ResearchPad - computer-networks https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Mechanism to prevent the abuse of IPv6 fragmentation in OpenFlow networks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7717 OpenFlow makes a network highly flexible and fast-evolving by separating control and data planes. The control plane thus becomes responsive to changes in topology and load balancing requirements. OpenFlow also offers a new approach to handle security threats accurately and responsively. Therefore, it is used as an innovative firewall that acts as a first-hop security to protect networks against malicious users. However, the firewall provided by OpenFlow suffers from Internet protocol version 6 (IPv6) fragmentation, which can be used to bypass the OpenFlow firewall. The OpenFlow firewall cannot identify the message payload unless the switch implements IPv6 fragment reassembly. This study tests the IPv6 fragmented packets that can evade the OpenFlow firewall, and proposes a new mechanism to guard against attacks carried out by malicious users to exploit IPv6 fragmentation loophole in OpenFlow networks. The proposed mechanism is evaluated in a simulated environment by using six scenarios, and results exhibit that the proposed mechanism effectively fixes the loophole and successfully prevents the abuse of IPv6 fragmentation in OpenFlow networks.

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<![CDATA[Characterization of e-Government adoption in Europe]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2f6308d0-16b2-46c8-b471-69fa510f181d

The digital divide in Europe has not yet been bridged and thus more contributions towards understanding the factors affecting the different dimensions involved are required. This research offers some insights into the topic by analyzing the e-Government adoption or practical use of e-Government across Europe (26 EU countries). Based on the data provided by the statistical office of the European Union (Eurostat), we defined two indexes, the E-Government Use Index (EGUI) and an extreme version of it taking into account only null or complete use (EGUI+), and characterized the use/non use of e-Government tools using supervised learning procedures in a selection of countries with different e-Government adoption levels. These procedures achieved an average accuracy of 73% and determined the main factors related to the practical use of e-Government in each of the countries, e.g. the frequency of buying goods over the Internet or the education level. In addition, we compared the proposed indexes to other indexes measuring the level of e-readiness of a country such as the E-Government Development Index (EGDI) its Online Service Index (OSI) component, the Networked Readiness Index (NRI) and its Government usage component (GU). The ranking comparison found that EGUI+ is correlated with the four indexes mentioned at 0.05 significance level, as the majority of countries were ranked in similar positions. The outcomes contribute to gaining understanding about the factors influencing the use of e-Government in Europe and the different adoption levels.

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<![CDATA[Algorithmic bias amplifies opinion fragmentation and polarization: A bounded confidence model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823d7d5eed0c484639133

The flow of information reaching us via the online media platforms is optimized not by the information content or relevance but by popularity and proximity to the target. This is typically performed in order to maximise platform usage. As a side effect, this introduces an algorithmic bias that is believed to enhance fragmentation and polarization of the societal debate. To study this phenomenon, we modify the well-known continuous opinion dynamics model of bounded confidence in order to account for the algorithmic bias and investigate its consequences. In the simplest version of the original model the pairs of discussion participants are chosen at random and their opinions get closer to each other if they are within a fixed tolerance level. We modify the selection rule of the discussion partners: there is an enhanced probability to choose individuals whose opinions are already close to each other, thus mimicking the behavior of online media which suggest interaction with similar peers. As a result we observe: a) an increased tendency towards opinion fragmentation, which emerges also in conditions where the original model would predict consensus, b) increased polarisation of opinions and c) a dramatic slowing down of the speed at which the convergence at the asymptotic state is reached, which makes the system highly unstable. Fragmentation and polarization are augmented by a fragmented initial population.

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<![CDATA[A deadline constrained scheduling algorithm for cloud computing system based on the driver of dynamic essential path]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8c195bd5eed0c484b4d4af

To solve the problem of the deadline-constrained task scheduling in the cloud computing system, this paper proposes a deadline-constrained scheduling algorithm for cloud computing based on the driver of dynamic essential path (Deadline-DDEP). According to the changes of the dynamic essential path of each task node in the scheduling process, the dynamic sub-deadline strategy is proposed. The strategy assigns different sub-deadline values to every task node to meet the constraint relations among task nodes and the user’s defined deadline. The strategy fully considers the dynamic sub-deadline affected by the dynamic essential path of task node in the scheduling process. The paper proposed the quality assessment of optimization cost strategy to solve the problem of selecting server for each task node. Based on the sub-deadline urgency and the relative execution cost in the scheduling process, the strategy selects the server that not only meets the sub-deadline but also obtains much lower execution cost. In this way, the proposed algorithm will make the task graph complete within its deadline, and minimize its total execution cost. Finally, we demonstrate the proposed algorithm via the simulation experiments using Matlab tools. The experimental results show that, the proposed algorithm produces remarkable performance improvement rate on the total execution cost that ranges between 10.3% and 30.8% under meeting the deadline constraint. In view of the experimental results, the proposed algorithm provides better-quality scheduling solution that is suitable for scientific application task execution in the cloud computing environment than IC-PCP, DCCP and CD-PCP.

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<![CDATA[Faithfulness-boost effect: Loyal teammate selection correlates with skill acquisition improvement in online games]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823a7d5eed0c484638d67

The problem of skill acquisition is ubiquitous and fundamental to life. Most tasks in modern society involve the cooperation with other subjects. Notwithstanding its fundamental importance, teammate selection is commonly overlooked when studying learning. We exploit the virtually infinite repository of human behavior available in Internet to study a relevant topic in anthropological science: how grouping strategies may affect learning. We analyze the impact of team play strategies in skill acquisition using a turn-based game where players can participate individually or in teams. We unveil a subtle but strong effect in skill acquisition based on the way teams are formed and maintained during time. “Faithfulness-boost effect” provides a skill boost during the first games that would only be acquired after thousands of games. The tendency to play games in teams is associated with a long-run skill improvement while playing loyally with the same teammate significantly accelerates short-run skill acquisition.

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<![CDATA[An efficient resource utilization scheme within PMIPv6 protocol for urban vehicular networks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8acc80d5eed0c48498f8b1

Recently, the mobility management of urban vehicular networks has become great challenges for researchers due to its unique mobility requirements imposed by mobile users when accessing different services in a random fashion. To provide a ubiquitous Internet and seamless connectivity, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has proposed a Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) protocol. This is meant to address the signaling of the mobility transparent to the Mobile Node (MN) and also guarantee session continuity while the MN is in motion. However, performing a handoff by tens of thousands of MNs may harm the performance of the system significantly due to the high signaling overhead and the insufficient utilization of so-called Binding Cash Entry (BCE) at the Local Mobility Anchor (LMA). To address these issues, we propose an efficient scheme within the PMIPv6 protocol, named AE-PMIPv6 scheme, to effectively utilize the BCE at the LMA. This is primarily achieved by merging the BCEs of the MNs, thus, reducing the signaling overhead. Better utilization of the BCEs has been attained by employing virtual addresses and addressing pool mechanisms for the purpose of binding information of the MNs that are moving together towards the same network at a specific time, during their handoff process. Results obtained from our simulation demonstrates the superiority of AE-PMIPv6 scheme over E-PMIPv6 scheme. The AE-PMIPv6 succeeds in minimizing the signaling overhead, reduces the handover time and at the same time efficiently utilize the buffer resources.

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<![CDATA[Video loss prediction model in wireless networks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8977a4d5eed0c4847d3245

This work discusses video communications over wireless networks (IEEE 802.11ac standard). The videos are in three different resolutions: 720p, 1080p, and 2160p. It is essential to study the performance of these media in access technologies to enhance the current coding and communications techniques. This study sets out a video quality prediction model that includes the different resolutions that are based on wireless network terms and conditions, an approach that has not previously been adopted in the literature. The model involves obtaining Service and Experience Quality Metrics, such as PSNR (Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio) and packet loss. This article outlines a methodology and mathematical model for video quality loss in the wireless network from simulated data and its accuracy is ensured through the use of performance metrics (RMSE and Standard Deviation). The methodology is based on two mathematical functions, (logarithmic and exponential), and their parameters are defined by linear regression. The model obtained RMSE values and standard deviation of 2.32 dB and 2.2 dB for the predicted values, respectively. The results should lead to a CODEC (Coder-Decoder) improvement and contribute to a better wireless networks design.

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<![CDATA[eHealth and telemedicine: Practices and beliefs among healthcare professionals and medical students at a medical university]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c818e91d5eed0c484cc2592

Digitalization affects almost every aspect of modern daily life including healthcare delivery. Successful adoption and sustainable integration of information technology-based eHealth and telemedicine concepts in clinical practice depend on constant evaluation of end user needs, proficiencies, and preferences. We therefore assessed how current and future healthcare professionals perceived health technology solutions and whether their perceptions differed. We conducted an online survey among a purposive sample of employees and students at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria. The structured questionnaire collected self-reported practices and beliefs in the context of eHealth and telemedicine among 905 participants (59.0% females), of which 48.4% were employees and 51.6% were students. Participants expressed moderate knowledge of eHealth and telemedicine concepts with higher levels among employees compared to students (both: p<0.05). Compared to employees, students were less convinced that online health information improves patient knowledge (p<0.001), but were more optimistic that telemedicine reduces healthcare costs (p<0.05). Participants doubted that telemedicine services would enhance the doctor-patient relationship and raised concerns regarding data security and privacy issues. Accordingly, quantitative context analysis of free text comments revealed that the four most frequently mentioned themes were related to issues concerning data privacy and security, questions of responsibility, doctor-patient interaction, and reliability of information. This study provides valuable insights into how current and future healthcare professionals differ in their perceptions regarding eHealth and telemedicine. These findings raise awareness of the need to bridge the gap between digital age groups and professional groups, especially in clinical healthcare delivery in a clocked-through, strenuous academic setting as found at a medical university.

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<![CDATA[HIV self-testing in Spain: A valuable testing option for men-who-have-sex-with-men who have never tested for HIV]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9f4d5eed0c48452a5cf

Background

We assessed the capacity of HIV self-testing to promote testing among untested men who have sex with men (MSM) and determined the most benefited subpopulations.

Methods

An online questionnaire was disseminated on several gay websites in Spain from September 2012 to April 2013. We used Poisson regression to estimate factors associated with the intention to use self-testing if already available. Among those who reported intention of use, we assessed several aspects related to the testing and linkage to care process by type of barrier reported: low perceived risk (LR), structural barriers (SB) and fear of testing positive (FTP).

Results

Of 2589 never-tested MSM, 83% would have used self-testing if already available. Intention of use was associated with age ≥30 (adj.PR, 95%CI: 1.05, 1.01–1.10), having had protected (adj.PR, 95%CI: 1.15, 1.02–1.30) or unprotected (adj.PR, 95%CI: 1.21, 1.07–1.37) anal intercourse and reporting FTP (adj.PR, 95%CI: 1.12, 1.05–1.20) or SB to access HIV testing (adj.PR, 95%CI: 1.23, 1.19–1.28). Among those who reported intention of using a self-testi, 78.3% declared it their preferred option (83.8% in the SB group; p<0.001), and 56.8% would always use this testing option (60.9% among the SB group; p = 0.001). In the case of obtaining a positive self-test, 69.3% would seek confirmatory testing, 15.3% would self-test again before taking any decision and 13.0% reported not being sure of what they would do.

Conclusion

HIV self-testing in Spain has the potential of becoming a highly used testing methodology for untested MSM and could represent the gateway to testing especially among older, at risk MSM who report SB or FTP as main barriers to testing.

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<![CDATA[Personally relevant online advertisements: Effects of demographic targeting on visual attention and brand evaluation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c70677bd5eed0c4847c70da

Global investments in online advertising rise quickly but internet users often avoid looking at ads due to established banner blindness. Demographic targeting is expected to overcome this tendency by attracting users’ attention to more self-relevant ad content. However, little is known about the effect of demographically targeted versus non-targeted ads on users’ actual attention allocation during exposure to webpages. The present study aimed to further fill this empirical gap by clarifying whether demographic targeting attracts visual attention and to exploratively examine whether it also affects brand attitude and website evaluation, as suggested by previous studies. Eye tracking data revealed that demographic targeting can have medium- to large-sized effects on several eye movement parameters when internet users are in a free-viewing mode. In contrast, demographic targeting did not influence brand attitude and website evaluation. We conclude that attention for personally relevant advertisement can be strong. However, attention, although being a necessary condition for subsequent judgment formation according to the model of human information processing, is not sufficient to elicit positive effects at the level of subjective judgments.

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<![CDATA[Even a good influenza forecasting model can benefit from internet-based nowcasts, but those benefits are limited]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df345d5eed0c484581069

The ability to produce timely and accurate flu forecasts in the United States can significantly impact public health. Augmenting forecasts with internet data has shown promise for improving forecast accuracy and timeliness in controlled settings, but results in practice are less convincing, as models augmented with internet data have not consistently outperformed models without internet data. In this paper, we perform a controlled experiment, taking into account data backfill, to improve clarity on the benefits and limitations of augmenting an already good flu forecasting model with internet-based nowcasts. Our results show that a good flu forecasting model can benefit from the augmentation of internet-based nowcasts in practice for all considered public health-relevant forecasting targets. The degree of forecast improvement due to nowcasting, however, is uneven across forecasting targets, with short-term forecasting targets seeing the largest improvements and seasonal targets such as the peak timing and intensity seeing relatively marginal improvements. The uneven forecasting improvements across targets hold even when “perfect” nowcasts are used. These findings suggest that further improvements to flu forecasting, particularly seasonal targets, will need to derive from other, non-nowcasting approaches.

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<![CDATA[Patterns of Internet and smartphone use by parents of children with chronic kidney disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7597d5eed0c4843cfede

Background

Smartphones have become a part of universal technology by combining mobile and handheld functions, enabling expanded access to health information sources available on the Internet.

The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of smartphones and Internet use to search for health information by parents of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Methods

In a cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was applied to 111 parents of patients in a Brazilian pediatric nephrology center. Descriptive assessments were performed on Internet use patterns, and associative analyses were made of the influence of the smartphone use pattern on the search for health information.

Results

Of the 111 participants, 91% (101/111) accessed the Internet, 88% (89/101) searched for health information, and 90% (80/89) searched for CKD information. Smartphones were the most commonly used devices to access the Internet. There was no significant difference between age groups, schooling levels, places of residence and smartphone use to search information about CKD. Physicians continue to be primary sources of information (87%, 88/101), but now they share space with the Internet, which surpassed traditional sources such as books and other health professionals. There seems to be some discomfort on the part of the parents in admitting their research habit to the physician, considering that 65% (52/80) said they did not discuss the fact that they had looked for information on the Internet with their doctor. Obtaining more information about the disease and gaining knowledge regarding its complications were the main reasons that led to performing a search on the Internet, whose results were considered useful by 93% (74/80).

Conclusion

Parents of children with CKD have been using the Internet largely through smartphones to research about CKD, irrespective of age, schooling and place of residence. Given its wide use, the Internet can be an important vehicle for health education and contribute to providing the support needed by parents and patients to cope with the disease.

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<![CDATA[A proposal for the future of scientific publishing in the life sciences]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c75c2d5eed0c4843d013c

Science advances through rich, scholarly discussion. More than ever before, digital tools allow us to take that dialogue online. To chart a new future for open publishing, we must consider alternatives to the core features of the legacy print publishing system, such as an access paywall and editorial selection before publication. Although journals have their strengths, the traditional approach of selecting articles before publication (“curate first, publish second”) forces a focus on “getting into the right journals,” which can delay dissemination of scientific work, create opportunity costs for pushing science forward, and promote undesirable behaviors among scientists and the institutions that evaluate them. We believe that a “publish first, curate second” approach with the following features would be a strong alternative: authors decide when and what to publish; peer review reports are published, either anonymously or with attribution; and curation occurs after publication, incorporating community feedback and expert judgment to select articles for target audiences and to evaluate whether scientific work has stood the test of time. These proposed changes could optimize publishing practices for the digital age, emphasizing transparency, peer-mediated improvement, and post-publication appraisal of scientific articles.

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<![CDATA[Long-term effectiveness of a gambling intervention program among children in central Illinois]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b2678d5eed0c484289b1e

Youth gambling is an increasing concern. As a response, the “Don’t Gamble Away our Future (DGAOF)” program has been implemented among children in central Illinois. We aim to assess the long-term effectiveness of this school-based youth gambling prevention program in Illinois using the data from 2005 to 2009. The intervention included interactive PowerPoint presentations and prevention materials in parent packets. Students aged 8 to 18 years were eligible to participate in the intervention and the questionnaire pre-post knowledge tests (total score 0–9). Students in 5th grade and above also received a gambling behavior screen test using the Modified South Oaks Gambling Screening for Teens (MSOGST) for identifying probable gamblers. Multivariable generalized mixed models were conducted to detect the effects of a 5-year youth gambling prevention program as controlling potential confounders. A total of 16,262 and 16,421 students completed pre-post tests and MSOGST tests, respectively. Of 16,262, half were female, the majority (76.1%) were from senior high school, and 21.3% received the intervention at least twice. The median gap between interventions was 368 days. Students receiving multiple interventions had higher scores on the pre-test as compared to those receiving a single intervention (P<0.001 for all comparisons among groups), and they demonstrated an increasing trend of awareness about gambling over time (P<0.001 for multiple interventions; P = 0.538 for single intervention). The prevalence of problem gambling had decreased among students receiving the intervention twice as compared to receiving the intervention once (7.9% versus 9.4%; OR = 0.89, 95% CL: 0.82–0.97). However, this effect was not confirmed among students receiving the intervention three or more times. In conclusion, the DGAOF program has demonstrated a positive long-term impact on increasing gambling knowledge and partially reducing pathological gamblers through direct training. It suggests that multiple repeated interventions are important for youth gambling prevention.

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<![CDATA[Cultural transmission modes of music sampling traditions remain stable despite delocalization in the digital age]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633933d5eed0c484ae6217

Music sampling is a common practice among hip-hop and electronic producers that has played a critical role in the development of particular subgenres. Artists preferentially sample drum breaks, and previous studies have suggested that these may be culturally transmitted. With the advent of digital sampling technologies and social media the modes of cultural transmission may have shifted, and music communities may have become decoupled from geography. The aim of the current study was to determine whether drum breaks are culturally transmitted through musical collaboration networks, and to identify the factors driving the evolution of these networks. Using network-based diffusion analysis we found strong evidence for the cultural transmission of drum breaks via collaboration between artists, and identified several demographic variables that bias transmission. Additionally, using network evolution methods we found evidence that the structure of the collaboration network is no longer biased by geographic proximity after the year 2000, and that gender disparity has relaxed over the same period. Despite the delocalization of communities by the internet, collaboration remains a key transmission mode of music sampling traditions. The results of this study provide valuable insight into how demographic biases shape cultural transmission in complex networks, and how the evolution of these networks has shifted in the digital age.

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<![CDATA[A qualitative comparison of how older breast cancer survivors process treatment information regarding endocrine therapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2e5d5eed0c48441ecbb

Background

It remains unclear how information about aromatase inhibitors (AI) impacts women’s decision-making about persistence with endocrine therapy.

Purpose

To describe and compare how women treated for primary early stage breast cancer either persisting or not persisting with an AI received, interpreted, and acted upon AI-related information.

Design

Thematic analysis was used to sort and compare the data into the most salient themes.

Participants

Women (N = 54; 27 persisting, 27 not persisting with an AI) aged 65–93 years took part in qualitative interviews.

Results

Women in both subgroups described information similarly in terms of its value, volume, type, and source. Aspects of AI-related information that either differed between the subgroups or were misunderstood by one or both subgroups included: (1) knowledge of AI or tamoxifen prior to cancer diagnosis, (2) use of online resources, (3) misconceptions about estrogen, hormone replacement therapies and AI-related symptoms, and (4) risk perception and the meaning and use of recurrence statistics such as Oncotype DX.

Conclusions

Persisters and nonpersisters were similar in their desire for more information about potential side effects and symptom management at AI prescription and subsequent appointments. Differences included how information was obtained and interpreted. Interactive discussion questions are shared that can incorporate these findings into clinical settings.

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<![CDATA[“Tell me what you suggest, and let’s do that, doctor”: Patient deliberation time during informal decision-making in clinical trials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59fec1d5eed0c4841353ac

Informed consent is an essential part of an ethical clinical trial; to this end, researchers have developed several interventions to promote participants’ full understanding of trials and thereby improve the consent process. However, few empirical studies have examined how patients make the decision of whether to give consent. The objective of this study, therefore, is to analyze patients’ decision-making process when participating in clinical trials. We conduct an internet survey (n = 2,045) and interview data analysis (n = 40) with patients and categorize respondents into three types of participants: active, passive, and non-participation. Our results show that patients often make informal and quick decisions before medical staff provide them with relevant information during the informed consent process. For example, 55.9% of patients received initial information on clinical trials from an online article or web advertising, and 54.5% consulted no one about whether to participate in the clinical trial before making a decision. Only 20.7% of respondents subjectively spent time making the decision whether to participate; 43.0% of patients who said that they “spent time” coming to a decision took four or more days to reach a decision, while 8.3% of people who “did not spend time” making a decision took this among of time. Based on these results, we were able to break patients’ decision-making process into four steps: first contact, informal decision making, relevant information, and formal decision making. Our results show that patients are most likely to make a decision based on the first information they receive on the clinical trial, whatever the source. To this end, having a list of questions for potential participants to ask researchers would be useful in helping better collecting information of clinical trials. In addition, research teams should give patients more than four days to decide between providing them with relevant information and obtaining written consent, even if the patient seems to make a quick decision.

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<![CDATA[Predictors of gambling and problem gambling in Victoria, Australia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c52188ad5eed0c484798d75

In 2016, the gambling habits of a sample of 3361 adults in the state of Victoria, Australia, were surveyed. It was found that a number of factors that were highly correlated with self-reported gambling frequency and gambling problems were not significant predictors of gambling frequency and problem gambling. The major predictors of gambling frequency were the degree to which family members and peers were perceived to gamble, self-reported approval of gambling, the frequency of discussing gambling offline, and the participant’s Canadian Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) score. Age was a significant predictor of gambling frequency for certain types of gambling (e.g. buying lottery tickets). Approximately 91% of the explainable variance in the participant’s PGSI score could be explained by just five predictors: Positive Urgency; Frequency of playing poker machines at pubs, hotels or sporting clubs; Participation in online discussions of betting on gaming tables at casinos; Frequency of gambling on the internet, and Overestimating the chances of winning. Based on these findings, suggestions are made as to how gambling-related harm can be reduced.

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<![CDATA[A pricing model for group buying based on network effects]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536981d5eed0c484a45ced

Group buying (GB) is a popular business model in e-commerce. With the rise of online social media, the positive network effect of buying with others is more important than price discount for consumers to choose GB. However, the negative network effect of GB is also significant for some consumers. In this paper, we classify consumers into two segments considering both positive and negative network effects, and three possible sales strategies as well as their optimal decisions on price are presented. We find that GB strategy dominates individual buying (IB) strategy when the positive network effect is sufficiently high or the proportion of consumers with low valuation is relatively large. We also find that MIX strategy offering both IB and GB is always better than IB, while the relationship between MIX and GB is depending on actual market situations. Some other managerial insights are also discussed.

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<![CDATA[Gender differences in self-view and desired salaries: A study on online recruitment website users in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7e3d5eed0c484386b87

One explanation for the gender pay differences in labor markets is that women propose lower desired salaries. By using an actual job seeking resume database and applying text mining techniques, we are able to observe both the extent of gender differences in desired salaries and job-related self-view. We find gender differences in global self-view favoring females, and in some domain-specific self-view favoring males. Previous findings of disadvantaged groups having levels of self-view at least as high as those of advantaged groups lend credibility to our findings. Moreover, we argue that the differences in global self-view favoring females may be related to the theories of “belief flipping”, since women in our sample of online-recruitment markets are distinct from the general population, with on average 15.2 years of education and 8.99 years of work experience, due to self-selection. In addition, we find that women do propose lower desired salary than men, after controlling for various factors such as human capital, marital status, industries. We further investigate the role of self-view and find it contributes to explain desired salaries, with modest mediator effect but little moderator effect on gender differences in desired salaries.

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