ResearchPad - communication https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Prevalence and Subtypes of <i>Blastocystis</i> in Alpacas, <i>Vicugna pacos</i> in Shanxi Province, China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14155 Blastocystis, an enteric protist, has been reported to be an important cause of protozoal gastrointestinal manifestations in humans and animals worldwide. Animals harboring certain Blastocystis subtypes (STs) may serve as a potential source of human infection. However, information about the prevalence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis in alpacas is limited. In the present study, a total of 366 fecal samples from alpacas in Shanxi Province, northern China, were examined for Blastocystis by PCR amplification of the small subunit rRNA gene, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The prevalence of Blastocystis in alpacas was 23.8%, and gender difference in the prevalence of Blastocystis was observed. The most predominant Blastocystis ST was ST10, followed by ST14 and ST5. The detection of ST5, a potentially zoonotic genotype, indicates that alpacas harboring ST5 could be a potential source of human infection with Blastocystis. These data provide new insight into the prevalence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis in alpacas.

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<![CDATA[A Novel Anti-Microbial Peptide from <i>Pseudomonas</i>, REDLK Induced Growth Inhibition of <i>Leishmania tarentolae</i> Promastigote In Vitro]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14106 Leishmaniasis is a prevalent cause of death and animal morbidity in underdeveloped countries of endemic area. However, there is few vaccine and effective drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are involved in the innate immune response in many organisms and are being developed as novel drugs against parasitic infections. In the present study, we synthesized a 5-amino acid peptide REDLK, which mutated the C-terminus of Pseudomonas exotoxin, to identify its effect on the Leishmania tarentolae. Promastigotes were incubated with different concentration of REDLK peptide, and the viability of parasite was assessed using MTT and Trypan blue dye. Morphologic damage of Leishmania was analyzed by light and electron microscopy. Cellular apoptosis was observed using the annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis detection kit, mitochondrial membrane potential assay kit and flow cytometry. Our results showed that Leishmania tarentolae was susceptible to REDLK in a dose-dependent manner, disrupt the surface membrane integrity and caused parasite apoptosis. In our study, we demonstrated the leishmanicidal activity of an antimicrobial peptide REDLK from Pseudomonas aeruginosa against Leishmania tarentolae in vitro and present a foundation for further research of anti-leishmanial drugs.

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<![CDATA[Expression of Hsp60 and its cell location in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14086 Paracoccidioides species cause paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic mycosis highly prevalent in Brazil. Therapy of PCM has some issues that make studies for new therapeutic and vaccine targets relevant, such as the P. brasiliensis 60-kDa-heat-shock protein (PbHsp60), an immunogenic antigen that induces protection in experimental mice infection. Here, we investigated the relative expression of mRNA for PbHsp60 in P. brasiliensis in the different morphotypes of P. brasiliensis and in morphological transition phases. In addition, antibodies to rPbHsp60 were produced and used to analyze the location of PbHsp60 in yeast and hyphae by electron microscopy. The analyses showed a substantial increase in the relative amounts of HSP60 mRNA in yeast when compared to mycelium and an intermediate expression in transitional forms. Regarding the cell location, immunoelectron microscopy analysis revealed that PbHsp60 is within the cell wall. These observations suggest that this protein may be involved in the maintenance of the cell wall integrity and the interaction with the host for colonization, infection and pathogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Molecular Diagnosis of <i>Taenia saginata</i> Tapeworms from Two Residents of Northern Cambodia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14052 Taenia saginata infection has seldom been reported in Cambodia. In this study, we performed a survey of intestinal parasites in 1,156 residents of Preah Vihear and Stung Treng Provinces in 2018. The results revealed that 26 (2.4%) cases were positive for Taenia spp. eggs. In order to obtain the strobilae of the tapeworms, 2 patients in Preah Vihear were treated with praziquantel and purged with magnesium salts. The proglottids expelled after the medication were morphologically and molecularly analyzed to determine the species. The main uterine lateral braches in gravid proglottids were >15 in number suggesting that they are either T. saginata or Taenia asiatica. The sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and 2 nuclear loci, elongation factor-1 alpha (ef1) and ezrin-radixin-moesin-like protein (elp), were identical to the sequences of T. saginata available in GenBank but distant from Taenia solium, T. asiatica, and T. saginata-T. asiatica hybrid. This is the first report of the presence of T. saginata in the northern part of Cambodia bordering Lao PDR based on a molecular confirmation.

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<![CDATA[Immunoreactivity of proteins within 30-40 kDa range during the acute and the recovery phases in rats experimentally infected with <i>Strongyloides venezuelensis</i> ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13970 In experimental infection with Strongyloides venezuelensis, the acute and recovery phases can be distinguished, unlike human infections caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production of anti-Strongyloides IgG antibodies and the recognition of immunogenic protein bands during the acute and the recovery phases in rats experimentally infected with S. venezuelensis. Rats were infected subcutaneously with 400 or 4,000 S. venezuelensis infective larvae. The acute phase was characterized by elimination of a large number of eggs in the faeces on days 6-14 post infection; the recovery phase was characterized by the resolution of the infection between days 30 and 35 post infection. Differences in IgG levels were observed in the acute and the recovery phases. Different antigenic fractions were recognized in both phases of infection. It is concluded that proteins within the 30-40 kDa range are immunoreactive markers for both the acute and the recovery phases in rats experimentally infected with S. venezuelensis, particularly using membrane antigen.

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<![CDATA[Immunogenicity of Exosomes from Dendritic Cells Stimulated with <i>Toxoplasma gondii</i> Lysates in Ocularly Immunized Mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13911 Immunogenicity of dendritic cell-derived exosomes stimulated with Toxoplasma gondii lysates (TLA exo), mixed with cholera toxin as an adjuvant, was investigated in mice immunized via 2 mucosal routes (ocular vs intranasal). BALB/c mice were injected 3 times with TLA exo vaccine at 2 week interval, and the levels of IgG in serum and IgA in tear, saliva, feces, and vaginal wash were measured. To observe the expression of T. gondii-specific B1 gene, mice infected with ME49 T. gondii cysts were immunized with TLA exo or PBS exo (not stimulated with TLA), and their brain tissues were examined. The mice vaccinated via intranasal route elicited significantly higher humoral and mucosal immune responses compared with mice treated with PBS alone. Also, mice immunized via ocular route (by eyedrop) induced significantly higher T. gondii-specific IgG in serum and IgA in tear and feces in comparison with PBS controls. B1 gene expression was significantly lower in TLA exo vaccinated mice than in PBS or PBS exo vaccinated mice. These results demonstrated that ocular immunization of mice with TLA exo vaccine has the potential to stimulate systemic or local antibody responses. This study also highlighted an advantage of an eyedrop vaccine as an alternative for T. gondii intranasal vaccines.

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<![CDATA[Identification of Free-Living Amoebas in Tap Water of Buildings with Storage Tanks in Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13902 Free-living amoebas (FLAs) can cause severe disease in humans and animals when they become infected. However, there are no accurate survey reports on the prevalence of FLAs in Korea. In this study, we collected 163 tap water samples from buildings, apartments, and restrooms of highway service areas in 7 Korean provinces with high population density. All these buildings and facilities have water storage tanks in common. The survey was separated into categories of buildings, apartments, and highway service areas. Five hundred milliliters of tap water from each building was collected and filtered with 0.2 μm pore filter paper. The filters were incubated in agar plates with heated E. coli at 25°C. After axenization, genomic DNA was collected from each FLA, and species classification was performed using partial 18S-rDNA PCR-sequencing analysis. We found that 12.9% of tap water from buildings with storage tanks in Korea was contaminated with FLAs. The highway service areas had the highest contamination rate at 33.3%. All of the FLAs, except one, were genetically similar to Vermamoeba vermiformis (Hartmannella vermiformis). The remaining FLA (KFA21) was very similar to Acanthamoeba lugdunensis (KA/E26). Although cases of human infection by V. vermiformis are very rare, we must pay attention to the fact that one-third of tap water supplies in highway service areas have been contaminated.

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<![CDATA[What makes an effective grants peer reviewer? An exploratory study of the necessary skills]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13869 This exploratory mixed methods study describes skills required to be an effective peer reviewer as a member of review panels conducted for federal agencies that fund research, and examines how reviewer experience and the use of technology within such panels impacts reviewer skill development. Two specific review panel formats are considered: in-person face-to-face and virtual video conference. Data were collected through interviews with seven program officers and five expert peer review panelists, and surveys from 51 respondents. Results include the skills reviewers’ consider necessary for effective review panel participation, their assessment of the relative importance of these skills, how they are learned, and how review format affects skill development and improvement. Results are discussed relative to the peer review literature and with consideration of the importance of professional skills needed by successful scientists and peer reviewers.

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<![CDATA[Comparability of modern contraceptive use estimates between a face-to-face survey and a cellphone survey among women in Burkina Faso]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13849 The proliferation of cell phone ownership in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) presents the opportunity to collect public health indicators at a lower cost compared to face-to-face (FTF) surveys. This analysis assesses the equivalence of modern contraceptive prevalence estimates between a nationally representative FTF survey and a cell phone survey using random digit dialing (RDD) among women of reproductive age in Burkina Faso.MethodsWe analyzed data from two surveys conducted in Burkina Faso between December 2017 and May 2018. The FTF survey conducted by Performance Monitoring and Accountability (PMA2020) comprised a nationally representative sample of 3,556 women of reproductive age (15–49 years). The RDD survey was conducted using computer-assisted telephone interviewing and included 2,379 women of reproductive age.ResultsCompared to FTF respondents, women in the RDD sample were younger, were more likely to have a secondary degree and to speak French. RDD respondents were more likely to report using modern contraceptive use (40%) compared to FTF respondents (26%) and the difference remained unchanged after applying post-stratification weights to the RDD sample (39%). This difference surpassed the equivalence margin of 4%. The RDD sample also produced higher estimates of contraceptive use than the subsample of women who owned a phone in the FTF sample (32%). After adjusting for women’s sociodemographic factors, the odds of contraceptive use were 1.9 times higher (95% CI: 1.6–2.2) in the RDD survey compared to the FTF survey and 1.6 times higher (95% CI: 1.3–1.8) compared to FTF phone owners.ConclusionsModern contraceptive prevalence in Burkina Faso is over-estimated when using a cell phone RDD survey, even after adjusting for a number of sociodemographic factors. Further research should explore causes of differential estimates of modern contraceptive use by survey modes. ]]> <![CDATA[Left powerless: A qualitative social media content analysis of the Dutch #breakthesilence campaign on negative and traumatic experiences of labour and birth]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13813 Disrespect and abuse during labour and birth are increasingly reported all over the world. In 2016, a Dutch client organization initiated an online campaign, #genoeggezwegen (#breakthesilence) which encouraged women to share negative and traumatic maternity care experiences. This study aimed (1) to determine what types of disrespect and abuse were described in #genoeggezwegen and (2) to gain a more detailed understanding of these experiences.MethodsA qualitative social media content analysis was carried out in two phases. (1) A deductive coding procedure was carried out to identify types of disrespect and abuse, using Bohren et al.’s existing typology of mistreatment during childbirth. (2) A separate, inductive coding procedure was performed to gain further understanding of the data.Results438 #genoeggezwegen stories were included. Based on the typology of mistreatment during childbirth, it was found that situations of ineffective communication, loss of autonomy and lack of informed consent and confidentiality were most often described. The inductive analysis revealed five major themes: ‘‘lack of informed consent”; ‘‘not being taken seriously and not being listened to”; ‘‘lack of compassion”; ‘‘use of force”; and ‘‘short and long term consequences”. “Left powerless” was identified as an overarching theme that occurred throughout all five main themes.ConclusionThis study gives insight into the negative and traumatic maternity care experiences of Dutch women participating in the #genoeggezwegen campaign. This may indicate that disrespect and abuse during labour and birth do happen in the Netherlands, although the current study gives no insight into prevalence. The findings of this study may increase awareness amongst maternity care providers and the community of the existence of disrespect and abuse in Dutch maternity care, and encourage joint effort on improving care both individually and systemically/institutionally. ]]> <![CDATA[Effect of Mass Drug Administration with a Single Dose of Albendazole on <i>Ascaris lumbricoides</i> and <i>Trichuris trichiura</i> Infection among Schoolchildren in Yangon Region, Myanmar]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13900 Soil-transmitted helminths, including Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, are important intestinal parasites mostly affecting younger people in developing countries. In 2014–2015, we performed mass fecal examinations targeting a total of 2,227 schoolchildren in 3 districts (South Dagon, North Dagon, and Hlaing-thar-yar) of Yangon Region, Myanmar, using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The egg positive children were subjected to a mass drug administration (MDA) using a single oral dose of 400 mg albendazole. The pre-treatment egg positive rate (EPG/person) of A. lumbricoides averaged 17.2% (15,532); it was 25.2% (21,796), 14.2% (11,816), and 12.8% (12,983) in 3 districts, respectively, and that of T. trichiura averaged 19.4% (1,074), and was 24.1% (1,040), 12.3% (852), and 21.2% (1,330) in 3 districts, respectively. Follow-up fecal examinations performed 4 months post-MDA revealed considerable decreases of A. lumbricoides prevalence (EPG/person) to av. 8.3% (12,429), and 13.7% (17,640), 8.0% (7,797), and 4.5% (11,849) in 3 districts, respectively. However, T. trichiura did not show any recognizable decrease in the prevalence (EPG/person) remaining at av. 18.2% (862), and 18.5% (888), 11.5% (812), and 23.3% (887) in 3 districts, respectively. The results demonstrated difficulty in short-term control of T. trichiura by MDA using albendazole and suggested necessity of either a long-term MDA (>10 years) or changing the albendazole regimen into 2~3-day course (total 800 or 1,200 mg), or using an alternative drug/drug combination.

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<![CDATA[Phylogenetic Characteristics of <i>Echinococcus granulosus</i> Sensu Lato in Uzbekistan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13898 Echinococcosis occurs mainly in areas with heavy livestock farming, such as Central Asia, America, and Australia. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) infection causes echinococcosis in intermediate hosts, such as sheep, cattle, goats, camels, and horses. Numerous cases of echinococcosis occur in Uzbekistan as stock farming is a primary industry. Epidemiological and genetic studies of E. granulosus s.l. are very important for mitigating its impact on public health and the economy; however, there are no such studies on E. granulosus s.l. in Uzbekistan. In the present study, to determine which genotypes exist and are transmitted, we isolated Echinococcus sp. from definitive hosts (one isolate each from jackal and dog) and intermediate hosts (52 isolates from humans and 6 isolates from sheep) in Uzbekistan and analyzed the isolates by sequencing 2 mitochondrial DNA components (cox1 and nad1). The results showed that all of isolates except one belonged to the E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) G1 and G3 genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis based on cox1 sequences showed that 42 isolates from humans, 6 isolates from sheep, and one isolate from jackal were the G1 genotype, whereas the remaining 8 isolates from human and the one isolate from dog were the G3 genotype. These results suggest that the G1 and G3 genotypes of E. granulosus s.s. are predominant in Uzbekistan, and both wild animals and domestic animals are important for maintaining their life cycle. Only one isolate from human sample was confirmed to be E. eqiinus (G4 genotype), which is known to be for the first time.

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<![CDATA[Bonuses and pitfalls of a paperless drive-through screening and COVID-19: A field report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13708 As the world witnessed the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2, the World Health Organization has called for governing bodies worldwide to intensify case findings, contact tracing, monitoring, and quarantine or isolation of contacts with COVID-19. Drive-through (DT) screening is a form of case detection which has recently gain preference globally. Proper implementation of this system can help remediate the outbreak.

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<![CDATA[Protocols, Personal Protective Equipment Use, and Psychological/Financial Stressors in Endoscopy Units During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Large Survey of Hospital-Based and Ambulatory Endoscopy Centers in the United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13536 <![CDATA[Yield and Implications of Pre-Procedural COVID-19 Polymerase Chain Reaction Testing on Routine Endoscopic Practice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13535 <![CDATA[Colchicine’s effects on metabolic and inflammatory molecules in adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome: results from a pilot randomized controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13318 Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that colchicine may have metabolic and cardiovascular and benefits in at-risk patients; however, the mechanisms through which colchicine may improve outcomes are still unclear. We sought to examine colchicine’s effects on circulating inflammatory and metabolic molecules in adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS).MethodsBlood samples were collected pre- and post-intervention during a double-blind randomized controlled trial in which 40 adults with obesity and MetS were randomized to colchicine 0.6 mg or placebo twice-daily for 3 months. Serum samples were analyzed for 1305 circulating factors using the SomaScan Platform. The Benjamini–Hochberg procedure was used to adjust the false discovery rate (FDR) for multiple testing.ResultsAt baseline, age (48.0 ± 13.8 vs. 44.7 ± 10.3 years) and BMI (39.8 ± 6.4 vs. 41.8 ± 8.2 kg/m2) were not different between groups. After controlling for the FDR, 34 molecules were significantly changed by colchicine. Colchicine decreased concentrations of multiple inflammatory molecules, including C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and resistin, in addition to vascular-related proteins (e.g., oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor, phosphodiesterase 5A). Conversely, relative to placebo, colchicine significantly increased concentrations of eight molecules including secreted factors associated with metabolism and anti-thrombosis.ConclusionsIn adults with obesity, colchicine significantly affected concentrations of proteins involved in the innate immune system, endothelial function and atherosclerosis, uncovering new mechanisms behind its cardiometabolic effects. Further research is warranted to investigate whether colchicine’s IL-6 suppressive effects may be beneficial in COVID-19. ]]> <![CDATA[Use of portfolios in teaching communication skills and professionalism for Portuguese-speaking medical students]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13139 This study aimed to analyse the effect of a portfolio with three activities fostering students’ reflection, self-efficacy and teaching of communication skills and professionalism.MethodsA cross-sectional study was applied with a sample of third- and fourth-year medical students in one Portuguese and three Brazilian universities. A three-activity portfolio (course evaluation and learning, self-efficacy activity and free reflective writing) was used during a two-month course on communication skills and professionalism. The 69 students enrolled in the course were invited to complete the three-activity portfolio via Likert-type questionnaires, open-ended questions and narrative. Content and lexical analysis and the Reflection Evaluation for Learners’ Enhanced Competencies Tool (REFLECT) were used for assessing the qualitative data. The questionnaires were evaluated using principal components analysis and Cronbach’s α. Pearson’s correlation was applied to portfolio activities. ResultsOf the 69 participants, 85.5% completed at least one activity. Reflecting on what they learned in the communication module, the students did not mention professionalism themes. In the self-efficacy activity on communication, 25% of the fragments were related to professionalism themes. There was a negative correlation between students’ self-efficacy and the REFLECT rubric score (r(19)=−0.744; p< 0.0001).ConclusionsTeachers must consider the activity’s influence on the reflections when assessing the portfolio. This model of a three-activity portfolio provided diverse ways of encouraging and assessing reflections, supporting teaching improvement and adaptation, evaluating students’ self-efficacy and showing that students’ higher reflective capacity may promote feelings of low effectiveness. ]]> <![CDATA[Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in 16-year-old Icelandic adolescent and its association with bone mineral density]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12758 The aim of the study was to assess the potential association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD) among 16-year-old adolescents and to study the prevalence of 25(OH)D insufficiency, defined as concentration under 50 nmol/l.Design:A cross-sectional study.Setting:Reykjavik, Iceland, latitude 64°08′N. Measurements took place in the Icelandic Heart Association's research lab during April–June 2015.Participants:In total, 411 students in Reykjavik, Iceland, were invited to participate, 315 accepted the invitation (76·6 %) and 289 had valid data (mainly Caucasian).Results:25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l was observed in 70 % of girls and 66·7 % of boys. 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l was significantly associated with higher whole-body BMD after adjusting for the influence of sex, height, fat mass and lean mass. A linear relationship between 25(OH)D and whole-body BMD was significant for 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l (n 199, P < 0·05) but NS for 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l (n 86, P = 0·48).Conclusions:Our results are in line with some but not all previous studies on the relationship between BMD and 25(OH)D in adolescents. The observed difference in BMD between those with above v. below a 25(OH)D concentration of 50 nmol/l was of about a fifth of one SD, which may have a clinical relevance as one SD decrease in volumetric BMD has been associated with a 89 % increase in 2 years risk of fracture. Icelandic adolescents should be encouraged to increase their vitamin D intake as it is possible that their current intake is insufficient to achieve optimal peak bone mass. ]]> <![CDATA[Enhancement of membrane lipid peroxidation in lung cancer cells irradiated with monoenergetic X-rays at the K-shell resonance absorption peak of phosphorus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12620 The aim of this study was to determine whether membrane lipid peroxidation in mammalian cells is enhanced by X-ray irradiation at the K-shell resonance absorption peak of phosphorus. A549 and wild-type p53-transfected H1299 (H1299/wtp53) cell lines derived from human lung carcinoma were irradiated with monoenergetic X-rays at 2.153 keV, the phosphorus K-shell resonance absorption peak, or those at 2.147 or 2.160 keV, which are off peaks. Immunofluorescence staining for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a lipid peroxidation product, was used as marker for protein modification. In both cell lines, the HNE production was significantly enhanced after irradiation at 2.153 keV compared to sham-irradiation. The enhancement (E) was calculated as the ratio of the fluorescence intensity of irradiated cells to that of sham-irradiated cells. In both the cell lines, E2.153 was significantly larger than E2.147 and no significant difference between E2.147 and E2.160 was observed. The extra enhancement at 2.153 keV was possibly caused by energy transition within the phosphorus K-shell resonance absorption. Our results indicate that membrane lipid peroxidation in cells is enhanced by the Auger effect after irradiation at the K-shell resonance absorption peak of phosphorus rather than by the photoelectric effect of the constituent atoms in the membrane lipid at 2.147 keV.

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<![CDATA[Absorbed radiation doses in the thyroid as estimated by UNSCEAR and subsequent risk of childhood thyroid cancer following the Great East Japan Earthquake]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12615 The identification of thyroid cancers among children after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident propelled concerns regarding long-term radiation effects on thyroid cancer in children affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in Fukushima, Japan. Herein we consider the potential association between absorbed dose in the thyroid and the risk of developing thyroid cancer as detected by ultrasonography on 300 473 children and adolescents aged 0–18 years in Fukushima. The absorbed dose mentioned in the present study indicates the sum of that from external exposure and that from internally deposited radionuclides. We grouped participants according to estimated absorbed doses in each of 59 municipalities in Fukushima Prefecture, based on The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2013 report. The 59 municipalities were assigned to quartiles by dose. We limited our analyses to participants aged ≥6 years because only one case of thyroid cancer was observed in participants aged ≤5 years; 164 299 participants were included in the final analysis. Compared with the lowest dose quartile, the age- and sex-adjusted rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the low-middle, high-middle and highest quartiles were 2.00 (0.84–4.80), 1.34 (0.50–3.59) and 1.42 (0.55–3.67) for the 6–14-year-old groups and 1.99 (0.70–5.70), 0.54 (0.13–2.31) and 0.51 (0.12–2.15) for the >15-year-old group, respectively. No dose-dependent pattern emerged from the geographical distribution of absorbed doses by municipality, as estimated by UNSCEAR, and the detection of thyroid cancer among participants within 4–6 years after the accident. Ongoing surveillance might further clarify the effects of low-dose radiation exposure on thyroid cancer in Fukushima.

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