ResearchPad - concepts-in-disaster-medicine Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Application and Prospect of a Mobile Hospital in Disaster Response]]> Disasters such as an earthquake, a flood, and an epidemic usually lead to large numbers of casualties accompanied by disruption of the functioning of local medical institutions. A rapid response of medical assistance and support is required. Mobile hospitals have been deployed by national and international organizations at disaster situations in the past decades, which play an important role in saving casualties and alleviating the shortage of medical resources. In this paper, we briefly introduce the types and characteristics of mobile hospitals used by medical teams in disaster rescue, including the aspects of structural form, organizational form, and mobile transportation. We also review the practices of mobile hospitals in disaster response and summarize the problems and needs of mobile hospitals in disaster rescue. Finally, we propose the development direction of mobile hospitals, especially on the development of intelligence, rapid deployment capabilities, and modularization, which provide suggestions for further research and development of mobile hospitals in the future.

<![CDATA[COVID-19 Epidemic in the Middle Province of Northern Italy: Impact, Logistics, and Strategy in the First Line Hospital]]>

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) began in China in early December 2019 and rapidly has spread to many countries around the globe, with the number of confirmed cases increasing every day. An epidemic has been recorded since February 20 in a middle province in Northern Italy (Lodi province, in the low Po Valley). The first line hospital had to redesign its logistical and departmental structure to respond to the influx of COVID-19-positive patients who needed hospitalization. Logistical and structural strategies were guided by the crisis unit, managing in 8 days from the beginning of the epidemic to prepare the hospital to be ready to welcome more than 200 COVID-19-positive patients with different ventilatory requirements, keeping clean emergency access lines, and restoring surgical interventions and deferred urgent, routine activity.

<![CDATA[Translating COVID-19 Pandemic Surge Theory to Practice in the Emergency Department: How to Expand Structure]]>

Multiple professional societies, nongovernment and government agencies have studied the science of sudden onset disaster mass casualty incidents to create and promote surge response guidelines. The COVID-19 pandemic has presented the health-care system with challenges that have limited science to guide the staff, stuff, and structure surge response.

This study reviewed the available surge science literature specifically to guide an emergency department’s surge structural response using a translational science approach to answer the question: How does the concept of sudden onset mass casualty incident surge capability apply to the process to expand COVID-19 pandemic surge structure response?

The available surge structural science literature was reviewed to determine the application to a pandemic response. The on-line ahead of print and print COVID-19 scientific publications, as well as gray literature were studied to learn the best available COVID-19 surge structural response science. A checklist was created to guide the emergency department team’s COVID-19 surge structural response.

<![CDATA[Roadblocks to Infection Prevention Efforts in Health Care: SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Response]]>

The outbreak of a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is challenging international public health and health care efforts. As hospitals work to acquire enough personal protective equipment and brace for potential cases, the role of infection prevention efforts and programs has become increasingly important. Lessons from the 2003 SARS-CoV outbreak in Toronto and 2015 MERS-CoV outbreak in South Korea have unveiled the critical role that hospitals play in outbreaks, especially of novel coronaviruses. Their ability to amplify the spread of disease can rapidly fuel transmission of the disease, and often those failures in infection prevention and general hospital practices contribute to such events. While efforts to enhance infection prevention measures and hospital readiness are underway in the United States, it is important to understand why these programs were not able to maintain continued, sustainable levels of readiness. History has shown that infection prevention programs are primarily responsible for preparing hospitals and responding to biological events but face understaffing and focused efforts defined by administrators. The current US health care system, though, is built upon a series of priorities that often view biopreparedness as a costly endeavor. Awareness of these competing priorities and the challenges that infection prevention programs face when working to maintain biopreparedness is critical in adequately addressing this critical infrastructure in the face of an international outbreak.

<![CDATA[Expanding the Use of Noninvasive Ventilation During an Epidemic]]>

Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a proved and effective therapeutic option for some patients with respiratory failure. During an epidemic, NIV can free up respirators and other intensive care unit equipment for patients with respiratory insufficiency whose survival depends exclusively on invasive ventilation. Some guidelines have indicated that NIV is potentially hazardous and should not be recommended for use during epidemics, given the perceived potential risk of transmission from aerosolized pathogen dispersion to other patients or medical staff. Conversely, some reports of previous epidemics describe NIV as a very efficient and safe modality of respiratory support, if strict infection control measures are implemented.

We discuss NIV use during epidemics and indicate the need for prospective randomized clinical studies on the efficacy of NIV in epidemic conditions to provide important information to the current body of literature. Meanwhile, the use of NIV under strict infection control guidelines should be incorporated into epidemic preparedness planning. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;8:1-5)