ResearchPad - connective-tissue-cells https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Quantitative live imaging of Venus::BMAL1 in a mouse model reveals complex dynamics of the master circadian clock regulator]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13838 Cell-autonomous circadian clocks are transcriptional/translational feedback loops that co-ordinate almost all mammalian physiology and behaviour. Although their genetic basis is well understood, we are largely ignorant of the natural behaviour of clock proteins and how they work within these loops. This is particularly true for the essential transcriptional activator BMAL1. To address this, we created and validated a mouse carrying a fully functional knock-in allele that encodes a fluorescent fusion of BMAL1 (Venus::BMAL1). Quantitative live imaging in tissue explants and cells, including the central clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), revealed the circadian expression, nuclear-cytoplasmic mobility, fast kinetics and surprisingly low molecular abundance of endogenous BMAL1, providing significant quantitative insights into the intracellular mechanisms of circadian timing at single-cell resolution.

]]>
<![CDATA[Application of co-culture technology of epithelial type cells and mesenchymal type cells using nanopatterned structures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7654 Various nanopatterning techniques have been developed to improve cell proliferation and differentiation efficiency. As we previously reported, nanopillars and pores are able to sustain human pluripotent stem cells and differentiate pancreatic cells. From this, the nanoscale patterns would be effective environment for the co-culturing of epithelial and mesenchymal cell types. Interestingly, the nanopatterning selectively reduced the proliferative rate of mesenchymal cells while increasing the expression of adhesion protein in epithelial type cells. Additionally, co-cultured cells on the nanopatterning were not negatively affected in terms of cell function metabolic ability or cell survival. This is in contrast to conventional co-culturing methods such as ultraviolet or chemical treatments. The nanopatterning appears to be an effective environment for mesenchymal co-cultures with typically low proliferative rates cells such as astrocytes, neurons, melanocytes, and fibroblasts without using potentially damaging treatments.

]]>
<![CDATA[Streptococcal H2O2 inhibits IgE-triggered degranulation of RBL-2H3 mast cell/basophil cell line by inducing cell death]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nadf2e0c3-9608-4100-a6fa-f03310d30959

Mast cells and basophils are central players in allergic reactions triggered by immunoglobulin E (IgE). They have intracellular granules containing allergic mediators (e.g., histamine, serotonin, inflammatory cytokines, proteases and β-hexosaminidase), and stimulation by IgE-allergen complex leads to the release of such allergic mediators from the granules, that is, degranulation. Mast cells are residents of mucosal surfaces, including those of nasal and oral cavities, and play an important role in the innate defense system. Members of the mitis group streptococci such as Streptococcus oralis, are primary colonizers of the human oral cavity. They produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a by-product of sugar metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of streptococcal infection on RBL-2H3 mast cell/basophil cell line. Infection by oral streptococci did not induce degranulation of the cells. Stimulation of the RBL-2H3 cells with anti-dinitrophenol (DNP) IgE and DNP-conjugated human serum albumin triggers degranulation with the release of β-hexosaminidase. We found that S. oralis and other mitis group streptococci inhibited the IgE-triggered degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells. Since mitis group streptococci produce H2O2, we examined the effect of S. oralis mutant strain deficient in producing H2O2, and found that they lost the ability to suppress the degranulation. Moreover, H2O2 alone inhibited the IgE-induced degranulation. Subsequent analysis suggested that the inhibition of degranulation was related to the cytotoxicity of streptococcal H2O2. Activated RBL-2H3 cells produce interleukin-4 (IL-4); however, IL-4 production was not induced by streptococcal H2O2. Furthermore, an in vivo study using the murine pollen-induced allergic rhinitis model suggested that the streptococcal H2O2 reduces nasal allergic reaction. These findings reveal that H2O2 produced by oral mitis group streptococci inhibits IgE-stimulated degranulation by inducing cell death. Consequently, streptococcal H2O2 can be considered to modulate the allergic reaction in mucosal surfaces.

]]>
<![CDATA[Reduction of osteoarthritis severity in the temporomandibular joint of rabbits treated with chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N10336f10-2066-4958-9182-9e228dac929f

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease that causes substantial changes in joint tissues, such as cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone sclerosis. Chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine are commonly used products for the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of these products when used as structure-modifying drugs on the progression of osteoarthritis in the rabbit temporomandibular joint. Thirty-six New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups (n = 12/group): control (no disease); osteoarthritis (disease induction); and treatment (disease induction and administration of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine). Osteoarthritis was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate. Animals were killed at 30 and 90 days after initiation of therapy. The treatment was effective in reducing disease severity, with late effects and changes in the concentration of glycosaminoglycans in the articular disc. The results indicate that chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine may have a structure-modifying effect on the tissues of rabbit temporomandibular joints altered by osteoarthritis.

]]>
<![CDATA[TRIM2, a novel member of the antiviral family, limits New World arenavirus entry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d3dd5eed0c484c82342

Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins belong to a large family with many roles in host biology, including restricting virus infection. Here, we found that TRIM2, which has been implicated in cases of Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMTD) in humans, acts by blocking hemorrhagic fever New World arenavirus (NWA) entry into cells. We show that Trim2-knockout mice, as well as primary fibroblasts from a CMTD patient with mutations in TRIM2, are more highly infected by the NWAs Junín and Tacaribe virus than wild-type mice or cells are. Using mice with different Trim2 gene deletions and TRIM2 mutant constructs, we demonstrate that its antiviral activity is uniquely independent of the RING domain encoding ubiquitin ligase activity. Finally, we show that one member of the TRIM2 interactome, signal regulatory protein α (SIRPA), a known inhibitor of phagocytosis, also restricts NWA infection and conversely that TRIM2 limits phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. In addition to demonstrating a novel antiviral mechanism for TRIM proteins, these studies suggest that the NWA entry and phagocytosis pathways overlap.

]]>
<![CDATA[Fat cells gobbling up norepinephrine?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c65dcd9d5eed0c484dec37d

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) controls key aspects of adipose tissue (AT) function through the release of norepinephrine (NE) and beta adrenergic signaling. Sympathetic tone is determined by NE release but also by the rate of extracellular NE clearance that historically has been believed to occur solely through solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2) expressed on sympathetic neurons. Song and colleagues show that adipocytes can also clear NE through organic cation transporter 3 (Oct3). This contributes to our understanding of how adrenergic signaling is controlled in AT and also emphasizes the need to develop better methods to assess adrenergic signaling in vivo.

]]>
<![CDATA[Mammalian Hbs1L deficiency causes congenital anomalies and developmental delay associated with Pelota depletion and 80S monosome accumulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df303d5eed0c484580b31

Hbs1 has been established as a central component of the cell’s translational quality control pathways in both yeast and prokaryotic models; however, the functional characteristics of its human ortholog (Hbs1L) have not been well-defined. We recently reported a novel human phenotype resulting from a mutation in the critical coding region of the HBS1L gene characterized by facial dysmorphism, severe growth restriction, axial hypotonia, global developmental delay and retinal pigmentary deposits. Here we further characterize downstream effects of the human HBS1L mutation. HBS1L has three transcripts in humans, and RT-PCR demonstrated reduced mRNA levels corresponding with transcripts V1 and V2 whereas V3 expression was unchanged. Western blot analyses revealed Hbs1L protein was absent in the patient cells. Additionally, polysome profiling revealed an abnormal aggregation of 80S monosomes in patient cells under baseline conditions. RNA and ribosomal sequencing demonstrated an increased translation efficiency of ribosomal RNA in Hbs1L-deficient fibroblasts, suggesting that there may be a compensatory increase in ribosome translation to accommodate the increased 80S monosome levels. This enhanced translation was accompanied by upregulation of mTOR and 4-EBP protein expression, suggesting an mTOR-dependent phenomenon. Furthermore, lack of Hbs1L caused depletion of Pelota protein in both patient cells and mouse tissues, while PELO mRNA levels were unaffected. Inhibition of proteasomal function partially restored Pelota expression in human Hbs1L-deficient cells. We also describe a mouse model harboring a knockdown mutation in the murine Hbs1l gene that shared several of the phenotypic elements observed in the Hbs1L-deficient human including facial dysmorphism, growth restriction and retinal deposits. The Hbs1lKO mice similarly demonstrate diminished Pelota levels that were rescued by proteasome inhibition.

]]>
<![CDATA[A novel nonosteocytic regulatory mechanism of bone modeling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df343d5eed0c484581048

Osteocytes, cells forming an elaborate network within the bones of most vertebrate taxa, are thought to be the master regulators of bone modeling, a process of coordinated, local bone-tissue deposition and removal that keeps bone strains at safe levels throughout life. Neoteleost fish, however, lack osteocytes and yet are known to be capable of bone modeling, although no osteocyte-independent modeling regulatory mechanism has so far been described. Here, we characterize a novel, to our knowledge, bone-modeling regulatory mechanism in a fish species (medaka), showing that although lacking osteocytes (i.e., internal mechanosensors), when loaded, medaka bones model in mechanically directed ways, successfully reducing high tissue strains. We establish that as in mammals, modeling in medaka is regulated by the SOST gene, demonstrating a mechanistic link between skeletal loading, SOST down-regulation, and intense bone deposition. However, whereas mammalian SOST is expressed almost exclusively by osteocytes, in both medaka and zebrafish (a species with osteocytic bones), SOST is expressed by a variety of nonosteocytic cells, none of which reside within the bone bulk. These findings argue that in fishes (and perhaps other vertebrates), nonosteocytic skeletal cells are both sensors and responders, shouldering duties believed exclusive to osteocytes. This previously unrecognized, SOST-dependent, osteocyte-independent mechanism challenges current paradigms of osteocyte exclusivity in bone-modeling regulation, suggesting the existence of multivariate feedback networks in bone modeling—perhaps also in mammalian bones—and thus arguing for the possibility of untapped potential for cell targets in bone therapeutics.

]]>
<![CDATA[Nuclear position relative to the Golgi body and nuclear orientation are differentially responsive indicators of cell polarized motility]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca31d5eed0c48452a8a8

Cell motility is critical to biological processes from wound healing to cancer metastasis to embryonic development. The involvement of organelles in cell motility is well established, but the role of organelle positional reorganization in cell motility remains poorly understood. Here we present an automated image analysis technique for tracking the shape and motion of Golgi bodies and cell nuclei. We quantify the relationship between nuclear orientation and the orientation of the Golgi body relative to the nucleus before, during, and after exposure of mouse fibroblasts to a controlled change in cell substrate topography, from flat to wrinkles, designed to trigger polarized motility. We find that the cells alter their mean nuclei orientation, in terms of the nuclear major axis, to increasingly align with the wrinkle direction once the wrinkles form on the substrate surface. This change in alignment occurs within 8 hours of completion of the topographical transition. In contrast, the position of the Golgi body relative to the nucleus remains aligned with the pre-programmed wrinkle direction, regardless of whether it has been fully established. These findings indicate that intracellular positioning of the Golgi body precedes nuclear reorientation during mouse fibroblast directed migration on patterned substrates. We further show that both processes are Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) mediated as they are abolished by pharmacologic ROCK inhibition whereas mouse fibroblast motility is unaffected. The automated image analysis technique introduced could be broadly employed in the study of polarization and other cellular processes in diverse cell types and micro-environments. In addition, having found that the nuclei Golgi vector may be a more sensitive indicator of substrate features than the nuclei orientation, we anticipate the nuclei Golgi vector to be a useful metric for researchers studying the dynamics of cell polarity in response to different micro-environments.

]]>
<![CDATA[Control of basal autophagy rate by vacuolar peduncle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c67309ed5eed0c484f37df3

Basal autophagy is as a compressive catabolic mechanism engaged in the breakdown of damaged macromolecules and organelles leading to the recycling of elementary nutrients. Thought essential to cellular refreshing, little is known about the origin of a constitutional rate of basal autophagy. Here, we found that loss of Drosophila vacuolar peduncle (vap), a presumed GAP enzyme, is associated with enhanced basal autophagy rate and physiological alterations resulting in a wasteful cell energy balance, a hallmark of overactive autophagy. By contrast, starvation-induced autophagy was disrupted in vap mutant conditions, leading to a block of maturation into autolysosomes. This phenotype stem for exacerbated biogenesis of PI(3)P-dependent endomembranes, including autophagosome membranes and ectopic fusions of vesicles. These findings shed new light on the neurodegenerative phenotype found associated to mutant vap adult brains in a former study. A partner of Vap, Sprint (Spri), acting as an endocytic GEF for Rab5, had the converse effect of leading to a reduction in PI(3)P-dependent endomembrane formation in mutants. Spri was conditional to normal basal autophagy and instrumental to the starvation-sensitivity phenotype specific of vap. Rab5 activity itself was essential for PI(3)P and for pre-autophagosome structures formation. We propose that Vap/Spri complexes promote a cell surface-derived flow of endocytic Rab5-containing vesicles, the traffic of which is crucial for the implementation of a basal autophagy rate.

]]>
<![CDATA[Prevention of tooth extraction-triggered bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws with basic fibroblast growth factor: An experimental study in rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c67306cd5eed0c484f37ad3

Osteonecrosis of the jaw induced by administration of bisphosphonates (BPs), BP-related osteonecrosis (BRONJ), typically develops after tooth extraction and is medically challenging. As BPs inhibit oral mucosal cell growth, we hypothesized that suppression of the wound healing-inhibiting effects could prevent BRONJ onset after tooth extraction. Since basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promotes wound healing, but has a short half-life, we examined whether the initiation of BRONJ could be prevented by applying a bFGF-containing gelatin hydrogel over the extraction sockets of BRONJ model rats. Forty-three rats, received two intravenous injections of zoledronic acid 60 μg/kg, once per week for a period of 2 weeks, underwent extraction of a unilateral lower first molar. The rats here were randomly assigned to the bFGF group (n = 15 rats, gelatin hydrogel sheets with incorporated bFGF applied over the sockets); the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) group (n = 14 rats, gelatin hydrogel sheets without bFGF applied over the sockets); or the control group (n = 14 rats, nothing applied over the sockets). One rat in the bFGF group was sacrificed immediately after tooth extraction. Twenty-one rats were sacrificed at 3 weeks, and the remaining 21 rats were sacrificed at 8 weeks after tooth extractions. The harvested mandibles were analyzed using micro-computed tomography and sections were evaluated qualitatively for mucosal disruption and osteonecrosis. The incidence of osteonecrosis at 8 weeks after tooth extraction was 0% in the bFGF group, 100% in the PBS group, and 85.7% in the control group. The frequency of complete coverage of the extraction socket by mucosal tissue was significantly greater in the bFGF group than in the other groups. These results suggest that application of bFGF in the extraction socket promoted socket healing, which prevented BRONJ development. The growth-stimulating effects of bFGF may have offset the inhibition of wound healing by BP.

]]>
<![CDATA[The organization of leukotriene biosynthesis on the nuclear envelope revealed by single molecule localization microscopy and computational analyses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c673071d5eed0c484f37b3f

The initial steps in the synthesis of leukotrienes are the translocation of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) to the nuclear envelope and its subsequent association with its scaffold protein 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP). A major gap in our understanding of this process is the knowledge of how the organization of 5-LO and FLAP on the nuclear envelope regulates leukotriene synthesis. We combined single molecule localization microscopy with Clus-DoC cluster analysis, and also a novel unbiased cluster analysis to analyze changes in the relationships between 5-LO and FLAP in response to activation of RBL-2H3 cells to generate leukotriene C4. We identified the time-dependent reorganization of both 5-LO and FLAP into higher-order assemblies or clusters in response to cell activation via the IgE receptor. Clus-DoC analysis identified a subset of these clusters with a high degree of interaction between 5-LO and FLAP that specifically correlates with the time course of LTC4 synthesis, strongly suggesting their role in the initiation of leukotriene biosynthesis.

]]>
<![CDATA[Molecular insights in the pathogenesis of classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome from transcriptome-wide expression profiling of patients’ skin fibroblasts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8b3d5eed0c48496efc5

Classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS) is a dominant inherited connective tissue disorder mainly caused by mutations in the COL5A1 and COL5A2 genes encoding type V collagen (COLLV), which is a fibrillar COLL widely distributed in a variety of connective tissues. cEDS patients suffer from skin hyperextensibility, abnormal wound healing/atrophic scars, and joint hypermobility. Most of the causative variants result in a non-functional COL5A1 allele and COLLV haploinsufficiency, whilst COL5A2 mutations affect its structural integrity. To shed light into disease mechanisms involved in cEDS, we performed gene expression profiling in skin fibroblasts from four patients harboring haploinsufficient and structural mutations in both disease genes. Transcriptome profiling revealed significant changes in the expression levels of different extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes, such as SPP1, POSTN, EDIL3, IGFBP2, and C3, which encode both matricellular and soluble proteins that are mainly involved in cell proliferation and migration, and cutaneous wound healing. These gene expression changes are consistent with our previous protein findings on in vitro fibroblasts from other cEDS patients, which exhibited reduced migration and poor wound repair owing to COLLV disorganization, altered deposition of fibronectin into ECM, and an abnormal integrin pattern. Microarray analysis also indicated the decreased expression of DNAJB7, VIPAS39, CCPG1, ATG10, SVIP, which encode molecular chaperones facilitating protein folding, enzymes regulating post-Golgi COLLs processing, and proteins acting as cargo receptors required for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis and implicated in the autophagy process. Patients’ cells also showed altered mRNA levels of many cell cycle regulating genes including CCNE2, KIF4A, MKI67, DTL, and DDIAS. Protein studies showed that aberrant COLLV expression causes the disassembly of itself and many structural ECM constituents including COLLI, COLLIII, fibronectin, and fibrillins. Our findings provide the first molecular evidence of significant gene expression changes in cEDS skin fibroblasts highlighting that defective ECM remodeling, ER homeostasis and autophagy might play a role in the pathogenesis of this connective tissue disorder.

]]>
<![CDATA[Systems biology reveals how altered TGFβ signalling with age reduces protection against pro-inflammatory stimuli]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c536b3fd5eed0c484a4846b

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative condition caused by dysregulation of multiple molecular signalling pathways. Such dysregulation results in damage to cartilage, a smooth and protective tissue that enables low friction articulation of synovial joints. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP-13, are key enzymes in the cleavage of type II collagen which is a vital component for cartilage integrity. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) can protect against pro-inflammatory cytokine-mediated MMP expression. With age there is a change in the ratio of two TGFβ type I receptors (Alk1/Alk5), a shift that results in TGFβ losing its protective role in cartilage homeostasis. Instead, TGFβ promotes cartilage degradation which correlates with the spontaneous development of OA in murine models. However, the mechanism by which TGFβ protects against pro-inflammatory responses and how this changes with age has not been extensively studied. As TGFβ signalling is complex, we used systems biology to combine experimental and computational outputs to examine how the system changes with age. Experiments showed that the repressive effect of TGFβ on chondrocytes treated with a pro-inflammatory stimulus required Alk5. Computational modelling revealed two independent mechanisms were needed to explain the crosstalk between TGFβ and pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. A novel meta-analysis of microarray data from OA patient tissue was used to create a Cytoscape network representative of human OA and revealed the importance of inflammation. Combining the modelled genes with the microarray network provided a global overview into the crosstalk between the different signalling pathways involved in OA development. Our results provide further insights into the mechanisms that cause TGFβ signalling to change from a protective to a detrimental pathway in cartilage with ageing. Moreover, such a systems biology approach may enable restoration of the protective role of TGFβ as a potential therapy to prevent age-related loss of cartilage and the development of OA.

]]>
<![CDATA[Connective tissue growth factor mediates transforming growth factor β-induced collagen expression in human endometrial stromal cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59feb0d5eed0c4841352f2

Background

Adenomyosis is a medical condition defined by the abnormal presence of endometrial tissue within the myometrium, in which fibrosis occurs with new collagen deposition and myofibroblast differentiation. In this study, the effect of several mediators and growth factors on collagen expression was investigated on human endometrial stromal cells (fibroblasts) derived from adenomyotic endometrium.

Experimental approach

RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, pharmacological interventions and siRNA interference were applied to primary cultured human endometrial stromal cells (fibroblasts). Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze protein expression in adenomyotic endometrium tissue specimens.

Results

Of the tested mediators, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) and its isoforms were effective to induce collagen and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression. Collagen and CTGF induction by TGFβ1 could be reduced by the inhibitors targeting DNA transcription, protein translation, and Smad2/3 signaling. Interestingly, TGFβ1 induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation and CTGF mRNA expression, but not collagen mRNA expression, suggesting that TGFβ1 mediates collagen expression through CTGF induction and Smad2/3 activation. In parallel, TGFβ1 and CTGF also induced expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 47, a protein required for the synthesis of several types of collagens. However, only CTGF siRNA knockdown, could compromise TGFβ1-induced collagen expression. Finally, the immunohistochemistry revealed vimentin- and α-SMA-positive staining for (myo)fibroblasts, TGFβ1, collagen, and CTGF in the subepithelial stroma region of human adenomyotic endometria.

Conclusion and implications

We reveal here that TGFβ1, collagen, and CTGF are expressed in the stroma of adenomyotic endometria and demonstrate that TGFβ1 can induce collagen production in endometrium-derived fibroblasts through cellular Smad2/3-dependent signaling pathway and CTGF expression, suggesting that endometrial TGFβ may take part in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis and ectopic endometrium may participate in uterine adenomyosis.

]]>
<![CDATA[Therapeutic effect of localized vibration on alveolar bone of osteoporotic rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59feb1d5eed0c4841352ff

Objectives

Vibration, in the form of high frequency acceleration (HFA), stimulates alveolar bone formation under physiologic conditions and during healing after dental extractions. It is not known if HFA has an anabolic effect on osteoporotic alveolar bone. Our objective is to determine if HFA has a regenerative effect on osteoporotic alveolar bone.

Methods and materials

Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: 1) Ovariectomized Group (OVX), 2) Sham-OVX Group that received surgery without ovariectomy, 3) OVX-HFA Group that was ovariectomized and treated daily with HFA, 4) OVX+Static Force Group that was ovariectomized and received the same force as HFA, but without vibration, and 5) Control Group that did not receive any treatment. All animals were fed a low mineral diet for 3 months. Osteoporosis was confirmed by micro-CT of the fifth lumbar vertebra and femoral head. HFA was applied to the maxillary first molar for 5 minutes/day for 28 and 56 days. Maxillae were collected for micro-CT, histology, fluorescent microscopy, protein and RNA analysis, and three-point bending mechanical testing.

Results

Micro-CT analysis revealed significant alveolar bone osteoporosis in the OVX group. Vibration restored the quality and quantity of alveolar bone to levels similar to the Sham-OVX group. Animals exposed to HFA demonstrated higher osteoblast activity and lower osteoclast activity. Osteogenic transcription factors (RUNX2, Foxo1, Osterix and Wnt signaling factors) were upregulated following vibration, while RANKL/RANK and Sclerostin were downregulated. HFA did not affect serum TRAcP-5b or CTx-1 levels. The osteogenic effect was highest at the point of HFA application and extended along the hemimaxillae this effect did not cross to the contra-lateral side.

Conclusions

Local application of vibration generated gradients of increased anabolic metabolism and decreased catabolic metabolism in alveolar bone of osteoporotic rats. Our findings suggest that HFA could be a predictable treatment for diminished alveolar bone levels in osteoporosis patients.

]]>
<![CDATA[Effect of photobiomodulation and exercise on early remodeling of the Achilles tendon in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e8d6d5eed0c48496f20d

The aim of this study was to compare the treatment effects of laser photobiomodulation (LPBM) therapy and aerobic exercise on the biomechanical properties, tissue morphology and the expression of tendon matrix molecules during early remodeling of Achilles tendon (AT) injury in diabetic rats. Animals were randomly assigned to five groups: injured non diabetic (I, n = 15), injured diabetic (ID, n = 15), injured diabetic plus LPBM (IDL, n = 16), injured diabetic plus aerobic exercise (IDE, n = 16) and injured diabetic plus aerobic exercise and LPBM (IDEAL, n = 17). Type 1 diabetes was induced via a single intravenous injection of Streptozotocin at a dose of 40 mg/kg. A partial tenotomy was performed in the right AT. LPBM was performed with an indium-gallium-aluminum-phosphide 660 nm 10 mW laser device (spot size 0.04 cm2, power density 250 mW/cm2, irradiation duration 16 s, energy 0.16 J, energy density 4 J/cm2) on alternate days for a total of 9 sessions over 3 weeks (total energy 1.44 J), using a stationary contact technique to a single point over the dorsal aspect of the AT. Moderate aerobic exercise was performed on a motorized treadmill (velocity 9 m/min for 60 minutes). At 3 weeks post-injury, biomechanical analyzes as well as assessment of fibroblast number and orientation were performed. Collagen 1 (Col1) and 3 (Col3) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -3 and 13 protein distributions were studied by immunohistochemistry; while Col1 and Col3 and MMP-2 and 9 gene expression were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). IDEAL exhibited significant increases in several biomechanical parameters in comparison to the other groups. Moreover, IDEAL presented stronger Col1 immunoreactivity when compared to ID, and weaker Col3 immunoreactivity than IDE. Both IDL and IDEAL demonstrated weaker expression of MMP-3 in comparison to I, while IDL presented no expression of MMP-13 when compared to ID. ID, IDL and IDE showed an increased number of fibroblasts in comparison to I, while IDEAL decreased the number of these cells in comparison to ID and IDE. IDL and IDEAL groups exhibited decreased angular dispersion among the fibroblasts when compared to I. The gene expression results showed that IDE demonstrated a downregulation in Col1 mRNA expression in comparison to I and ID. IDEAL demonstrated upregulation of Col1 mRNA expression when compared to IDL or IDE alone and increased MMP-2 expression when compared to IDL and IDE. MMP-9 expression was upregulated in IDEAL when compared to I, IDL and IDE. Our results suggest a beneficial interaction of combining both treatment strategies i.e., aerobic exercise and LPBM, on the biomechanical properties, tissue morphology and the expression of matrix molecules in diabetic tendons.

]]>
<![CDATA[Blue light irradiation and its beneficial effect on Dupuytren’s fibroblasts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c42438ed5eed0c4845e05ab

Dupuytren’s contracture is a fibroproliferative disorder affecting the palmar fascia of the hand. Most affected are the ring fingers, and little fingers of middle-aged men. Symptomatic for this disease is the increased proliferation and differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, which is accompanied by an elevated α-SMA expression. The present study evaluated the therapeutic benefit of blue light (λ = 453 nm, 38 mW/cm2, continuous radiance, spot size 10–12 cm2) as well as the molecular mechanism mediating this effect. It could be determined that blue light significantly diminished the induced α-SMA protein expression in both normal palmar fibroblasts and Duypuytren’s fibroblasts. The beneficial effect mediated by this irradiance, radiant exposure and wavelength was associated with an elevated reactive oxygen species generation. Furthermore, the data underlines the potential usefulness of blue light irradiation as a promising therapy option for Dupuytren’s disease, especially for relapse prevention, and may represent a useful strategy to treat further fibrotic diseases, such as keloids, hypertrophic scarring, and scleroderma.

]]>
<![CDATA[Injectable polypeptide hydrogel/inorganic nanoparticle composites for bone tissue engineering]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7a7d5eed0c48438653b

The general concept of tissue engineering is to restore biological function by replacing defective tissues with implantable, biocompatible, and easily handleable cell-laden scaffolds. In this study, osteoinductive and osteoconductive super paramagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles were incorporated into a di-block copolymer based thermo-responsive hydrogel, methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-polyalanine (mPA), at various concentrations to afford composite, injectable hydrogels. Incorporating nanoparticles into the thermo-responsive hydrogel increased the complex viscosity and decreased the gelation temperature of the starting hydrogel. Functionally, the integration of inorganic nanoparticles modulated bio-markers of bone differentiation and enhanced bone mineralization. Moreover, this study adopted the emerging method of using either a supplementary static magnetic field (SMF) or a moving magnetic field to elicit biological response. These results demonstrate that combining external (magnet) and internal (scaffold) magnetisms is a promising approach for bone regeneration.

]]>
<![CDATA[Transcriptomic characterization of signaling pathways associated with osteoblastic differentiation of MC-3T3E1 cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390bc6d5eed0c48491e481

Bone remodeling involves the coordinated actions of osteoclasts, which resorb the calcified bony matrix, and osteoblasts, which refill erosion pits created by osteoclasts to restore skeletal integrity and adapt to changes in mechanical load. Osteoblasts are derived from pluripotent mesenchymal stem cell precursors, which undergo differentiation under the influence of a host of local and environmental cues. To characterize the autocrine/paracrine signaling networks associated with osteoblast maturation and function, we performed gene network analysis using complementary “agnostic” DNA microarray and “targeted” NanoString nCounter datasets derived from murine MC3T3-E1 cells induced to undergo synchronized osteoblastic differentiation in vitro. Pairwise datasets representing changes in gene expression associated with growth arrest (day 2 to 5 in culture), differentiation (day 5 to 10 in culture), and osteoblast maturation (day 10 to 28 in culture) were analyzed using Ingenuity Systems Pathways Analysis to generate predictions about signaling pathway activity based on the temporal sequence of changes in target gene expression. Our data indicate that some pathways involved in osteoblast differentiation, e.g. Wnt/β-catenin signaling, are most active early in the process, while others, e.g. TGFβ/BMP, cytokine/JAK-STAT and TNFα/RANKL signaling, increase in activity as differentiation progresses. Collectively, these pathways contribute to the sequential expression of genes involved in the synthesis and mineralization of extracellular matrix. These results provide insight into the temporal coordination and complex interplay between signaling networks controlling gene expression during osteoblast differentiation. A more complete understanding of these processes may aid the discovery of novel methods to promote osteoblast development for the treatment of conditions characterized by low bone mineral density.

]]>