 days postoperatively (143.1 mg/L; p=1.4e-12), yet the postoperative fall in 25OHD was independent of CRP. In cohort analyses, 25OHD was lower in the 12 months following operation (mean=48.8 nmol/L) than preoperatively (54.8 nmol/L; p=1.2e-5) recovering after 24 months (52.2 nmol/L; p=0.002). Survival analysis in American Joint Committee on Cancer stages I–III demonstrated associations between 25OHD tertile and CRC mortality (HR=0.69; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.91) and all-cause mortality (HR=0.68; 95% CI 0.50 to 0.85), and was independent of CRP. We observed interaction effects between plasma 25OHD and rs11568820 genotype (functional VDR polymorphism) with a strong protective effect of higher 25OHD only in patients with GG genotype (HR=0.51; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.81). We developed an online tool for predicted survival (https://apps.igmm.ed.ac.uk/mortalityCalculator/) that incorporates 25OHD with clinically useful predictive performance (area under the curve 0.77).

Conclusions

CRC surgery induces a fall in circulating 25OHD. Plasma 25OHD level is a prognostic biomarker with low 25OHD associated with poorer survival, particularly in those with rs11568820 GG genotype. A randomised trial of vitamin D supplementation after CRC surgery has compelling rationale.

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<![CDATA[Personalised surveillance for serrated polyposis syndrome: results from a prospective 5-year international cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5e565932-8e32-49ee-b370-35607e005035

Background and aims

Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). International guidelines recommend surveillance intervals of 1–2 years. However, yearly surveillance likely leads to overtreatment for many. We prospectively assessed a surveillance protocol aiming to safely reduce the burden of colonoscopies.

Methods

Between 2013 and 2018, we enrolled SPS patients from nine Dutch and Spanish hospitals. Patients were surveilled using a protocol appointing either a 1-year or 2-year interval after each surveillance colonoscopy, based on polyp burden. Primary endpoint was the 5-year cumulative incidence of CRC and advanced neoplasia (AN) during surveillance.

Results

We followed 271 SPS patients for a median of 3.6 years. During surveillance, two patients developed CRC (cumulative 5-year incidence 1.3%[95% CI 0% to 3.2%]). The 5-year AN incidence was 44% (95% CI 37% to 52%), and was lower for patients with SPS type III (26%) than for patients diagnosed with type I (53%) or type I and III (59%, p<0.001). Most patients were recommended a 2-year interval, and those recommended a 2-year interval were not at increased risk of AN: AN incidence after a 2-year recommendation was 15.6% compared with 24.4% after a 1-year recommendation (OR 0.57, p=0.08).

Conclusion

Risk stratification substantially reduced colonoscopy burden while achieving CRC incidence similar to previous studies. AN incidence is considerable in SPS patients, but extension of surveillance intervals was not associated with increased AN in those identified as low-risk by the protocol. We identified SPS type III patients as low-risk group that might benefit from even less frequent surveillance.

Trial registration number

The study was registered on http://www.trialregister.nl; trial-ID NTR4609.

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<![CDATA[Morbidity and Mortality After Surgery for Nonmalignant Colorectal Polyps: A 10-Year Nationwide Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7cf7a988-db31-4b42-9828-f008b694a550

OBJECTIVES:

Rates of surgery for nonmalignant colorectal polyps are increasing in the United States despite evidence that most polyps can be managed endoscopically. We aimed to determine nationally representative estimates and to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality and morbidity after surgery for nonmalignant colorectal polyps.

METHODS:

Data were analyzed from the National Inpatient Sample for 2005–2014. All discharges for adult patients undergoing surgery for nonmalignant colorectal polyps were identified. Rates of in-hospital mortality and postoperative wound, infectious, urinary, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, or cardiovascular adverse events were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression using survey-weighted data was used to evaluate covariables associated with postoperative mortality and morbidity.

RESULTS:

An estimated 262,843 surgeries for nonmalignant colorectal polyps were analyzed. In-hospital mortality was 0.8% [95% confidence interval: 0.7%–0.9%] and morbidity was 25.3% [95% confidence interval: 24.2%–26.4%]. Postoperative mortality was associated with open surgical technique (vs laparoscopic), older age, black race (vs non-Hispanic white), Medicaid use, and burden of comorbidities. Female sex and private insurance were associated with lower risk. Patients developing a postoperative adverse event had a 106% increase in mean hospital length of stay (10.3 vs 5.0 days; P < 0.0001) and 91% increase in mean hospitalization cost ($77,015.24 vs $40,258.30; P < 0.0001).

DISCUSSION:

Surgery for nonmalignant colorectal polyps is associated with almost 1% mortality and common morbidity. These findings should inform risk vs benefit discussions for clinicians and patients, and although confounding by patient selection cannot be excluded, the risks associated with surgery support consideration of endoscopic resection as a potentially less invasive therapeutic option.

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<![CDATA[Strategies to Improve Follow-up After Positive Fecal Immunochemical Tests in a Community-Based Setting: A Mixed-Methods Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c973c6fd5eed0c484968769

OBJECTIVES:

The effectiveness of fecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening for colorectal cancer depends on timely colonoscopy follow-up of positive tests, although limited data exist regarding effective system-level strategies for improving follow-up rates.

METHODS:

Using a mixed-methods design (qualitative and quantitative), we first identified system-level strategies that were implemented for improving timely follow-up after a positive FIT test in a large community-based setting between 2006 and 2016. We then evaluated changes in time to colonoscopy among FIT-positive patients across 3 periods during the study interval, controlling for screening participant age, sex, race/ethnicity, comorbidity, FIT date, and previous screening history.

RESULTS:

Implemented strategies over the study period included setting a goal of colonoscopy follow-up within 30 days of a positive FIT, tracking FIT-positive patients, early telephone contact to directly schedule follow-up colonoscopies, assigning the responsibility for follow-up tracking and scheduling to gastroenterology departments (vs primary care), and increasing colonoscopy capacity. Among 160,051 patients who had a positive FIT between 2006 and 2016, 126,420 (79%) had a follow-up colonoscopy within 180 days, including 67% in 2006–2008, 79% in 2009–2012, and 83% in 2013–2016 (P < 0.001). Follow-up within 180 days in 2016 varied moderately across service areas, between 72% (95% CI 70–75) and 88% (95% CI 86–91), but there were no obvious differences in the pattern of strategies implemented in higher- vs lower-performing service areas.

CONCLUSIONS:

The implementation of system-level strategies coincided with substantial improvements in timely colonoscopy follow-up after a positive FIT. Intervention studies are needed to identify the most effective strategies for promoting timely follow-up.

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<![CDATA[Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme inhibitor 2 (AZIN2) is a signature of secretory phenotype and independent predictor of adverse prognosis in colorectal cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c70673fd5eed0c4847c6c9d

Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting enzyme of polyamine synthesis. The two ODC antizyme inhibitors (AZIN1) and (AZIN2) are regulators of the catalytic activity of ODC. While AZIN1 is a regulator of cell proliferation, AZIN2 is involved in intracellular vesicle transport and secretion. There are no previous reports on the impact of AZIN2 expression in human cancer. We applied immunohistochemistry with antibodies to human AZIN2 on tissue micro- arrays of colorectal cancers (CRC) from 840 patients with a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range 0–25.8). The 5-year disease-specific survival rate was 58.9% (95% Cl 55.0–62.8%). High AZIN2 expression was associated with mucinous histology (p = 0.002) and location in the right hemicolon (p = 0.021). We found no association with age, gender, stage, or histological tumor grade. High tumor expression of AZIN2 predicted an unfavorable prognosis (p<0.0001, log-rank test), compared to low AZIN2 expression. Cox multivariable analysis identified AZIN2 as an independent factor of an unfavorable prognosis in CRC. The strongest AZIN2 expression was seen in invasive tumor cells having morphological features of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Induction of EMT in HT-29 CRC cells lead to upregulated expression of endogenous AZIN2. Given that AZIN2 is a regulator of vesicle transport and secretion, we overexpressed human AZIN2 cDNA in T84 CRC cells, and found strongly enhanced accumulation of CD63-positive exosomes in the culture medium. These findings indicate that AZIN2 expression is a signature of EMT-associated secretory phenotype that is linked to an adverse prognosis in CRC.

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<![CDATA[Plasma MicroRNA Signature Validation for Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8bf7c9d5eed0c484b1e6be

OBJECTIVES:

Specific microRNA (miRNA) signatures in biological fluids can facilitate earlier detection of the tumors being then minimally invasive diagnostic biomarkers. Circulating miRNAs have also emerged as promising diagnostic biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. In this study, we investigated the performance of a specific signature of miRNA in plasma samples to design a robust predictive model that can distinguish healthy individuals from those with CRC or advanced adenomas (AA) diseases.

METHODS:

Case control study of 297 patients from 8 Spanish centers including 100 healthy individuals, 101 diagnosed with AA, and 96 CRC cases. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription was used to quantify a signature of miRNA (miRNA19a, miRNA19b, miRNA15b, miRNA29a, miRNA335, and miRNA18a) in plasma samples. Binary classifiers (Support Vector Machine [SVM] linear, SVM radial, and SVM polynomial) were built for the best predictive model.

RESULTS:

Area under receiving operating characteristic curve of 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.871–0.962) was obtained retrieving a model with a sensitivity of 0.85 and specificity of 0.90, positive predictive value of 0.94, and negative predictive value of 0.76 when advanced neoplasms (CRC and AA) were compared with healthy individuals.

CONCLUSIONS:

We identified and validated a signature of 6 miRNAs (miRNA19a, miRNA19b, miRNA15b, miRNA29a, miRNA335, and miRNA18a) as predictors that can differentiate significantly patients with CRC and AA from those who are healthy. However, large-scale validation studies in asymptomatic screening participants should be conducted.

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<![CDATA[Fusobacterium Septicemia with Liver and Lung Abscesses Due to Diverticulitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c79b630d5eed0c4841ecd73

The Fusobacterium species is known for its association with septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein (Lemierre’s syndrome). Lemierre’s syndrome is associated with septic emboli to the liver and lungs, often causing multiple abscesses. We present a unique case of Fusobacterium septicemia in which the bacteria invaded the portal vein through the gastrointestinal mucosa due to diverticulitis and spread hematogenously to the liver and lungs, causing abscesses. It was treated successfully with 6 weeks of antibiotics. Physicians should be aware of this rare pathogen and suspect its presence in severe pharyngitis or culture-negative liver abscess.

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<![CDATA[The Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) is a useful biomarker in predicting metastatic colon cancer using the ADC-value of the primary tumor]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633946d5eed0c484ae63d7

Purpose

To investigate the role of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) as a potential imaging biomarker to predict metastasis (lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis) in colon cancer based on the ADC-value of the primary tumor.

Methods

Thirty patients (21M, 9F) were included retrospectively. All patients received a 1.5T MRI of the colon including T2 and DWI sequences. ADC maps were calculated for each patient. An expert reader manually delineated all colon tumors to measure mean ADC and histogram metrics (mean, min, max, median, standard deviation (SD), skewness, kurtosis, 5th-95th percentiles) were calculated. Advanced colon cancer was defined as lymph node mestastasis (N+) or distant metastasis (M+). The student Mann Whitney U-test was used to assess the differences between the ADC means of early and advanced colon cancer. To compare the accuracy of lymph node metastasis (N+) prediction based on morpholigical criteria versus ADC-value of the primary tumor, two blinded readers, determined the lymph node metastasis (N0 vs N+) based on morphological criteria. The sensitivity and specificity in predicting lymph node metastasis was calculated for both readers and for the ADC-value of the primary tumor, with histopathology results as the gold standard.

Results

There was a significant difference between the mean ADC-value of advanced versus early tumors (p = 0.002). The optimal cut off value was 1179 * 10−3 mm2/s with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83 and a sensitivity and specificity of 81% and 86% respectively to predict advanced tumors. Histogram analyses did not add any significant additional value.

The sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of lymph node metastasis based on morphological criteria were 40% and 63% for reader 1 and 30% and 88% for reader 2 respectively. The primary tumor ADC-value using 1.179 * 10−3 mm2/s as threshold had a 100% sensitivity and specificity in predicting lymph node metastasis.

Conclusion

The ADC-value of the primary tumor has the potential to predict advanced colon cancer, defined as lymph node metastasis or distant metastasis, with lower ADC values significantly associated with advanced tumors. Furthermore the ADC-value of the primary tumor increases the prediction accuracy of lymph node metastasis compared with morphological criteria.

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<![CDATA[BAP1 expression is prognostic in breast and uveal melanoma but not colon cancer and is highly positively correlated with RBM15B and USP19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8c4d5eed0c48496f124

BAP1 is a tumor suppressor gene important to the development and prognosis of many cancers, especially uveal melanoma (UM). Its role in more common cancers such as breast and colon cancer is largely unknown. We collected the transcriptome profiling data sets from the TCGA uveal melanoma (TCGA-UVM), breast cancer (TCGA-BRCA), and colon cancer (TCGA-COAD) projects to analyze the expression of BAP1. We found that patients with UM and breast cancer, but not colon cancer, who died had a lower level of BAP1 gene expression compared to surviving patients. Importantly, in breast cancer patients, the lowest BAP1 expression levels corresponded to the dead young patients (age at diagnosis < 46). Since the number of cases in TCGA-BRCA was much higher than TCGA-UVM, we obtained highly correlated genes with BAP1 in invasive breast carcinomas. Then, we tested if these genes are also highly correlated with BAP1 in UM and colon cancer. We found that BAP1 is highly positively correlated with RBM15B and USP19 expression in invasive breast carcinoma, UM, and colon adenocarcinoma. All three genes are located in close proximity on the 3p21 tumor suppressor region that is commonly altered in many cancers.

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<![CDATA[Dynamic distribution of gallbladder microbiota in rabbit at different ages and health states]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8fed5eed0c48496f5f4

The internal environment of the gallbladder has been considered extremely unfavorable for bacterial growth, and the microbial profile of the gallbladder still unknown. By high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, we studied the microbial profile of the gallbladder from healthy rabbits before and after weaning. Moreover, we investigated the difference of microbiota between the gallbladder and gut. Our results showed that the gallbladder was dominantly populated by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria in the phylum throughout the developmental stages of rabbits. The adult rabbits showed higher species richness and exhibited higher bacterial diversity than rabbits before weaning based on the results of alpha diversity. Beta diversity analyses indicated differences in the bacterial community composition between different developmental stages. In the comparison of the gallbladder and feces, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were dominant in the phylum, as they were present in about 61% and 21% of the feces, respectively. Conversely, in the gallbladder, Firmicutes was the most dominant (about 41%), and Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were present in about 16% and 22% of the gallbladder, respectively. The Unweighted UniFrac Principal Coordinate Analysis results illustrated samples clustered into 2 categories: the gallbladder and feces. Our study might provide a foundation for knowledge on gallbladder microbiota for the first time and a basis for further studies on gallbladder and intestinal health.

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<![CDATA[Strain specific maturation of Dendritic cells and production of IL-1β controls CD40-driven colitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c605a19d5eed0c4847cc98f

Intestinal integrity is maintained by balanced numbers of CD103+ Dendritic cells (DCs), which generate peripherally induced regulatory T cells (iTregs). We have developed a mouse model where DC-specific constitutive CD40 signals caused a strong reduction of CD103+ DCs in the lamina propria (LP) and intestinal lymph nodes (LN). As a consequence, also iTregs were strongly reduced and transgenic mice on the C57Bl/6-background (B6) developed fatal colitis. Here we describe that transgenic mice on a pure Balb/c-background (B/c) do not show any pathologies, while transgenic C57Bl/6 x Balb/c (F1) mice develop weak colon inflammation, without fatal colitis. This graded pathology correlated with the effects of CD40-signalling on DCs in each background, with striking loss of CD103+ DCs in B6, but reduced in F1 and diminished in B/c background. We further show direct correlation of CD103+ DC-numbers with numbers of iTregs, the frequencies of which behave correspondingly. Striking effects on B6-DCs reflected robust loss of surface MHCII, known to be crucial for iTreg induction. Furthermore, elevated levels of IL-23 together with IL-1, found only in B6 mice, support generation of intestinal IFN-γ+IL-17+ Th17 cells and IFN-γ+ Th1 cells, responsible for onset of disease. Together, this demonstrates a novel aspect of colitis-control, depending on genetic background. Moreover, strain-specific environmental sensing might alter the CD103+ DC/iTreg-axis to tip intestinal homeostatic balance to pathology.

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<![CDATA[To B12 or not to B12: Five questions on the role of cobalamin in host-microbial interactions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b7b6d5eed0c484490a34 ]]> <![CDATA[Distinct shed microvesicle and exosome microRNA signatures reveal diagnostic markers for colorectal cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390bcfd5eed0c48491e776

Extracellular vesicle (EV) microRNAs are of major interest as potential diagnostic biomarkers in all cancer types. This study aims to identify miRNA profiles of shed microvesicles (sMVs) and exosomes (Exos) secreted from the isogenic colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines SW480 and SW620 and evaluate their ability to predict CRC. Deep sequencing of miRNAs in parental cell lysates (CLs) and highly-purified sMVs and Exos was performed. We focused on miRNAs enriched in EVs and dysregulated miRNAs in metastatic cells (SW620) relative to primary cancer cells (SW480). We investigated the ability of EV miRNA signatures to predict CRC tumours using 594 tumours (representing different pathological stages) and 11 normal samples obtained from TCGA. In SW480 and SW620 cells we identified 345 miRNAs, of which 61 and 73 were upregulated and downregulated in SW620-CLs compared to SW480-CLs, respectively. Selective distribution of cellular miRNAs into EVs results in distinct miRNA signatures for sMVs and Exos in each cell line. Cross cell line comparisons of EV miRNA profiles reveal a subset of miRNAs critical in CRC progression from primary carcinoma to metastasis. Many miRNAs non-detectable (<5 TPM) in CLs were significantly enriched (>1000 TPM) in secreted EVs. Strikingly, miR-7641 which is non-detectable in SW480-CL but upregulated in SW620-CL is highly enriched in EVs secreted from both cell lines. Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated that EV miRNA profiles can be used to predict CRC tumours with ~96% accuracy. Our findings suggest that EV miRNA profiles from CRC cell lines may allow prediction of CRC tumours, and that miR-7641 may serve as an attractive candidate for the specific, non-invasive diagnosis and prognosis of CRC.

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