ResearchPad - communication-equipment https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Exploring psychosocial factors that influence smartphone dependency among Korean adolescents]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14478 This study investigated the relationships among psychosocial factors that contribute to smartphone dependency among South Korean adolescents. This cross-sectional study involved the secondary data analysis of the 2016 Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey, a nationwide multistage cluster survey. Data were collected from 1,840 7th grade students in South Korea and analyzed with descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, and a path analysis using SPSS 21.0 and AMOS 23.0. The path analysis showed that self-esteem and aggressiveness directly influenced smartphone dependency, while affective parenting attitude, peer attachment, resilience, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms indirectly influenced it. The explanatory variables accounted for 18.3% of the total variance. In conclusion, parents’ education on positive parenting and guidance concerning adolescents’ smartphone use is necessary to reduce adolescents’ smartphone dependency. It may also prove effective to promote adolescents’ interpersonal skills and self-esteem to foster positive peer relationships and self-control concerning smartphone use.

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<![CDATA[Comparability of modern contraceptive use estimates between a face-to-face survey and a cellphone survey among women in Burkina Faso]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13849 The proliferation of cell phone ownership in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) presents the opportunity to collect public health indicators at a lower cost compared to face-to-face (FTF) surveys. This analysis assesses the equivalence of modern contraceptive prevalence estimates between a nationally representative FTF survey and a cell phone survey using random digit dialing (RDD) among women of reproductive age in Burkina Faso.MethodsWe analyzed data from two surveys conducted in Burkina Faso between December 2017 and May 2018. The FTF survey conducted by Performance Monitoring and Accountability (PMA2020) comprised a nationally representative sample of 3,556 women of reproductive age (15–49 years). The RDD survey was conducted using computer-assisted telephone interviewing and included 2,379 women of reproductive age.ResultsCompared to FTF respondents, women in the RDD sample were younger, were more likely to have a secondary degree and to speak French. RDD respondents were more likely to report using modern contraceptive use (40%) compared to FTF respondents (26%) and the difference remained unchanged after applying post-stratification weights to the RDD sample (39%). This difference surpassed the equivalence margin of 4%. The RDD sample also produced higher estimates of contraceptive use than the subsample of women who owned a phone in the FTF sample (32%). After adjusting for women’s sociodemographic factors, the odds of contraceptive use were 1.9 times higher (95% CI: 1.6–2.2) in the RDD survey compared to the FTF survey and 1.6 times higher (95% CI: 1.3–1.8) compared to FTF phone owners.ConclusionsModern contraceptive prevalence in Burkina Faso is over-estimated when using a cell phone RDD survey, even after adjusting for a number of sociodemographic factors. Further research should explore causes of differential estimates of modern contraceptive use by survey modes. ]]> <![CDATA[The applicability of recreation-grade GNSS receiver (GPS watch, Suunto Ambit Peak 3) in a forested and an open area compared to a mapping-grade receiver (Trimble Juno T41)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8984bd8b-66a6-4b6e-8af7-92a53859b107

Due to developments in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) and the miniaturization of their components, the usage of Global Positioning System (GPS) is no longer restricted to professional applications, but has become available in various consumer type devices, such as wristwatches. These commercial devices, however, were primarily designed for tracking activities in predominately urban settings and their accuracy has not been tested in forested areas. In this study, we present an assessment of the positional accuracy of a GPS watch (Ambit Peak 3, Suunto, Finland) under different forest cover types, seasons and meteorological conditions within the Whitehall Forest GPS Test Site located in Athens, Georgia, USA. As a standard of comparison, the performance of the GPS watch measurements was juxtaposed to that of a mapping-grade receiver (Juno T41, Trimble Inc., USA). In this study, we analyzed the differences between the determined and control positions using root-mean-square-error (RMSE), along with the distribution of observed positions through the standard deviational ellipse. The results suggest that the seasonal variations contributed to a statistically significant impact on the RMSE values for the GPS watch. However, there were no statistically significant differences in horizontal position accuracy by forest cover-type when using the GPS watch. Furthermore, no significant differences were found in horizontal position accuracy during the leaf-off period between the RMSE values for the GPS watch and those of the mapping-grade receiver. Lastly, the positional accuracies for both types of receivers were found to be weakly, but significantly correlated with fluctuations in air temperature and absolute humidity.

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<![CDATA[A smartphone-based test for the assessment of attention deficits in delirium: A case-control diagnostic test accuracy study in older hospitalised patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8fecd5fe-2073-4d74-805a-6132ddca5eea

Background

Delirium is a common and serious acute neuropsychiatric syndrome which is often missed in routine clinical care. Inattention is the core cognitive feature. Diagnostic test accuracy (including cut-points) of a smartphone Delirium App (DelApp) for assessing attention deficits was assessed in older hospital inpatients.

Methods

This was a case-control study of hospitalised patients aged ≥65 years with delirium (with or without pre-existing cognitive impairment), who were compared to patients with dementia without delirium, and patients without cognitive impairment. Reference standard delirium assessment, which included a neuropsychological test battery, was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 criteria. A separate blinded assessor administered the DelApp arousal assessment (score 0–4) and attention task (0–6) yielding an overall score of 0 to 10 (lower scores indicate poorer performance). Analyses included receiver operating characteristic curves and sensitivity and specificity. Optimal cut-points for delirium detection were determined using Youden’s index.

Results

A total of 187 patients were recruited, mean age 83.8 (range 67–98) years, 152 (81%) women; n = 61 with delirium; n = 61 with dementia without delirium; and n = 65 without cognitive impairment. Patients with delirium performed poorly on the DelApp (median score = 4/10; inter-quartile range 3.0, 5.5) compared to patients with dementia (9.0; 5.5, 10.0) and those without cognitive impairment (10.0; 10.0, 10.0). Area under the curve for detecting delirium was 0.89 (95% Confidence Interval 0.84, 0.94). At an optimal cut-point of ≤8, sensitivity was 91.7% (84.7%, 98.7%) and specificity 74.2% (66.5%, 81.9%) for discriminating delirium from the other groups. Specificity was 68.3% (56.6%, 80.1%) for discriminating delirium from dementia (cut-point ≤6).

Conclusion

Patients with delirium (with or without pre-existing cognitive impairment) perform poorly on the DelApp compared to patients with dementia and those without cognitive impairment. A cut-point of ≤8/10 is suggested as having optimal sensitivity and specificity. The DelApp is a promising tool for assessment of attention deficits associated with delirium in older hospitalised adults, many of whom have prior cognitive impairment, and should be further validated in representative patient cohorts.

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<![CDATA[A paper-based, cell-free biosensor system for the detection of heavy metals and date rape drugs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897715d5eed0c4847d23fa

Biosensors have emerged as a valuable tool with high specificity and sensitivity for fast and reliable detection of hazardous substances in drinking water. Numerous substances have been addressed using synthetic biology approaches. However, many proposed biosensors are based on living, genetically modified organisms and are therefore limited in shelf life, usability and biosafety. We addressed these issues by the construction of an extensible, cell-free biosensor. Storage is possible through freeze drying on paper. Following the addition of an aqueous sample, a highly efficient cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) reaction is initiated. Specific allosteric transcription factors modulate the expression of ‘superfolder’ green fluorescent protein (sfGFP) depending on the presence of the substance of interest. The resulting fluorescence intensities are analyzed with a conventional smartphone accompanied by simple and cheap light filters. An ordinary differential equitation (ODE) model of the biosensors was developed, which enabled prediction and optimization of performance. With an optimized cell-free biosensor based on the Shigella flexneri MerR transcriptional activator, detection of 6 μg/L Hg(II) ions in water was achieved. Furthermore, a completely new biosensor for the detection of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a substance used as date-rape drug, was established by employing the naturally occurring transcriptional repressor BlcR from Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

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<![CDATA[Adult body weight trends in 27 urban populations of Brazil from 2006 to 2016: A population-based study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897752d5eed0c4847d29e8

Objective

We aimed to estimate trends in population-level adult body weight indicators in the 26 state capitals and the Federal District of Brazil.

Methods

Self-reported weight and height data of 572,437 adults were used to estimate the mean body mass index (BMI), and the prevalence of BMI categories ranging from underweight to morbid obesity, in Brazil’s state capitals and Federal District, from 2006 to 2016, by sex. All estimates were standardized by age.

Results

From 2006 to 2016, the main findings showed that: (i) the overall mean BMI increased from 25.4 kg/m2 to 26.3 kg/m2 in men, and from 24.5 kg/m2 to 25.8 kg/m2 in women; (ii) the overall prevalence of overweight increased from 48.1% to 57.5% in men, and from 37.8% to 48.2% in women; (iii) the overall prevalence of obesity increased from 11.7% to 18.1% in men, and from 12.1% to 18.8% in women; (iv) in general, the largest increases in overweight and obesity prevalence were found in state capitals located in the north, northeast, and central-west regions of Brazil; (v) the prevalence of severe obesity surpassed the prevalence of underweight in 22 and 9 state capitals among men and women, respectively; and (vi) the mean BMI trend was stable only in Vitória state capital in men.

Conclusions

The policies for preventing and treating obesity in Brazil over the past years were not able to halt the increase in obesity prevalence either in the state capitals or the Federal District. Thus, a revision of policies is warranted. Furthermore, although policies are necessary in all state capitals, our results suggest that policies are especially necessary in the north, northeast, and central-west regions’ state capitals, where, in general, the largest increases in overweight and obesity prevalence were experienced.

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<![CDATA[Cross-comparative analysis of evacuation behavior after earthquakes using mobile phone data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe4dd5eed0c484e5b867

Despite the importance of predicting evacuation mobility dynamics after large scale disasters for effective first response and disaster relief, our general understanding of evacuation behavior remains limited because of the lack of empirical evidence on the evacuation movement of individuals across multiple disaster instances. Here we investigate the GPS trajectories of a total of more than 1 million anonymized mobile phone users whose positions were tracked for a period of 2 months before and after four of the major earthquakes that occurred in Japan. Through a cross comparative analysis between the four disaster instances, we find that in contrast to the assumed complexity of evacuation decision making mechanisms in crisis situations, an individual’s evacuation probability is strongly dependent on the seismic intensity that they experience. In fact, we show that the evacuation probabilities in all earthquakes collapse into a similar pattern, with a critical threshold at around seismic intensity 5.5. This indicates that despite the diversity in the earthquakes profiles and urban characteristics, evacuation behavior is similarly dependent on seismic intensity. Moreover, we found that probability density functions of the distances that individuals evacuate are not dependent on seismic intensities that individuals experience. These insights from empirical analysis on evacuation from multiple earthquake instances using large scale mobility data contributes to a deeper understanding of how people react to earthquakes, and can potentially assist decision makers to simulate and predict the number of evacuees in urban areas with little computational time and cost. This can be achieved by utilizing only the information on population density distribution and seismic intensity distribution, which can be observed instantaneously after the shock.

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<![CDATA[Interventions to improve the quality of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9b8d5eed0c48452a083

Background

Performing high-quality bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves the clinical outcomes of victims with sudden cardiac arrest. Thus far, no systematic review has been performed to identify interventions associated with improved bystander CPR quality.

Methods

We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL, Ovid PsycInfo, Thomson Reuters SCI-EXPANDED, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to retrieve studies published from 1 January 1966 to 5 October 2018 associated with interventions that could improve the quality of bystander CPR. Data regarding participant characteristics, interventions, and design and outcomes of included studies were extracted.

Results

Of the initially identified 2,703 studies, 42 were included. Of these, 32 were randomized controlled trials. Participants included adults, high school students, and university students with non-medical professional majors. Interventions improving bystander CPR quality included telephone dispatcher-assisted CPR (DA-CPR) with simplified or more concrete instructions, compression-only CPR, and other on-scene interventions, such as four-hand CPR for elderly rescuers, kneel on opposite sides for two-person CPR, and CPR with heels for a tired rescuer. Devices providing real-time feedback and mobile devices containing CPR applications or software were also found to be beneficial in improving the quality of bystander CPR. However, using mobile devices for improving CPR quality or for assisting DA-CPR might cause rescuers to delay starting CPR.

Conclusions

To further improve the clinical outcomes of victims with cardiac arrest, these effective interventions may be included in the guidelines for bystander CPR.

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<![CDATA[Patterns of Internet and smartphone use by parents of children with chronic kidney disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7597d5eed0c4843cfede

Background

Smartphones have become a part of universal technology by combining mobile and handheld functions, enabling expanded access to health information sources available on the Internet.

The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of smartphones and Internet use to search for health information by parents of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods

In a cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was applied to 111 parents of patients in a Brazilian pediatric nephrology center. Descriptive assessments were performed on Internet use patterns, and associative analyses were made of the influence of the smartphone use pattern on the search for health information.

Results

Of the 111 participants, 91% (101/111) accessed the Internet, 88% (89/101) searched for health information, and 90% (80/89) searched for CKD information. Smartphones were the most commonly used devices to access the Internet. There was no significant difference between age groups, schooling levels, places of residence and smartphone use to search information about CKD. Physicians continue to be primary sources of information (87%, 88/101), but now they share space with the Internet, which surpassed traditional sources such as books and other health professionals. There seems to be some discomfort on the part of the parents in admitting their research habit to the physician, considering that 65% (52/80) said they did not discuss the fact that they had looked for information on the Internet with their doctor. Obtaining more information about the disease and gaining knowledge regarding its complications were the main reasons that led to performing a search on the Internet, whose results were considered useful by 93% (74/80).

Conclusion

Parents of children with CKD have been using the Internet largely through smartphones to research about CKD, irrespective of age, schooling and place of residence. Given its wide use, the Internet can be an important vehicle for health education and contribute to providing the support needed by parents and patients to cope with the disease.

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<![CDATA[Bioinformatics calls the school: Use of smartphones to introduce Python for bioinformatics in high schools]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1486d5eed0c48467a231

The dynamic nature of technological developments invites us to rethink the learning spaces. In this context, science education can be enriched by the contribution of new computational resources, making the educational process more up-to-date, challenging, and attractive. Bioinformatics is a key interdisciplinary field, contributing to the understanding of biological processes that is often underrated in secondary schools. As a useful resource in learning activities, bioinformatics could help in engaging students to integrate multiple fields of knowledge (logical-mathematical, biological, computational, etc.) and generate an enriched and long-lasting learning environment. Here, we report our recent project in which high school students learned basic concepts of programming applied to solving biological problems. The students were taught the Python syntax, and they coded simple tools to answer biological questions using resources at hand. Notably, these were built mostly on the students’ own smartphones, which proved to be capable, readily available, and relevant complementary tools for teaching. This project resulted in an empowering and inclusive experience that challenged differences in social background and technological accessibility.

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<![CDATA[A mobile-phone based high-resolution microendoscope to image cervical precancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648ce0d5eed0c484c819d1

Nearly 90% of cervical cancer cases and deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries that lack comprehensive national HPV immunization and cervical cancer screening programs. In these settings, it is difficult to implement screening programs due to a lack of infrastructure and shortage of trained personnel. Screening programs based on visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) have been successfully implemented in some low-resource settings. However, VIA has poor specificity and up to 90% of patients receiving treatment based on a positive VIA exam are over-treated. A number of studies have suggested that high-resolution cervical imaging to visualize nuclear morphology in vivo can improve specificity by better distinguishing precancerous and benign lesions. To enable high-resolution imaging in low-resource settings, we developed a portable, low-cost, high-resolution microendoscope that uses a mobile phone to detect and display images of cervical epithelium in vivo with subcellular resolution. The device was fabricated for less than $2,000 using commercially available optical components including filters, an LED and triplet lenses assembled in a 3D-printed opto-mechanical mount. We show that the mobile high-resolution microendoscope achieves similar resolution and signal-to-background ratio as previously reported high-resolution microendoscope systems using traditional cameras and computers to detect and display images. Finally, we demonstrate the ability of the mobile high-resolution microendoscope to image normal and precancerous squamous epithelium of the cervix in vivo in a gynecological referral clinic in Barretos, Brazil.

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<![CDATA[Acceptability of smartphone applications for global positioning system (GPS) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) research among sexual minority men]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c58d65bd5eed0c484031c98

Background

Emerging research is using global positioning system (GPS) and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods among sexual minority men (SMM), a population that experiences multiple health disparities. However, we are not aware of any research that has combined these approaches among SMM, highlighting the need for acceptability and feasibility research. The purpose of this study was to examine the acceptability of implementing GPS and EMA research protocols using smartphone applications among SMM as well as related socio-demographic correlates.

Methods

Data come from a sample of SMM on a popular geosocial-networking app in Paris, France (n = 580). We assessed the acceptability of implementing GPS and EMA research protocols on smartphone apps as well as socio-demographic characteristics (i.e., age, sexual orientation, country of origin, employment status, and relationship status). We examined the anticipated acceptability of GPS and EMA data collection methods as well as socio-demographic correlates of acceptability of GPS and EMA methods.

Results

We found that over half (54.1%) of the sample was willing to download a smartphone app for GPS-based research and we found that almost 60% of the participants were willing to download a smartphone app for EMA-based research. In total, 44.0% reported that they were willing to download both GPS and EMA apps. In addition, we found that older participants were less willing to download a smartphone app for EMA research than younger participants aged 18–24 (40–49 years: aPR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.20, 0.78) and students were more willing to download smartphone apps for both GPS and EMA research (aPR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.95).

Conclusion

Results from this study suggest that using smartphone apps to implement GPS and EMA methods among some SMM are acceptable. However, care should be taken as segments of SMM are less likely to be willing to engage in this type of research.

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<![CDATA[Strengths and limitations of computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI) for nutrition data collection in rural Kenya]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52ddd5eed0c4842bd16b

Despite progress in fighting undernutrition, Africa has the highest rates of undernutrition globally, exacerbated by drought and conflict. Mobile phones are emerging as a tool for rapid, cost effective data collection at scale in Africa, as mobile phone subscriptions and phone ownership increase at the highest rates globally. To assess the feasibility and biases of collecting nutrition data via computer assisted telephone interviews (CATI) to mobile phones, we measured Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) and Minimum Acceptable Diet for Infants and Young Children (MAD) using a one-week test-retest study on 1,821 households in Kenya. Accuracy and bias were assessed by comparing individual scores and population prevalence of undernutrition collected via CATI with data collected via traditional face-to-face (F2F) surveys. We were able to reach 75% (n = 1366) of study participants via CATI. Women’s reported nutrition scores did not change with mode for MDD-W, but children’s nutrition scores were significantly higher when measured via CATI for both the dietary diversity (mean increase of 0.45 food groups, 95% confidence interval 0.34–0.56) and meal frequency (mean increase of 0.75 meals per day, 95% confidence interval 0.53–0.96) components of MAD. This resulted in a 17% higher inferred prevalence of adequate diets for infants and young children via CATI. Women without mobile-phone access were younger and had fewer assets than women with access, but only marginally lower dietary diversity, resulting in a small non-coverage bias of 1–7% due to exclusion of participants without mobile phones. Thus, collecting nutrition data from rural women in Africa with mobile phones may result in 0% (no change) to as much as 25% higher nutrition estimates than collecting that information in face-to-face interviews.

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<![CDATA[Adolescent offenders' current whereabouts predict locations of their future crimes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b529fd5eed0c4842bcce5

Knowing where crime is likely to happen can help prevent it. Here I investigate whether two basic mechanisms of human mobility—preferential return and spatial exploration—explain and predict where offenders commit future crimes. A sample of 843 adolescents reported their hourly whereabouts during four days. In line with findings from other sources and populations, their locations were concentrated and predictable. During the subsequent four years, 70 of the 843 were apprehended for committing one or more crimes. Compared to others, these 70 future offenders had visited slightly more different locations. However, their action radius and the predictability of their whereabouts had been very similar to those who would not become offenders. The offenders perpetrated most of their crimes around places they had visited before, including places where they previously offended. These findings show that the predictability of human mobility applies to offending and to offenders as well, and helps us understand and forecast where they will commit future crimes. They may prove particularly useful in criminal investigations, as they suggest that police should generally prioritize suspects who are familiar with the location of the crime and its environs, either because of their legal routine activities or because of their prior offences.

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<![CDATA[Impact of a smartphone app on prescriber adherence to antibiotic guidelines in adult patients with community acquired pneumonia or urinary tract infections]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59fec8d5eed0c484135447

Background

Mobile phone apps have been shown to enhance guideline adherence by prescribers, but have not been widely evaluated for their impact on guideline adherence by prescribers caring for inpatients with infections.

Objectives

To determine whether providing the Auckland City Hospital (ACH) antibiotic guidelines in a mobile phone app increased guideline adherence by prescribers caring for inpatients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) or urinary tract infections (UTIs).

Methods

We audited antibiotic prescribing during the first 24 hours after hospital admission in adults admitted during a baseline and an intervention period to determine whether provision of the app increased the level of guideline adherence. To control for changes in prescriber adherence arising from other factors, we performed similar audits of adherence to antibiotic guidelines in two adjacent hospitals.

Results

The app was downloaded by 145 healthcare workers and accessed a total of 3985 times during the three month intervention period. There was an increase in adherence to the ACH antibiotic guidelines by prescribers caring for patients with CAP from 19% (37/199) to 27% (64/237) in the intervention period (p = 0.04); but no change in guideline adherence at an adjacent hospital. There was no change in adherence to the antibiotic guidelines by prescribers caring for patients with UTI at ACH or at the two adjacent hospitals.

Conclusions

Provision of antibiotic guidelines in a mobile phone app can significantly increase guideline adherence by prescribers. However, providing an app which allows easy access to antibiotic guidelines is not sufficient to achieve high levels of prescriber adherence.

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<![CDATA[Feasibility and acceptability of novel methods to estimate antiretroviral adherence: A longitudinal study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c5dd5eed0c484bd1de9

Due to marked reductions in morbidity and mortality, antiretroviral (ARV) adherence monitoring is of high interest. Researchers and clinicians often resort to the most feasible and cost-effective adherence methods possible, which may result in biased or inaccurate estimates and require the physical presence of a participant at a research or clinic site. The objective of our study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of three objective, innovative, and remote methods to estimate ARV adherence which may be conducted with less time and financial resources in a wide range of clinic and research settings. These three methods included: (a) text-messaged photographs of pharmacy refill dates to measure refill-based adherence, (b) text-messaged photographs of ARV medications to estimate pill-count-based adherence, and (c) home-collected hair samples for the measurement of ARV concentration to determine pharmacologic-based adherence. We conducted a pilot study from March through October 2017 to examine the feasibility and acceptability of these three adherence measures and the remotely conducted study procedures in 93 adults living with HIV nationwide. From our diverse national sample of participants, 95.7% were retained until the end of the study, 89.9% sent all text messages, and 84.3% sent all hair samples. Approximately 74.2% of participants reported excellent overall experience with the study, 60.2% were very or extremely satisfied with participating in a hair collection study, and 76.3% noted extremely high likelihood of participating in a similar study including text messaging pictures of medications or refill dates. We noted high levels of feasibility and acceptability with the remote study methodology, collection of photographed and text messaged pharmacy refill dates and pill counts, and home-collected hair samples. Here we describe the feasibility and acceptability metrics, results from the exit qualitative interviews with the participants, and lessons learned. These adherence measures represent innovative approaches to expand monitoring tools for HIV treatment and prevention adherence in future research.

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<![CDATA[Unequal error protection technique for video streaming over MIMO-OFDM systems]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c5ad5eed0c484bd1c4d

In this paper, a novel unequal error protection (UEP) technique is proposed for video streaming over multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems. Based on the concept of hierarchical quadrature amplitude modulation (HQAM) UEP and multi-antenna UEP, the proposed technique combines the relative protection levels (PLs) of constellation symbols and the differentiated PLs of the transmit antennas. In the proposed technique, standard square quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations are used instead of HQAM so that the QAM mapper at the transmitter side and the soft decision calculation at the receiver side remain unchanged, but the UEP benefit of HQAM is retained. The superior performance of the proposed technique is explained by the improved connections between data with various priorities and data paths with various PLs. The assumed video compression method is H.264/AVC, which is known to be commercially successful. The IEEE802.16m system is adopted as a data transmission system. With the aid of realistic simulations in strict accordance with the standards of IEEE802.16m systems and H.264/AVC video compression systems, the proposed technique HQAM-multi-antenna UEP is shown to improve the video quality significantly for a given average bit error rate when compared with previous techniques.

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<![CDATA[Association of excessive smartphone use with psychological well-being among university students in Chiang Mai, Thailand]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d0153d5eed0c48403a497

Background

Despite the pervasive use of smartphones among university students, there is still a dearth of research examining the association between smartphone use and psychological well-being among this population. The current study addresses this research gap by investigating the relationship between smartphone use and psychological well-being among university students in Thailand.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2018 among university students aged 18–24 years from the largest university in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The primary outcome was psychological well-being, and was assessed using the Flourishing Scale. Smartphone use, the primary independent variable, was measured by five items which had been adapted from the eight-item Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction. All scores above the median value were defined as being indicative of excessive smartphone use.

Results

Out of the 800 respondents, 405 (50.6%) were women. In all, 366 (45.8%) students were categorized as being excessive users of smartphones. Students with excessive use of smartphones had lower scores the psychological well-being than those who did not use smartphone excessively (B = -1.60; P < 0.001). Female students had scores for psychological well-being that were, on average, 1.24 points higher than the scores of male students (P < 0.001).

Conclusion

This study provides some of the first insights into the negative association between excessive smartphone use and the psychological well-being of university students. Strategies designed to promote healthy smartphone use could positively impact the psychological well-being of students.

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<![CDATA[Distinctive accuracy measurement of binary descriptors in mobile augmented reality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b7bbd5eed0c484490add

Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) requires a descriptor that is robust to changes in viewing conditions in real time application. Many different descriptors had been proposed in the literature for example floating-point descriptors (SIFT and SURF) and binary descriptors (BRIEF, ORB, BRISK and FREAK). According to literature, floating-point descriptors are not suitable for real-time application because its operating speed does not satisfy real-time constraints. Binary descriptors have been developed with compact sizes and lower computation requirements. However, it is unclear which binary descriptors are more appropriate for MAR. Hence, a distinctive and efficient accuracy measurement of four state-of-the-art binary descriptors, namely, BRIEF, ORB, BRISK and FREAK were performed using the Mikolajczyk dataset and ALOI dataset to identify the most appropriate descriptor for MAR in terms of computation time and robustness to brightness, scale and rotation changes. The obtained results showed that FREAK is the most appropriate descriptor for MAR application as it able to produce an application that are efficient (shortest computation time) and robust towards scale, rotation and brightness changes.

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<![CDATA[Trajectories of patients with severe mental illness in two-year contact with Flexible Assertive Community Treatment teams using Routine Outcome Monitoring data: An observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa5d8d5eed0c484ca9435

Objective

Using outcome data collected routinely over a continuous two-year treatment period, we wished to distinguish homogeneous subgroups of patients with a severe mental illness whose psychosocial problems followed a similar pattern over time. By identifying the effectiveness of health services for different patient groups, this approach allowed us to identify patients at risk of deterioration and those recovering from their symptoms.

Methods

In total we included 2,660 patients who were in two-year continuous contact with a Flexible Assertive Community Treatment team (FACT). We collected outcome data on psychosocial functioning, needs for care and quality of life. We performed a latent class growth analysis (LCGA).

Results

The LCGA identified six homogenous patient subgroups using trajectories of HoNOS scores. On the basis of the patterns of patients’ psychosocial problems over time, we labelled these as follows: 1) stable at a low problem-severity level (N = 709; 27%); 2) stable at a low medium problem-severity level (N = 1,208; 45%); 3) stable at a high medium problem-severity level (N = 528; 20%); 4) stable at a high problem-severity level (N = 116; 4%); 5) amelioration of problems (N = 42; 2%); and 6) deterioration of problems (N = 57; 2%). Patients with stable and a high severity of psychosocial problems had more practical and somatic unmet needs than those in other subgroups, and also had the fewest decrease in the number of unmet needs.

Discussion

After linking patient subgroups with clinical features such as the need for care, we found that, over two years, most patients remained relatively stable in terms of psychosocial functioning, but that their unmet needs decreased over time. However, in terms of needs for treatment during two years of contact with a FACT team, patients in the subgroup with a stable and high problem-severity level tended to derive little or no benefit.

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