ResearchPad - computed-tomography https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Clinical and radiological changes of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 pneumonia from disease onset to acute exacerbation: a multicentre paired cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd7aaed28-46e2-47f0-a5a2-b8580154aa0b To analyse clinical and radiological changes from disease onset to exacerbation in coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19) patients.MethodsWe reviewed clinical histories of 276 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia and extracted data on patients who met the diagnostic criteria for COVID-19 severe/fatal pneumonia and had an acute exacerbation starting with mild or common pneumonia.ResultsTwenty-four patients were included. Of these, 8% were smokers, 54% had been to Wuhan, and 46% had comorbidities. Before acute exacerbation, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (232.9 ± 88.7) was present, and chest CT scans showed the number of involved lobes was 4 (2–5) and total CT score was 6 (2–8). Following acute exacerbation, patients were likely to have more clinical symptoms (p < 0.01) and abnormal laboratory changes (p < 0.01). The number of involved lobes and CT score after an exacerbation significantly increased to 5 (5–5) and 12 (9–14), respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed that, when the cutoff value of CT score was 5, the sensitivity and specificity for severe pneumonia were 90% and 70%, respectively. CT findings of ground glass opacity with consolidations (91.7%), bilateral distribution (100.0%), and multifocal lesion (100.0%) were features in found in patients after exacerbation.ConclusionsThere are significant changes in clinical, laboratory, and CT findings in patients from disease onset to exacerbation. An increase in the number of involved lobes or an increased CT score from the baseline may predict poor clinical outcomes. Combining an assessment of CT changes with clinical and laboratory changes could help clinical teams evaluate the prognosis.Key Points • The common chest CT signs of COVID-19 pneumonia after exacerbation were ground glass opacity (GGO) with consolidation, bilateral distribution, and multifocal lesions. • An increase in number of involved lobes or an increased CT score from the baseline may predict a poor clinical outcome. • Worsened symptoms and abnormal laboratory results are also associated with poor prognosis. ]]> <![CDATA[Optimal virtual monoenergetic image in “TwinBeam” dual-energy CT for organs-at-risk delineation based on contrast-noise-ratio in head-and-neck radiotherapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c82b581d5eed0c484e5e574

Abstract

Purpose

Dual‐energy computed tomography (DECT) using TwinBeam CT (TBCT) is a new option for radiation oncology simulators. TBCT scanning provides virtual monoenergetic images which are attractive in treatment planning since lower energies offer better contrast for soft tissues, and higher energies reduce noise. A protocol is needed to achieve optimal performance of this feature. In this study, we investigated the TBCT scan schema with the head‐and‐neck radiotherapy workflow at our clinic and selected the optimal energy with best contrast‐noise‐ratio (CNR) in organs‐at‐risks (OARs) delineation for head‐and‐neck treatment planning.

Methods and materials

We synthesized monochromatic images from 40 keV to 190 keV at 5 keV increments from data acquired by TBCT. We collected the Hounsfield unit (HU) numbers of OARs (brainstem, mandible, spinal cord, and parotid glands), the HU numbers of marginal regions outside OARs, and the noise levels for each monochromatic image. We then calculated the CNR for the different OARs at each energy level to generate a serial of spectral curves for each OAR. Based on these spectral curves of CNR, the mono‐energy corresponding to the max CNR was identified for each OAR of each patient.

Results

Computed tomography scans of ten patients by TBCT were used to test the optimal monoenergetic image for the CNR of OAR. Based on the maximized CNR, the optimal energy values were 78.5 ± 5.3 keV for the brainstem, 78.0 ± 4.2 keV for the mandible, 78.5 ± 5.7 keV for the parotid glands, and 78.5 ± 5.3 keV for the spinal cord. Overall, the optimal energy for the maximum CNR of these OARs in head‐and‐neck cancer patients was 80 keV.

Conclusion

We have proposed a clinically feasible protocol that selects the optimal energy level of the virtual monoenergetic image in TBCT for OAR delineation based on the CNR in head‐and‐neck OAR. This protocol can be applied in TBCT simulation.

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<![CDATA[The predictive value of Cardiodynamicsgram in myocardial perfusion abnormalities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2151c1d5eed0c4843fbbee

Myocardial perfusion abnormalities are the first sign of the ischemic cascade in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, the early detection of myocardial perfusion abnormalities is significant for the prevention of CAD. Recently, a novel noninvasive method named Cardiodynamicsgram (CDG) has been proposed for early detection of CAD. This study aims to evaluate the predictive value of CDG in myocardial perfusion abnormalities for suspected ischemic heart disease. In the study, 86 suspected patients were enrolled. Standard 12-lead ECG and CDG were performed simultaneously before single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Diagnostic accuracy of CDG for myocardial perfusion abnormalities detection is assessed using SPECT MPI as the reference standard. Of these 86 suspected patients, 37 patients were positive in CDG, 49 patients were negative in CDG. Diagnostic accuracy of CDG at presentation for myocardial perfusion abnormalities was 84.9%, sensitivity 84.0%, and specificity 89.4%. Furthermore, of the 10 patients whose SPECT MPI results are reverse redistribution, 9 patients were positive in CDG. Underlying causes of false positive CDG findings included the factors that can change the stability of cardiac electrical conduction and measurement noise. Myocardial remodeling in patients with old myocardial infarction might be the major cause of false negative findings. Results show a good consistency between the CDG and SPECT MPI in evaluating myocardial perfusion abnormalities. It suggests that CDG might be used as a cost-effective tool for assessing the myocardial perfusion abnormalities in the clinic.

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<![CDATA[Intratumoral Administration of Holmium-166 Acetylacetonate Microspheres: Antitumor Efficacy and Feasibility of Multimodality Imaging in Renal Cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d4ab0ee8fa60b65446

Purpose

The increasing incidence of small renal tumors in an aging population with comorbidities has stimulated the development of minimally invasive treatments. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and demonstrate feasibility of multimodality imaging of intratumoral administration of holmium-166 microspheres (166HoAcAcMS). This new technique locally ablates renal tumors through high-energy beta particles, while the gamma rays allow for nuclear imaging and the paramagnetism of holmium allows for MRI.

Methods

166HoAcAcMS were administered intratumorally in orthotopic renal tumors (Balb/C mice). Post administration CT, SPECT and MRI was performed. At several time points (2 h, 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 days) after MS administration, tumors were measured and histologically analyzed. Holmium accumulation in organs was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

Results

166HoAcAcMS were successfully administered to tumor bearing mice. A striking near-complete tumor-control was observed in 166HoAcAcMS treated mice (0.10±0.01 cm3 vs. 4.15±0.3 cm3 for control tumors). Focal necrosis and inflammation was present from 24 h following treatment. Renal parenchyma outside the radiated region showed no histological alterations. Post administration CT, MRI and SPECT imaging revealed clear deposits of 166HoAcAcMS in the kidney.

Conclusions

Intratumorally administered 166HoAcAcMS has great potential as a new local treatment of renal tumors for surgically unfit patients. In addition to strong cancer control, it provides powerful multimodality imaging opportunities.

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<![CDATA[Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Neurotrophic Factors CDNF and GDNF in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Parkinson’s Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da30ab0ee8fa60b84154

Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) belongs to a newly discovered family of evolutionarily conserved neurotrophic factors. We demonstrate for the first time a therapeutic effect of CDNF in a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion model of Parkinson’s disease in marmoset monkeys. Furthermore, we tested the impact of high chronic doses of human recombinant CDNF on unlesioned monkeys and analyzed the amino acid sequence of marmoset CDNF. The severity of 6-OHDA lesions and treatment effects were monitored in vivo using 123I-FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) SPECT. Quantitative analysis of 123I-FP-CIT SPECT showed a significant increase of dopamine transporter binding activity in lesioned animals treated with CDNF. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a well-characterized and potent neurotrophic factor for dopamine neurons, served as a control in a parallel comparison with CDNF. By contrast with CDNF, only single animals responded to the treatment with GDNF, but no statistical difference was observed in the GDNF group. However, increased numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons, observed within the lesioned caudate nucleus of GDNF-treated animals, indicate a strong bioactive potential of GDNF.

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<![CDATA[A Policy-into-Practice Intervention to Increase the Uptake of Evidence-Based Management of Low Back Pain in Primary Care: A Prospective Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db36ab0ee8fa60bd3539

Background

Persistent non-specific low back pain (nsLBP) is poorly understood by the general community, by educators, researchers and health professionals, making effective care problematic. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a policy-into-practice intervention developed for primary care physicians (PCPs).

Methods

To encourage PCPs to adopt practical evidence-based approaches and facilitate time-efficient, integrated management of patients with nsLBP, we developed an interdisciplinary evidence-based, practical pain education program (gPEP) based on a contemporary biopsychosocial framework. One hundred and twenty six PCPs from primary care settings in Western Australia were recruited. PCPs participated in a 6.5-hour gPEP. Self-report measures recorded at baseline and at 2 months post-intervention included PCPs' attitudes, beliefs (modified Health Care Providers Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS), evidence-based clinical practices (knowledge and skills regarding nsLBP management: 5-point Likert scale with 1 =  nil and 5 =  excellent) and practice behaviours (recommendations based on a patient vignette; 5-point Likert scale).

Results

Ninety one PCPs participated (attendance rate of 72%; post-intervention response rate 88%). PCP-responders adopted more positive, guideline-consistent beliefs, evidenced by clinically significant HC-PAIRS score differences (mean change  = −5.6±8.2, p<0.0001; 95% confidence interval: −7.6 to −3.6) and significant positive shifts on all measures of clinical knowledge and skills (p<0.0001 for all questions). Self management strategies were recommended more frequently post-intervention. The majority of responders who were guideline-inconsistent for work and bed rest recommendations (82% and 62% respectively) at pre-intervention, gave guideline-consistent responses at post-intervention.

Conclusion

An interprofessional pain education program set within a framework that aligns health policy and practice, encourages PCPs to adopt more self-reported evidence-based attitudes, beliefs and clinical behaviours in their management of patients with nsLBP. However, further research is required to determine cost effectiveness of this approach when compared with other modes of educational delivery and to examine PCP behaviours in actual clinical practice.

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<![CDATA[68Ga and 188Re Starch-Based Microparticles as Theranostic Tool for the Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Radiolabeling and Preliminary In Vivo Rat Studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da35ab0ee8fa60b86084

Purpose

This work aims to develop, validate and optimize the radiolabeling of Starch-Based Microparticles (SBMP) by 188Re and 68Ga in the form of ready-to-use radiolabeling kits, the ultimate goal being to obtain a unique theranostic vector for the treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Methods

Optimal labeling conditions and composition of freeze-dried kits were defined by monitoring the radiochemical purity while varying several parameters. In vitro stability studies were carried out, as well as an in vivo biodistribution as a preliminary approach with the intra-arterial injection of 68Ga radiolabeled SBMP into the hepatic artery of DENA-induced rats followed by PET/CT imaging.

Results

Kits were optimized for 188Re and 68Ga with high and stable radiochemical purity (>95% and >98% respectively). The in vivo preliminary study was successful with more than 95% of activity found in the liver and mostly in the tumorous part.

Conclusion

SBMP are a promising theranostic agent for the Selective Internal Radiation Therapy of Hepatocellular carcinoma.

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<![CDATA[High-Resolution Micro-CT for Morphologic and Quantitative Assessment of the Sinusoid in Human Cavernous Hemangioma of the Liver]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db37ab0ee8fa60bd3674

Hepatic sinusoid plays a vital role in human cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL), and its morphologic investigation facilitates the understanding of microcirculation mechanism and pathological change of CHL. However, precise anatomical view of the hepatic sinusoid has been limited by the resolution and contrast available from existing imaging techniques. While liver biopsy has traditionally been the reliable method for the assessment of hepatic sinusoids, the invasiveness and sampling error are its inherent limitations. In this study, imaging of CHL samples was performed using in-line phase-contrast imaging (ILPCI) technique with synchrotron radiation. ILPCI allowed clear visualization of soft tissues and revealed structural details that were invisible to conventional radiography. Combining the computed tomography (CT) technique, ILPCI-CT was used to acquire the high-resolution micro-CT images of CHL, and three dimensional (3D) microstructures of hepatic sinusoids were provided for the morphologic depiction and quantitative assessment. Our study demonstrated that ILPCI-CT could substantially improve the radiographic contrast of CHL tissues in vitro with no contrast agent. ILPCI-CT yielded high-resolution micro-CT image of CHL sample at the micron scale, corresponding to information on actual structures revealed at histological section. The 3D visualization provided an excellent view of the hepatic sinusoid. The accurate view of individual hepatic sinusoid was achieved. The valuable morphological parameters of hepatic sinusoids, such as thrombi, diameters, surface areas and volumes, were measured. These parameters were of great importance in the evaluation of CHL, and they provided quantitative descriptors that characterized anatomical properties and pathological features of hepatic sinusoids. The results highlight the high degree of sensitivity of the ILPCI-CT technique and demonstrate the feasibility of accurate visualization of hepatic sinusoids. Moreover, there is a correlation between the CHL and the size or morphology of hepatic sinusoids, which offers a potential use in noninvasive study and analysis of CHL.

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<![CDATA[The Effect of Morphine on Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Measured by 99mTc-ECD SPECT in Dogs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da83ab0ee8fa60b9b5a6

To gain insights into the working mechanism of morphine, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns after morphine administration were assessed in dogs. In a randomized cross-over experimental study, rCBF was estimated with 99mTc-Ethylcysteinate Dimer single photon emission computed tomography in 8 dogs at baseline, at 30 minutes and at 120 minutes after a single bolus of morphine. Perfusion indices (PI) in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortex and in the subcortical and cerebellar region were calculated. PI was significantly decreased 30 min after morphine compared to baseline in the right frontal cortex. The left parietal cortex and subcortical region showed a significantly increased PI 30 min after morphine compared to baseline. No significant differences were noted for the other regions or at other time points. In conclusion, a single bolus of morphine generated a changing rCBF pattern at different time points.

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<![CDATA[Trabecular Reorganization in Consecutive Iliac Crest Biopsies when Switching from Bisphosphonate to Strontium Ranelate Treatment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dadbab0ee8fa60bb9ebc

Background

Several agents are available to treat osteoporosis while addressing patient-specific medical needs. Individuals' residual risk to severe fracture may require changes in treatment strategy. Data at osseous cellular and microstructural levels due to a therapy switch between agents with different modes of action are rare. Our study on a series of five consecutively taken bone biopsies from an osteoporotic individual over a six-year period analyzes changes in cellular characteristics, bone microstructure and mineralization caused by a therapy switch from an antiresorptive (bisphosphonate) to a dual action bone agent (strontium ranelate).

Methodology/Principal Findings

Biopsies were progressively taken from the iliac crest of a female patient. Four biopsies were taken during bisphosphonate therapy and one biopsy was taken after one year of strontium ranelate (SR) treatment. Furthermore, serum bone markers and dual x-ray absorptiometry measurements were acquired. Undecalcified histology was used to assess osteoid parameters and bone turnover. Structural indices and degree of mineralization were determined using microcomputed tomography, quantitative backscattered electron imaging, and combined energy dispersive x-ray/µ-x-ray-fluorescence microanalysis.

Conclusions/Significance

Microstructural data revealed a notable increase in bone volume fraction after one year of SR treatment compared to the bisphosphonate treatment period. Indices of connectivity density, structure model index and trabecular bone pattern factor were predominantly enhanced indicating that the architectural transformation from trabecular rods to plates was responsible for the bone volume increase and less due to changes in trabecular thickness and number. Administration of SR following bisphosphonates led to a maintained mineralization profile with an uptake of strontium on the bone surface level. Reactivated osteoclasts designed tunneling, hook-like intratrabecular resorption sites. The appearance of tunneling resorption lacunae and the formation of both mini-modeling units and osteon-like structures within increased plate-like cancellous bone mass provides additional information on the mechanisms of strontium ranelate following bisphosphonate treatment, which may deserve special attention when monitoring a treatment switch.

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<![CDATA[Voxel Based Analysis of Surgical Revascularization for Moyamoya Disease: Pre- and Postoperative SPECT Studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafdab0ee8fa60bc55fa

Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic, progressive, cerebrovascular occlusive disease that causes abnormal enlargement of collateral pathways (moyamoya vessels) in the region of the basal ganglia and thalamus. Cerebral revascularization procedures remain the preferred treatment for patients with MMD, improving the compromised cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, voxel based analysis (VBA) of revascularization surgery for MMD based on data from pre- and postoperative data has not been established. The latest algorithm called as Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) has been introduced for VBA as the function of statistical parametric mapping (SPM8), and improved registration has been achieved by SPM8 with DARTEL. In this study, VBA was conducted to evaluate pre- and postoperative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images for MMD by SPM8 with DARTEL algorithm, and the results were compared with those from SPM8 without DARTEL (a conventional method). Thirty-two patients with MMD who underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery as the first surgery were included and all patients underwent pre- and postoperative 3D T1-weighted imaging and SPECT. Pre- and postoperative SPECT images were registered to 3D T1-weighted images, then VBA was conducted. Postoperative SPECT showed more statistically increased CBF areas in the bypassed side cerebral hemisphere by using SPM8 with DARTEL (58,989 voxels; P<0.001), and increased ratio of CBF after operation was less than 15%. Meanwhile, postoperative SPECT showed less CBF increased areas by SPM8 without DARTEL. In conclusion, VBA was conducted for patients with MMD, and SPM8 with DARTEL revealed that postoperative SPECT showed statistically significant CBF increases over a relatively large area and with at most 15% increase ratio.

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<![CDATA[Tomographic Reconstruction of Neopterous Carboniferous Insect Nymphs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9d6ab0ee8fa60b65ede

Two new polyneopteran insect nymphs from the Montceau-les-Mines Lagerstätte of France are presented. Both are preserved in three dimensions, and are imaged with the aid of X-ray micro-tomography, allowing their morphology to be recovered in unprecedented detail. One–Anebos phrixos gen. et sp. nov.–is of uncertain affinities, and preserves portions of the antennae and eyes, coupled with a heavily spined habitus. The other is a roachoid with long antennae and chewing mouthparts very similar in form to the most generalized mandibulate mouthparts of extant orthopteroid insects. Computer reconstructions reveal limbs in both specimens, allowing identification of the segments and annulation in the tarsus, while poorly developed thoracic wing pads suggest both are young instars. This work describes the morphologically best-known Palaeozoic insect nymphs, allowing a better understanding of the juveniles’ palaeobiology and palaeoecology. We also consider the validity of evidence from Palaeozoic juvenile insects in wing origin theories. The study of juvenile Palaeozoic insects is currently a neglected field, yet these fossils provide direct evidence on the evolution of insect development. It is hoped this study will stimulate a renewed interest in such work.

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<![CDATA[Optimal Principle of Bone Structure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9faab0ee8fa60b719c5

Bone modeling and remodeling is an optimization process where no agreement has been reached regarding a unified theory or model. We measured 384 pieces of bone in vivo by 64-slice CT and discovered that the bone's center of mass approximately superposes its centroid of shape. This phenomenon indicates that the optimization process of non-homogeneous materials such as bone follows the same law of superposition of center of mass and centroid of shape as that of homogeneous materials. Based upon this principle, an index revealing the relationship between the center of mass and centroid of shape of the compact bone is proposed. Another index revealing the relationship between tissue density and distribution radius is followed. Applying these indexes to evaluate the strength of bone, we have some new findings.

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<![CDATA[[18F]FLT and [18F]FDG PET for Non-invasive Treatment Monitoring of the Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase Inhibitor APO866 in Human Xenografts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da62ab0ee8fa60b913b0

Introduction

APO866 is a new anti-tumor compound inhibiting nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). APO866 has an anti-tumor effect in several pre-clinical tumor models and is currently in several clinical phase II studies. 3′-deoxy-3′-[18F]fluorothymidine ([18F]FLT) is a tracer used to assess cell proliferation in vivo. The aim of this study was non-invasively to study effect of APO866 treatment on [18F]FLT and 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) uptake.

Methods

In vivo uptake of [18F]FLT and [18F]FDG in human ovary cancer xenografts in mice (A2780) was studied at various time points after APO866 treatment. Baseline [18F]FLT or [18F]FDG scans were made before treatment and repeated after 24 hours, 48 hours and 7 days. Tumor volume was followed with computed tomography (CT). Tracer uptake was quantified using small animal PET/CT. One hour after iv injection of tracer, static PET scans were performed. Imaging results were compared with Ki67 immunohistochemistry.

Results

Tumors treated with APO866 had volumes that were 114% (24 h), 128% (48 h) and 130% (Day 7) relative to baseline volumes at Day 0. In the control group tumor volumes were 118% (24 h), 145% (48 h) and 339% (Day 7) relative to baseline volumes Day 0. Tumor volume between the treatment and control group was significantly different at Day 7 (P = 0.001). Compared to baseline, [18F]FLT SUVmax was significantly different at 24 h (P<0.001), 48 h (P<0.001) and Day 7 (P<0.001) in the APO866 group. Compared to baseline, [18F]FDG SUVmax was significantly different at Day 7 (P = 0.005) in the APO866 group.

Conclusions

APO866 treatment caused a significant decrease in [18F]FLT uptake 24 and 48 hours after treatment initiation. The early reductions in tumor cell proliferation preceded decrease in tumor volume. The results show the possibility to use [18F]FLT and [18F]FDG to image treatment effect early following treatment with APO866 in future clinical studies.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of the Commercial Color LCD and the Medical Monochrome LCD Using Randomized Object Test Patterns]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e7ab0ee8fa60b6b839

Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP) commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT) was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p = 0.265) and OT (p = 0.07). The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration.

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<![CDATA[Achieving Adequate Margins in Ameloblastoma Resection: The Role for Intra-Operative Specimen Imaging. Clinical Report and Systematic Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da11ab0ee8fa60b799c6

Background

Ameloblastoma is a locally aggressive odontogenic neoplasm. With local recurrence rates reaching 90%, only completeness of excision can facilitate cure. Surgical clearance has widely been based on pre-operative imaging to guide operative excision margins, however use of intra-operative specimen x-ray or frozen-section has been sought to improve clearance rates, and advanced imaging technologies in this role have been proposed. This manuscript aims to quantify the evidence for evaluating intra-operative resection margins and present the current standard in this role.

Method

The current study comprises the first reported comparison of imaging modalities for assessing ameloblastoma margins. A case is presented in which margins are assessed with each of clinical assessment based on preoperative imaging, intra-operative specimen x-ray, intra-operative specimen computed tomography (CT) and definitive histology. Each modality is compared quantitatively. These results are compared to the literature through means of systematic review of current evidence.

Results

A comparative study highlights the role for CT imaging over plain radiography. With no other comparative studies and a paucity of high level evidence establishing a role for intra-operative margin assessment in ameloblastoma in the literature, only level 4 evidence supporting the use of frozen section and specimen x-ray, and only one level 4 study assesses intra-operative CT.

Conclusion

The current study suggests that intra-operative specimen CT offers an improvement over existing techniques in this role. While establishing a gold-standard will require higher level comparative studies, the use of intra-operative CT can facilitate accurate single-stage resection.

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<![CDATA[Correlation of Computed Tomography with Pathological Features in Angiomatous Nasal Polyps]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db41ab0ee8fa60bd6e50

Background

Angiomatous nasal polyps (ANPs), also known as angiectatic polyps, have rarely been reported in the literature. ANPs are characterized by extensive vascular proliferation and ectasia. ANPs can grow rapidly and exhibit aggressive clinical behavior that could simulate malignancy preoperatively, and they are easily confused with other diseases. In the present study, we analyzed the correlation between the computed tomography (CT) findings of nasal angiomatous polyps and their pathological features.

Methods

We evaluated CT findings and pathological features of 31 surgically proven ANPs.

Results

The study population included 16 males and 15 females aged between 27 and 81 years (mean age, 53.5 years). On CT, the masses were heterogeneous; they had a soft tissue density and filled the maxillary and/or nasal cavities. Calcifications were found in 2 of the 31 cases. The lesions showed a clear boundary (15/31). The low-density shading on CT was related to the inflammatory, necrotic, and cystic changes, and the high-density shading on CT was related to hemorrhagic areas of the mass. On contrast-enhanced CT, the center of the lesions was non-enhanced with peripheral intensification due to occlusion or compression of feeder vessels of the polyp center, and the inflammatory cells and neovascularization around the edge of the mass. The most common site of maxillary wall erosion was the medial wall (21/31), followed by the posterior lateral wall (3/31), upper wall (2/31), and septum (3/31). Of these, the nasal cavity and/or maxillary sinus were enlarged in 28 cases. These findings were associated with the chronic progress of nasal angiomatous changes.

Conclusions

CT of ANPs may demonstrate benign bone changes associated with the lesions and may also reflect the fact that ANPs do not invade peripheral soft tissue. CT demonstrated these lesions consistently and provided information useful for surgical planning.

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<![CDATA[Three-Dimensional Characterization of the Vascular Bed in Bone Metastasis of the Rat by Microcomputed Tomography (MicroCT)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da96ab0ee8fa60ba1bcd

Background

Angiogenesis contributes to proliferation and metastatic dissemination of cancer cells. Anatomy of blood vessels in tumors has been characterized with 2D techniques (histology or angiography). They are not fully representative of the trajectories of vessels throughout the tissues and are not adapted to analyze changes occurring inside the bone marrow cavities.

Methodology/Principal Findings

We have characterized the vasculature of bone metastases in 3D at different times of evolution of the disease. Metastases were induced in the femur of Wistar rats by a local injection of Walker 256/B cells. Microfil®, (a silicone-based polymer) was injected at euthanasia in the aorta 12, 19 and 26 days after injection of tumor cells. Undecalcified bones (containing the radio opaque vascular casts) were analyzed by microCT, and a first 3D model was reconstructed. Bones were then decalcified and reanalyzed by microCT; a second model (comprising only the vessels) was obtained and overimposed on the former, thus providing a clear visualization of vessel trajectories in the invaded metaphysic allowing quantitative evaluation of the vascular volume and vessel diameter. Histological analysis of the marrow was possible on the decalcified specimens. Walker 256/B cells induced a marked osteolysis with cortical perforations. The metaphysis of invaded bones became progressively hypervascular. New vessels replaced the major central medullar artery coming from the diaphyseal shaft. They sprouted from the periosteum and extended into the metastatic area. The newly formed vessels were irregular in diameter, tortuous with a disorganized architecture. A quantitative analysis of vascular volume indicated that neoangiogenesis increased with the development of the tumor with the appearance of vessels with a larger diameter.

Conclusion

This new method evidenced the tumor angiogenesis in 3D at different development times of the metastasis growth. Bone and the vascular bed can be identified by a double reconstruction and allowed a quantitative evaluation of angiogenesis upon time.

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<![CDATA[Prospectively versus Retrospectively ECG-Gated 256-Slice CT Angiography to Assess Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts — Comparison of Image Quality and Radiation Dose]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da92ab0ee8fa60ba0512

Objective

In this retrospective non-randomized cohort study, the image quality and radiation dose were compared between prospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated axial (PGA) and retrospectively ECG-gated helical (RGH) techniques for the assessment of coronary artery bypass grafts using 256-slice CT.

Methods

We studied 124 grafts with 577 segments in 64 patients with a heart rate (HR) <85 bpm who underwent CT coronary angiography (CTCA); 34 patients with RGH-CTCA and 30 patients with PGA-CTCA. The image quality of the bypass grafts was assessed by a 5-point scale (1 = excellent to 5 = non-diagnostic) for each segment (proximal anastomosis, proximal, middle, distal course of graft body, and distal anastomosis). Other objective image quality indices such as noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were assessed. Radiation doses were also compared.

Results

Patient characteristics of the two groups were well matched except HR. The HR of the PGA group was lower than that of the RGH group (62.0±5.0 vs. 65.7±7.4). For both groups, over 90% of segments received excellent or good image quality scores and none was non-evaluative. The image quality generally degraded as graft segment approached to distal anastomosis regardless of techniques and graft types. Image quality scores of the PGA group were better than those of the RGH group (1.51±0.53 vs. 1.73±0.62; p<0.001). There was no significantly difference of objective image quality between two techniques, and the effective radiation dose was significantly lower in the PGA group (7.0±1.2 mSv) than that of the RGH group (20.0±4.6 mSv) (p<0.001), with a 65.0% dose reduction.

Conclusions

Following bypass surgery, 256-slice PGA-CTCA is superior to RGH-CTCA in limiting the radiation dose and obtaining better image quality for bypass grafts.

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<![CDATA[Patient-Specific Prosthetic Fingers by Remote Collaboration–A Case Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae1ab0ee8fa60bbc07f

The concealment of amputation through prosthesis usage can shield an amputee from social stigma and help improve the emotional healing process especially at the early stages of hand or finger loss. However, the traditional techniques in prosthesis fabrication defy this as the patients need numerous visits to the clinics for measurements, fitting and follow-ups. This paper presents a method for constructing a prosthetic finger through online collaboration with the designer. The main input from the amputee comes from the Computer Tomography (CT) data in the region of the affected and the non-affected fingers. These data are sent over the internet and the prosthesis is constructed using visualization, computer-aided design and manufacturing tools. The finished product is then shipped to the patient. A case study with a single patient having an amputated ring finger at the proximal interphalangeal joint shows that the proposed method has a potential to address the patient's psychosocial concerns and minimize the exposure of the finger loss to the public.

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