ResearchPad - computational-and-experimental-dosimetry https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[SciFi detector and associated method for real‐time determination of profile and output factor for small fields in stereotactic radiotherapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6783 For determining small‐field profile and output factor during stereotactic radiotherapy quality assurance (QA) procedures, we propose a novel system based on the scintillating fiber (SciFi) detector with output image acquisition and processing to allow real‐time monitoring of profile and output factor.Materials and methodsThe employed detector is a SciFi detector made of tissue‐equivalent scintillating plastic fibers arranged in 6‐layer fiber ribbons with a fiber pitch of 275 μm in each layer. The scintillating signal at the detector output is acquired by a sCMOS (scientific complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor) camera and represents the projected field profile along the fibers axis. An iterative reconstruction method of the field from its projected profile based on a priori knowledge of some features of the radiation field defined by the stereotactic cones is suggested. The detector with implemented data processing has been tested in clinical conditions, for determining beam profiles and output factors, using cone collimators of different sizes from 4 to 15 mm diameter. The detector under test was placed at 1.4 cm depth and 98.6 cm source to surface distance (SSD) in a water‐equivalent phantom and irradiated by a 6 MV photon beam.ResultsThe reconstructed field profiles obtained from the detector are coherent with data from EBT3 radiochromic films, with differences within ±0.32 mm for both the FWHM and the penumbra region. For real‐time determination of the field output factor, the measured data are also in good agreement with data independently determined by the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) based on radiochromic films and thermoluminescent 1 × 1 mm2 micro‐cubes dosimeters (TLD). The differences are within ±1.6% for all the tested cone sizes.ConclusionsWe propose and have tested a SciFi plastic scintillating detector with an optimized signal processing method to characterize small fields defined by cone collimators. It allows the determination of key field parameters such as full width at half maximum (FWHM) and field output factors. The results are consistent with those independently measured using TLD and radiochromic films. As the SciFi detector does not require a correction factor, it is in line with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) TRS‐483 recommendations, and can be suitable for online QA of small radiation fields used in photon beam radiotherapy, and is compatible with MRI‐LINAC. ]]> <![CDATA[Technical Note: Characterization of the new microSilicon diode detector]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfaf28127-dcee-474f-89c2-d4ea861cfb46

Purpose

Dosimetric properties of the new microSilicon diode detector (60023) have been studied with focus on application in small‐field dosimetry. The influences of the dimensions of the sensitive volume and the density of the epoxy layer surrounding the silicon chip of microSilicon have been quantified and compared to its predecessor (Diode E 60017) and the microDiamond (60019, all PTW‐Freiburg, Germany).

Methods

Dose linearity has been studied in the range from 0.01 to 8.55 Gy and dose‐per‐pulse dependence from 0.13 to 0.86 mGy/pulse. The effective point of measurement (EPOM) was determined by comparing measured percentage depth dose curves with a reference curve (Roos chamber). Output ratios were measured for nominal field sizes from 0.5 × 0.5  cm2 to 4 × 4 cm2. The corresponding small‐field output correction factors, k, were derived with a plastic scintillation detector as reference. The lateral dose–response function, K(x), was determined using a slit beam geometry.

Results

MicroSilicon shows linear dose response (R 2 = 1.000) in both low and high dose range up to 8.55 Gy with deviations of only up to 1% within the dose‐per‐pulse values investigated. The EPOM was found to lie (0.7 ± 0.2) mm below the front detector’s surface. The derived k for microSilicon (0.960 at s eff = 0.55 cm) is similar to that of microDiamond (0.956), while Diode E requires larger corrections (0.929). This improved behavior of microSilicon in small‐fields is reflected in the slightly wider K(x) compared to Diode E. Furthermore, the amplitude of the negative values in K(x) at the borders of the sensitive volume has been reduced.

Conclusions

Compared to its predecessor, microSilicon shows improved dosimetric behavior with higher sensitivity and smaller dose‐per‐pulse dependence. Profile measurements demonstrated that microSilicon causes less perturbation in off‐axis measurements. It is especially suitable for the applications in small‐field output factors and profile measurements.

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<![CDATA[An analytical formalism for the assessment of dose uncertainties due to positioning uncertainties]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf4d4e7c2-a7fe-4ba4-ba22-36cec5fddca8

Purpose

To present an analytical formalism for the in depth assessment of uncertainties of field output factors in small fields related to detector positioning based on dose profile measurements. Additionally, a procedure for the propagation of these uncertainties was developed.

Methods

Based on the assumption that one dimensional and two dimensional second‐order polynomial functions can be fitted to dose profiles of small photon beams, equations for the calculation of the expectation value, the variance, and the standard deviation were developed. The following fitting procedures of the dose profiles were considered: A one‐dimensional case (1D), a quasi two‐dimensional case (2Dq) based on independently measured line profiles and a full 2D case (2Df) which also considers cross‐correlations in a two‐dimensional dose distribution. A rectangular and a Gaussian probability density function (PDF) characterizing the probability of possible positions of the detector relative to the maximum dose were used. Uncertainty components such as the finite resolution of the scanning water phantom, the reproducibility of the determination of the position of the maximum dose, and the reproducibility of the collimator system were investigated. This formalism was tested in a 0.5 x 0.5 cm2 photon field where dose profiles were measured using a radiochromic film, a synthetic diamond detector, and an unshielded diode detector. Additionally, the dose distribution measured with the radiochromic film was convoluted with a convolution kernel mimicking the active volume of the unshielded diode.

Results

Analytic expressions for the calculation of uncertainties on field output factors were found for the 1D, the 2Dq, and the 2Df case. The uncertainty of the field output factor related to the relative position of the detector to the maximum dose increased quadratically with increasing limits of possible detector positions. Analysis of the radiochromic film showed that the 2Dq case gave a more conservative assessment of the uncertainty compared to the 2Df case with a difference of < 0.1%. The 2Dq case applied to the film measurements agreed well with the same approach as was applied to the unshielded diode. The investigated uncertainty components propagated to an uncertainty of the field output factors of 0.5% and 0.4% for the synthetic diamond and the unshielded diode, respectively. Additionally, the expectation value was lower than the maximum dose. The difference was 0.4% and 0.3% for the synthetic diamond and the unshielded diode, respectively.

Conclusions

The assessment of uncertainties of field output factors related to detector positioning is feasible using the proposed formalism. The 2Dq case is applicable when using online detectors. Accurate positioning in small fields is essential for accurate dosimetry as its related uncertainty increases quadratically. The observed drop of the expectation value needs to be considered in small field dosimetry.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of a pixelated large format CMOS sensor for x‐ray microbeam radiotherapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N80b344ad-5e7c-4cd3-8830-866ed58debbc

Purpose

Current techniques and procedures for dosimetry in microbeams typically rely on radiochromic film or small volume ionization chambers for validation and quality assurance in 2D and 1D, respectively. Whilst well characterized for clinical and preclinical radiotherapy, these methods are noninstantaneous and do not provide real time profile information. The objective of this work is to determine the suitability of the newly developed vM1212 detector, a pixelated CMOS (complementary metal‐oxide‐semiconductor) imaging sensor, for in situ and in vivo verification of x‐ray microbeams.

Methods

Experiments were carried out on the vM1212 detector using a 220 kVp small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) at the Helmholtz Centre Munich. A 3 x 3 cm2 square piece of EBT3 film was placed on top of a marked nonfibrous card overlaying the sensitive silicon of the sensor. One centimeter of water equivalent bolus material was placed on top of the film for build‐up. The response of the detector was compared to an Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner using FilmQA Pro with triple channel dosimetry. This was also compared to a separate exposure using 450 µm of silicon as a surrogate for the detector and a Zeiss Axio Imager 2 microscope using an optical microscopy method of dosimetry. Microbeam collimator slits with range of nominal widths of 25, 50, 75, and 100 µm were used to compare beam profiles and determine sensitivity of the detector and both film measurements to different microbeams.

Results

The detector was able to measure peak and valley profiles in real‐time, a significant reduction from the 24 hr self‐development required by the EBT3 film. Observed full width at half maximum (FWHM) values were larger than the nominal slit widths, ranging from 130 to 190 µm due to divergence. Agreement between the methods was found for peak‐to‐valley dose ratio (PVDR), peak to peak separation and FWHM, but a difference in relative intensity of the microbeams was observed between the detectors.

Conclusions

The investigation demonstrated that pixelated CMOS sensors could be applied to microbeam radiotherapy for real‐time dosimetry in the future, however the relatively large pixel pitch of the vM1212 detector limit the immediate application of the results.

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<![CDATA[Performance of semiconductor dosimeters with a range of radiation qualities used for mammography: A calibration laboratory study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nacbe242c-7333-4fd4-b67a-b36c54589661

Purpose

To investigate the radiation quality dependence of the response of commercial semiconductor‐based dosimeters, and to estimate potential errors and uncertainties related to different measurement and calibration scenarios.

Methods

All measurement results were compared to reference values measured at the IAEA dosimetry laboratory which is traceable to the international system of units (SI). Energy dependence of the response of eight semiconductor dosimeters were determined for five different anode‐filter combinations and tube voltages from 25 to 35 kV. For systems capable of deriving half value layer (HVL) and tube voltage from measurements, calibration coefficients for these measurements were calculated.

Results

For six dosimeters, the maximum deviations from the reference value of the air kerma measurement were within ±5% as required by IEC 61674. Calibration coefficients for radiation qualities (anode‐filter and tube voltage combinations) relative to reference radiation quality Mo‐Mo 28 kV deviate up to 12%. HVL and tube voltage measurements exhibited deviations up to 11% and 10%, respectively.

Conclusions

The air kerma responses of modern semiconductor dosimeters have a small energy dependence. However, no dosimeter tested complied with the accuracy limits stated by the manufacturer for tube voltage measurements, and only two dosimeters complied with the limits for HVL measurements. Absolute measurement of HVL and tube voltage with semiconductor dosimeters have to be verified for actual clinical radiation conditions on clinical mammography systems. Semiconductor dosimeters can be used for quality control measurements if individual calibration coefficients are available for the radiation condition applied. If other conditions are applied, additional uncertainty needs to be considered, particularly in the case of HVL and tube voltage measurements.

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<![CDATA[Output correction factors for small static fields in megavoltage photon beams for seven ionization chambers in two orientations — perpendicular and parallel]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N985ce004-26bf-4f50-b8b1-53a83234c6d4

Purpose

The goal of the present work was to provide a large set of detector‐specific output correction factors for seven small volume ionization chambers on two linear accelerators in four megavoltage photon beams utilizing perpendicular and parallel orientation of ionization chambers in the beam for nominal field sizes ranging from 0.5 cm2 × 0.5 cm2 to 10 cm× 10 cm2. The present study is the second part of an extensive research conducted by our group.

Methods

Output correction factors kQclin,Qreffclin,fref were experimentally determined on two linacs, Elekta Versa HD and Varian TrueBeam for 6 and 10 MV beams with and without flattening filter for nine square fields ranging from 0.5 cm× 0.5 cm2 to 10 cm× 10 cm2, for seven mini and micro ionization chambers, IBA CC04, IBA Razor, PTW 31016 3D PinPoint, PTW 31021 3D Semiflex, PTW 31022 3D PinPoint, PTW 31023 PinPoint, and SI Exradin A16. An Exradin W1 plastic scintillator and EBT3 radiochromic films were used as the reference detectors.

Results

For all ionization chambers, values of output correction factors kQclin,Qreffclin,fref were lower for parallel orientation compared to those obtained in the perpendicular orientation. Five ionization chambers from our study set, IBA Razor, PTW 31016 3D PinPoint, PTW 31022 3D PinPoint, PTW 31023 PinPoint, and SI Exradin A16, fulfill the requirement recommended in the TRS‐483 Code of Practice, that is, 0.95<kQclin,Qreffclin,fref<1.05, down to the field size 0.8 cm× 0.8 cm2, when they are positioned in parallel orientation; two of the ionization chambers, IBA Razor and PTW 31023 PinPoint, satisfy this condition down to the field size of 0.5 cm2 × 0.5 cm2.

Conclusions

The present paper provides experimental results of detector‐specific output correction factors for seven small volume ionization chambers. Output correction factors were determined in 6 and 10 MV photon beams with and without flattening filter down to the square field size of 0.5 cm2 × 0.5 cm2 for two orientations of ionization chambers — perpendicular and parallel. Our main finding is that output correction factors are smaller if they are determined in a parallel orientation compared to those obtained in a perpendicular orientation for all ionization chambers regardless of the photon beam energy, filtration, or linear accelerator being used. Based on our findings, we recommend using ionization chambers in parallel orientation, to minimize corrections in the experimental determination of field output factors. Latter holds even for field sizes below 1.0 cm2 × 1.0 cm2, whenever necessary corrections remain within 5%, which was the case for several ionization chambers from our set.

TRS‐483 recommended perpendicular orientation of ionization chambers for the determination of field output factors. The present study presents results for both perpendicular and parallel orientation of ionization chambers. When validated by other researchers, the present results for parallel orientation can be considered as a complementary dataset to those given in TRS‐483.

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<![CDATA[Benchmarking a GATE/Geant4 Monte Carlo model for proton beams in magnetic fields]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N81eafdea-43ba-4c51-9e73-a46ef0e8f62e

Purpose

Magnetic resonance guidance in proton therapy (MRPT) is expected to improve its current performance. The combination of magnetic fields with clinical proton beam lines poses several challenges for dosimetry, treatment planning and dose delivery. Proton beams are deflected by magnetic fields causing considerable changes in beam trajectories and also a retraction of the Bragg peak positions. A proper prediction and compensation of these effects is essential to ensure accurate dose calculations. This work aims to develop and benchmark a Monte Carlo (MC) beam model for dose calculation of MRPT for static magnetic fields up to 1 T.

Methods

Proton beam interactions with magnetic fields were simulated using the GATE/Geant4 toolkit. The transport of charged particle in custom 3D magnetic field maps was implemented for the first time in GATE. Validation experiments were done using a horizontal proton pencil beam scanning system with energies between 62.4 and 252.7 MeV and a large gap dipole magnet (B = 0–1 T), positioned at the isocenter and creating magnetic fields transverse to the beam direction. Dose was measured with Gafchromic EBT3 films within a homogeneous PMMA phantom without and with bone and tissue equivalent material slab inserts. Linear energy transfer (LET) quenching of EBT3 films was corrected using a linear model on dose‐averaged LET method to ensure a realistic dosimetric comparison between simulations and experiments. Planar dose distributions were measured with the films in two different configurations: parallel and transverse to the beam direction using single energy fields and spread‐out Bragg peaks. The MC model was benchmarked against lateral deflections and spot sizes in air of single beams measured with a Lynx PT detector, as well as dose distributions using EBT3 films. Experimental and calculated dose distributions were compared to test the accuracy of the model.

Results

Measured proton beam deflections in air at distances of 465, 665, and 1155 mm behind the isocenter after passing the magnetic field region agreed with MC‐predicted values within 4 mm. Differences between calculated and measured beam full width at half maximum (FWHM) were lower than 2 mm. For the homogeneous phantom, measured and simulated in‐depth dose profiles showed range and average dose differences below 0.2 mm and 1.2%, respectively. Simulated central beam positions and widths differed <1 mm to the measurements with films. For both heterogenous phantoms, differences within 1 mm between measured and simulated central beam positions and widths were obtained, confirming a good agreement of the MC model.

Conclusions

A GATE/Geant4 beam model for protons interacting with magnetic fields up to 1 T was developed and benchmarked to experimental data. For the first time, the GATE/Geant4 model was successfully validated not only for single energy beams, but for SOBP, in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. EBT3 film dosimetry demonstrated to be a powerful dosimetric tool, once the film response function is LET corrected, for measurements in‐line and transverse to the beam direction in magnetic fields. The proposed MC beam model is foreseen to support treatment planning and quality assurance (QA) activities toward MRPT.

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<![CDATA[Characterization of EBT3 radiochromic films for dosimetry of proton beams in the presence of magnetic fields]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc0a71f90-26ae-485e-aef5-c33a13018b2a

Purpose

Radiochromic film dosimetry is extensively used for quality assurance in photon and proton beam therapy. So far, GafchromicTM EBT3 film appears as a strong candidate to be used in future magnetic resonance (MR) based therapy systems. The response of Gafchromic EBT3 films in the presence of magnetic fields has already been addressed for different MR‐linacs systems. However, a detailed evaluation of the influence of external magnetic fields on the film response and calibration curves for proton therapy has not yet been reported. This study aims to determine the dose responses of EBT3 films for clinical proton beams exposed to magnetic field strengths up to 1 T in order to investigate the feasibility of EBT3 film as an accurate dosimetric tool for a future MR particle therapy system (MRPT).

Methods

The dosimetric characteristics of EBT3 films were studied for a proton beam passing through magnetic field strengths of B = 0, 0.5, and 1 T. Absorbed dose calibration and measurements were performed using clinical proton beams in the nominal energy range of 62.4–252.6 MeV. Irradiations were done using an in‐house developed PMMA slab phantom placed in the center of a dipole research magnet. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE/Geant4 toolkit were performed to predict the effect of magnetic fields on the energy deposited by proton beams in the phantom. Planned and measured doses from 3D box cube irradiations were compared to assess the accuracy of the dosimetric method using EBT3 films with/without the external magnetic field.

Results

Neither for the mean pixel value nor for the net optical density, any significant deviations were observed due to the presence of an external magnetic field (B ≤ 1T) for doses up to 10 Gy. Dose‐response curves for the red channel were fitted by a three‐parameter function for the field‐free case and for B = 1T, showing for both cases an R‐square coefficient of unity and almost identical fitting parameters. Independently of the magnetic field, EBT3 films showed an under‐response as high as 8% in the Bragg peak region, similarly to previously reported effects for particle therapy. No noticeable influence of the magnetic field strength was observed on the quenching effect of the EBT3 films.

Conclusions

For the first time detailed absorbed dose calibrations of EBT3 films for proton beams in magnetic field regions were performed. Results showed that EBT3 films represent an attractive solution for the dosimetry of a future MRPT system. As film response functions for protons are not affected by the magnetic field strenght, they can be used for further investigations to evaluate the dosimetric effects induced due to particle beams bending in magnetic fields regions.

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<![CDATA[Impact of magnetic fields on dose measurement with small ion chambers illustrated in high‐resolution response maps]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8956c854-47c0-4824-a757-72906bdcc09a

Purpose

Dosimetry of ionizing radiation in the presence of strong magnetic fields is gaining increased relevance in light of advances for MRI‐guided radiation therapy. While the impact of strong magnetic fields on the overall response of ionization chambers has been simulated and measured before, this work investigates the local impact of the magnetic field on dose response in an ion chamber. High‐resolution 1D and 2D response maps have been created for two small clinical thimble ionization chambers, the PinPoint chambers 31006 and 31014 (Physikalisch Technische Werkstaetten Freiburg, Germany).

Methods

Working on the Imaging and Medical Beam Line of the Australian Synchrotron an intense kilovoltage radiation beam with very low divergence, collimated to 0.1 mm was used to scan the chambers by moving them on a 2D motion platform. Measured current and beam position were correlated to create the response maps. Small neodymium magnets were used to create a field of about 0.25 T. Chamber axis, magnetic field, and beam direction were perpendicular to each other. Measurements were performed with both orientations of the magnetic field as well as without it. Chamber biases of 5 and 250 V in both polarities were used.

Results

The local distribution of the response of small thimble‐type ionization chambers was found to be impacted by a magnetic field. Depending on the orientation of the magnetic field, the chamber response near the stem was either enhanced or reduced with the response near the tip behaving the opposite way. Local changes were in the order of up to 40% compared to measurements without the magnetic field present. Bending of the central electrode was observed for the chamber with the steel electrode. The size of the volume of reduced collection near the guard electrode was impacted by the magnetic field.

As the here investigated beam and field parameters differ from those of clinical systems, quantitatively different results would be expected for the latter. However, the gyroradii encountered here were similar to those of a 6–7 MV MRI linac with a 1.5 T magnet.

Conclusions

Magnetic fields impact the performance of ionization chambers also on a local level. For practical measurements this might mean a change in the effective point of measurement, in addition to any global corrections. Further knowledge about the local response will help in selecting or constructing optimized chambers for use in magnetic fields.

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