ResearchPad - contraception https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Comparability of modern contraceptive use estimates between a face-to-face survey and a cellphone survey among women in Burkina Faso]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13849 The proliferation of cell phone ownership in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) presents the opportunity to collect public health indicators at a lower cost compared to face-to-face (FTF) surveys. This analysis assesses the equivalence of modern contraceptive prevalence estimates between a nationally representative FTF survey and a cell phone survey using random digit dialing (RDD) among women of reproductive age in Burkina Faso.MethodsWe analyzed data from two surveys conducted in Burkina Faso between December 2017 and May 2018. The FTF survey conducted by Performance Monitoring and Accountability (PMA2020) comprised a nationally representative sample of 3,556 women of reproductive age (15–49 years). The RDD survey was conducted using computer-assisted telephone interviewing and included 2,379 women of reproductive age.ResultsCompared to FTF respondents, women in the RDD sample were younger, were more likely to have a secondary degree and to speak French. RDD respondents were more likely to report using modern contraceptive use (40%) compared to FTF respondents (26%) and the difference remained unchanged after applying post-stratification weights to the RDD sample (39%). This difference surpassed the equivalence margin of 4%. The RDD sample also produced higher estimates of contraceptive use than the subsample of women who owned a phone in the FTF sample (32%). After adjusting for women’s sociodemographic factors, the odds of contraceptive use were 1.9 times higher (95% CI: 1.6–2.2) in the RDD survey compared to the FTF survey and 1.6 times higher (95% CI: 1.3–1.8) compared to FTF phone owners.ConclusionsModern contraceptive prevalence in Burkina Faso is over-estimated when using a cell phone RDD survey, even after adjusting for a number of sociodemographic factors. Further research should explore causes of differential estimates of modern contraceptive use by survey modes. ]]> <![CDATA[Incidence and determinants of Implanon discontinuation: Findings from a prospective cohort study in three health zones in Kinshasa, DRC]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7634 Kinshasa is Africa's third largest city and one of the continent’s most rapidly growing urban areas. PMA2020 data showed that Kinshasa has a modern contraceptive prevalence of 26.5% among married women in 2018. In Kinshasa’s method mix, the contraceptive implant recently became the dominant method among contraceptive users married and in union. This study provides insight into patterns of implant use in a high-fertility setting by evaluating the 24-month continuation rate for Implanon NXT and identifying the characteristics associated with discontinuation.MethodologyThis community-based, prospective cohort study followed 531 Implanon users aged 18–49 years at 6, 12 and 24 months. The following information was collected: socio-demographic characteristics, Method Information Index (MII) and contraceptive history. The main outcome variable for this study was implant discontinuation. The incidence rate of discontinuation is presented as events per 1000 person/months (p-m), from the date of enrolment. The Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to measure predictors of discontinuation.ResultsA total of 9158.13 p-m were available for analysis, with an overall incidence rate of 9.06 (95% CI: 9.04–9.08) removals per 1000 p-m. Of nine possible co-variates tested, the likelihood of discontinuation was higher among women who lived in military camps, had less than three children, never used injectables or implants in the past, had experienced heavy/prolonged bleeding, and whose MII score was less than 3.ConclusionIn addition to four client characteristics that predicted discontinuation, we identified one programmatic factor: quality of counseling as measured by the Method Information Index. Community providers in similar contexts should pay more attention to clients having less than three children, new adopters, and to clients living military camps as underserved population, where clients have less access to health facilities. More targeted counselling and follow-up is needed, especially on bleeding patterns. ]]> <![CDATA[Provision of immediate postpartum intrauterine contraception after vaginal birth within a public maternity setting: Health services research evaluation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7141 Expanding access to postpartum intrauterine contraception (PPIUC) can reduce unintended pregnancies and short inter‐pregnancy intervals; however, provision across Europe is limited. Our aim was to determine the feasibility, clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction of providing immediate PPIUC after vaginal birth using a health services research model.Material and methodsPhased introduction of PPIUC across two Lothian maternity hospitals; all women intending vaginal birth during the study period without a contraindication to use of the method were eligible to receive PPIUC. Midwives and obstetric doctors were trained in vaginal PPIUC insertion using Kelly forceps. Women received information antenatally and had PPIUC insertion of either a levonorgestrel intrauterine system or a copper intrauterine device within 48 hours of vaginal birth. Follow‐up was conducted in‐person at 6 weeks postpartum and by telephone at 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes were: uptake, complications (infection, uterine perforation), expulsion and patient satisfaction at 6 weeks; and method of continuation up to 12 months. Secondary outcomes included hazard ratio for expulsion adjusted for demographic and insertion‐related variables.ResultsUptake of PPIUC was 4.6% of all vaginal births; 465/447 (96.1%) of those requesting PPIUC successfully received it and most chose a levonorgestrel intrauterine system (73%). At 6 weeks postpartum, the infection rate was 0.8%, there were no perforations and 98.3% of women said they would recommend the service. The complete expulsion rate was 29.8% (n = 113) and most had symptoms (n = 79). Of the additional 121 devices removed, 118 were because of partial expulsion. The rate of complete/partial expulsion was higher for insertions by midwives compared with those by doctors. The re‐insertion rate after expulsion/removal was 87.6% and method continuation at 12 months was 79.6%.ConclusionsRoutine PPIUC at vaginal birth is feasible. Complications were extremely rare. High expulsion rates may be observed in early stages of service introduction and with inexperienced providers. Re‐insertion and therefore longer‐term continuation rates of intrauterine contraception were very high. In settings with low rates of attendance for interval postpartum intrauterine contraception insertion, PPIUC could be a useful intervention to prevent unintended and closely spaced pregnancies. ]]> <![CDATA[Utilization of modern contraceptives and predictors among women in Shimelba refugee camp, Northern Ethiopia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897721d5eed0c4847d2504

Women living in refugee camps, in addition to the common hardships, such as drought, and famine, are also prone to another peculiar problem: an unintended pregnancy. The impact of unintended pregnancy is so severe that the rate of women who die or suffer an injury while giving birth in crisis settings is almost double the world average death rate. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the utilization of modern contraceptive and associated factors among women in the reproductive age group in Shimelba refugee camp, Northern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was employed and 329 study subjects were selected using simple random sampling technique with a face-to-face interview. The prevalence of using modern contraceptive was 47.7% and the study showed that being older [AOR = 0.017, 95%CI: 0.001, 0.467], being single [AOR = 0.17, 95%CI:0.031,0.914], being unemployed [AOR = 0.21, 95% CI:0.001,0.392], having no partner support [AOR = 0.006, 95% CI:0.001,0.044], and inconvenient service site AOR = 0.089,95% CI:0.013, 0.595] were factors that contributed to women not using modern contraceptive methods. Receipt of counseling on family planning utilization was more likely to helps women to use it [AOR = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.1095, 10.236]. Our study concluded that the current prevalence rate of contraceptive use is fairly good. However, much effort has to be made to improve this result. The situations in refugee can exacerbate the existing barriers to the use of contraceptives. Given its grave consequence on the livelihood of women, the contraceptive issue should be given due emphasis using several techniques including education to expand the awareness on modern contraceptive so as to augment access to family planning.

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<![CDATA[Quality of family planning services in Mexico: The perspective of demand]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52f0d5eed0c4842bd2c6

Introduction

Family planning (FP) is one of the key services provided by health care systems. Extending beyond matters of sexual and reproductive health, its area of influence impacts directly on the development of individuals and nations. After 60 years of intense FP activities in Mexico, and in light of recent restructuring of health service supply and financing, services need to be assessed from a user perspective.

Objective

Based on a comprehensive conceptual framework, this article assesses the quality of the FP services provided by the Mexican Ministry of Health (MoH). Analysis considers not only accessibility and availability but also the users’ perceptions of the care process, particularly as regards the interpersonal relations they experience with staff and the type of information they are provided.

Material and methods

This study used a descriptive, qualitative design based on maximum variation sampling in six Mexican states. It included visits to 12 clinics in urban and rural areas. Thematic analysis was performed on 86 semi-structured interviews administered to FP service users.

Results

While access was described by users as “easy,” their experiences revealed normalized barriers. One of our key findings referred to inverse availability, meaning that the contraceptive methods available were generally not the ones preferred by users, with their selection therefore being shaped by shortage of supplies. Challenges included disrespect for the free choice of FP users and coercion during consultations for contraception post obstetric event. Finally, information provided to users left considerable room for improvement.

Conclusions

After six decades of FP service supply, results indicate a series of quality issues that may lie at the heart of the unmet demand reported in the literature. Based on a comprehensive conceptual scheme, the present study analyzes the quality of services, highlighting areas for improvement that should be considered by the MoH in future efforts.

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<![CDATA[Prevalence and determinant factors of unintended pregnancy among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of Addis Zemen hospital]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52cfd5eed0c4842bd074

Introduction

Unintended pregnancy is a pregnancy which is not wanted and/or not planed at the time of conception. It has a major consequence on mothers’ and newborns’ health and its prevalence remains a major health problem in Ethiopia. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancy among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of Addis Zemen hospital.

Methods

An institutional-based cross-sectional study was employed in Addis Zemen hospital from April 01 to May 30, 2018. The sampled 398 pregnant mothers were selected by systematic random sampling. The data were collected using a-pretested structured questionnaire via face to face interview and the collected data were analyzed by using SPSS Version-20. The data were summarized with frequency and cross-tabulation. Both binary and multiple logistic regressions were used in order to identify predictor variables using odds ratio at 95% confidence interval.

Results

All of 398 mothers answered the questionnaire making the response rate 100%. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy was 26.1% (CI;22.1, 30.4). Women who were multigravid (AOR; 4.7: CI; 2.3, 6.8), women who were multipara (AOR; 2.8: CI; 2.6, 9.7), and women who were from rural (AOR; 2.6: CI; 1.5, 4.6) were more likely experienced unintended pregnancy than their counterparts. Women who were Muslim (AOR; 0.79: CI; 0.6, 0.90) and women who attended secondary education (AOR; 0.58: CI; 0.42, 0.78) were less likely experienced unintended pregnancy.

Conclusion and recommendation

The prevalence of unintended pregnancy is high in the study area. Educational status, parity, gravity, residence, and religion were the most important predictor variables of unintended pregnancy. Reducing the prevalence of unintended pregnancy especially in the rural area is recommended.

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<![CDATA[Five-Year Contraceptive Efficacy and Safety of a Levonorgestrel 52-mg Intrauterine System]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4b9106d5eed0c484874f1e

A phase 3 study of a levonorgestrel 52-mg intrauterine system in U.S. females shows high 5-year contraceptive efficacy and low hormonal adverse effect rates.

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<![CDATA[Cervico-vaginal inflammatory cytokine alterations after intrauterine contraceptive device insertion: A pilot study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1028cfd5eed0c48424826a

In a prospective study of twenty sexually transmitted infection (STI)-free women, we examined the impact of an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) insertion on cervico-vaginal cytokine levels. Nine women chose the levonorgestrel-containing IUCD and eight chose a copper IUCD. A cervico-vaginal swab was collected for cytokine analysis pre-insertion and four weeks post-insertion. Significant increases were noted in levels of IL-1α (median 483.4 versus 316.6 pg/mL, p = 0.046), IL-1β (median 605.7 versus 147.3 pg/mL, p = 0.018), IL-6 (median 570.1 versus 157.3 pg/mL, p = 0.046), TNFα (median 1.19 versus 0.6 pg/mL, p = 0.029) and the chemokine MCP-1 (median 340.2 versus 135.2 pg/mL, p = 0.003). No significant changes were noted in the levels of GM-CSF, IL-8, MIG, MIP-3α, RANTES, IL-10, IL-17, IP-10, MIP-1β. Whether this increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels decreases epithelial barrier integrity and enhances susceptibility to STIs, including HIV, merits further study.

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<![CDATA[Policy, law and post-abortion care services in Kenya]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bae98dc40307c0c23a1c148

Background

Unsafe abortion is still a leading cause of maternal death in most Sub-Saharan African countries. Post-abortion care (PAC) aims to minimize morbidity and mortality following unsafe abortion, addressing incomplete abortion by treating complications, and reducing possible future unwanted pregnancies by providing contraceptive advice. In this article, we draw on data from PAC service providers and patients in Kenya to illustrate how the quality of PAC in healthcare facilities is impacted by law and government policy.

Methods

A cross-sectional design was used for this study, with in-depth interviews conducted to collect qualitative data from PAC service providers and seekers in healthcare facilities. Data were analyzed both deductively and inductively, with diverse sub-themes related to specific components of PAC quality.

Results

The provision of quality PAC in healthcare facilities in Kenya is still low, with access hindered by restrictions on abortion. Negative attitudes towards abortion result in the continued undirected self-administration of abortifacients. Intermittent service interruptions through industrial strikes and inequitable access to care also drive unsafe terminations. Poor PAC service availability and lack of capacity to manage complications in primary care facilities result in multiple referrals and delays in care following abortion, leading to further complications. Inefficient infection control exposes patients and caregivers to unrelated infections within facilities, and the adequate provision of contraception is a continued challenge.

Discussion

Legal, policy and cultural restrictions to access PAC increase the level of complications. In Kenya, there is limited policy focus on PAC, especially at primary care level, and no guidelines for health providers to provide legal, safe abortion. Discrimination at the point of care discourages women from presenting for care, and discourages providers from freely offering post-abortion contraceptive guidance and services. Poor communication between facilities and communities continues to result in delayed care and access-related discrimination.

Conclusion

Greater emphasis should be placed on the prevention of unsafe abortion and improved access to post-abortion care services in healthcare facilities. There is a definite need for service guidelines for this to occur.

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<![CDATA[Client and facility level determinants of quality of care in family planning services in Ethiopia: Multilevel modelling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be10f2

Introduction

Over the last two decades, while contraceptive use has improved in Ethiopia, the contraceptive prevalence rate remains low. In addition to socio-demographic and cultural factors, the quality of care in Family Planning (FP) services is an important determining factor of FP utilization. However, little research exists on the determinants of quality of care in FP services in Ethiopia. This study aims to identify the client and facility level determinants of quality of care in FP services in Ethiopia.

Methods

This study was based on the first Ethiopian Services Provision Assessment Plus (ESPA+) survey conducted in 2014. A total of 1247 clients nested in 374 health facilities were included in the analysis. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression modelling was conducted. The outcome variable, client satisfaction, was created using polychoric principal component analysis using eleven facets that reflect client satisfaction.

Results

The results showed that both client-level and facility-level factors were associated with quality of care in FP services in Ethiopia. At the client-level; provision of information on potential side effects of contraceptive method (AOR = 5.22, 95% CI: 2.13–12.80), and number of history and physical assessments (AOR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03–1.34) were positively associated with client satisfaction, whereas waiting times of 30 minutes to two hours (AOR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03–0.33) was negatively associated with client satisfaction. At the facility-level; urban location (AOR = 4.61, 95% CI: 1.04–20.58), and availability of FP guidelines/protocols for providers (AOR = 4.90, 95% CI: 1.19–20.19) had positive significant effect on client satisfaction.

Conclusion

Quality improvement programs in FP services in Ethiopia should focus on shortening waiting times and provision of information about the potential side effects of contraceptive methods. It is also important to improve health providers’ skills in thorough client history taking and physical assessment. Further distribution and implementation of best practice guidelines for providers working in the FP services must be a priority.

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<![CDATA[Gender-Specificity of Initial and Controlled Visual Attention to Sexual Stimuli in Androphilic Women and Gynephilic Men]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9deab0ee8fa60b68bec

Research across groups and methods consistently finds a gender difference in patterns of specificity of genital response; however, empirically supported mechanisms to explain this difference are lacking. The information-processing model of sexual arousal posits that automatic and controlled cognitive processes are requisite for the generation of sexual responses. Androphilic women’s gender-nonspecific response patterns may be the result of sexually-relevant cues that are common to both preferred and nonpreferred genders capturing attention and initiating an automatic sexual response, whereas men’s attentional system may be biased towards the detection and response to sexually-preferred cues only. In the present study, we used eye tracking to assess visual attention to sexually-preferred and nonpreferred cues in a sample of androphilic women and gynephilic men. Results support predictions from the information-processing model regarding gendered processing of sexual stimuli in men and women. Men’s initial attention patterns were gender-specific, whereas women’s were nonspecific. In contrast, both men and women exhibited gender-specific patterns of controlled attention, although this effect was stronger among men. Finally, measures of attention and self-reported attraction were positively related in both men and women. These findings are discussed in the context of the information-processing model and evolutionary mechanisms that may have evolved to promote gendered attentional systems.

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<![CDATA[Incidence of induced abortion in Malawi, 2015]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc2aa

Background

In Malawi, abortion is legal only if performed to save a woman’s life; other attempts to procure an abortion are punishable by 7–14 years imprisonment. Most induced abortions in Malawi are performed under unsafe conditions, contributing to Malawi’s high maternal mortality ratio. Malawians are currently debating whether to provide additional exceptions under which an abortion may be legally obtained. An estimated 67,300 induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2009 (equivalent to 23 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–44), but changes since 2009, including dramatic increases in contraceptive prevalence, may have impacted abortion rates.

Methods

We conducted a nationally representative survey of health facilities to estimate the number of cases of post-abortion care, as well as a survey of knowledgeable informants to estimate the probability of needing and obtaining post-abortion care following induced abortion. These data were combined with national population and fertility data to determine current estimates of induced abortion and unintended pregnancy in Malawi using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology.

Results

We estimate that approximately 141,044 (95% CI: 121,161–160,928) induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2015, translating to a national rate of 38 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49 (95% CI: 32 to 43); which varied by geographical zone (range: 28–61). We estimate that 53% of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended, and that 30% of unintended pregnancies end in abortion. Given the challenges of estimating induced abortion, and the assumptions required for calculation, results should be viewed as approximate estimates, rather than exact measures.

Conclusions

The estimated abortion rate in 2015 is higher than in 2009 (potentially due to methodological differences), but similar to recent estimates from nearby countries including Tanzania (36), Uganda (39), and regional estimates in Eastern and Southern Africa (34–35). Over half of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended. Our findings should inform ongoing efforts to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality and to improve public health in Malawi.

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<![CDATA[Recreational Physical Activity and Premenstrual Syndrome in Young Adult Women: A Cross-Sectional Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7bab0ee8fa60b98711

Introduction

It is estimated that up to 75% of premenopausal women experience at least one premenstrual symptom and 8–20% meet clinical criteria for premenstrual syndrome. Premenstrual syndrome substantially reduces quality of life for many women of reproductive age, with pharmaceutical treatments having limited efficacy and substantial side effects. Physical activity has been recommended as a method of reducing menstrual symptom severity. However, this recommendation is based on relatively little evidence, and the relationship between physical activity, premenstrual symptoms, and premenstrual syndrome remains unclear.

Methods

We evaluated the relationship between physical activity and premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual symptoms among 414 women aged 18–31. Usual premenstrual symptom experience was assessed with a modified version of the Calendar of Premenstrual Experiences. Total, physical, and affective premenstrual symptom scores were calculated for all participants. Eighty women met criteria for moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome, while 89 met control criteria. Physical activity, along with dietary and lifestyle factors, was assessed by self-report.

Results

Physical activity was not significantly associated with total, affective, or physical premenstrual symptom score. Compared to the women with the lowest activity, women in tertiles 2 and 3 of activity, classified as metabolic equivalent task hours, had prevalence odds ratios for premenstrual syndrome of 1.5 (95% CI: 0.6–3.7) and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4–2.4), respectively (p-value for trend = 0.85).

Conclusions

We found no association between physical activity and either premenstrual symptom scores or the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome.

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<![CDATA[Condom Negotiation, HIV Testing, and HIV Risks among Women from Alcohol Serving Venues in Cape Town, South Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4bab0ee8fa60bda20a

Background

Women in South Africa are at particularly high-risk for HIV infection and are dependent on their male partners' use of condoms for sexual risk reduction. However, many women are afraid to discuss condoms with male partners, placing them at higher risk of HIV infection.

Purpose

To examine the association between fear of condom negotiation with HIV testing and transmission risk behaviors, including alcohol use and sexual risks among South African women.

Method

Women (N = 1333) residing in a primarily Xhosa-speaking African township in Cape Town and attending informal alcohol-serving venues (shebeens) completed anonymous surveys. Logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that fear of condom negotiation would be associated with increased risk for HIV.

Results

Compared to women who did not fear condom negotiation, those who did were significantly less likely to have been tested for HIV, were more likely to have experienced relationship abuse, and to report more alcohol use and more unprotected sex.

Conclusions

For women in South Africa, fear of condom negotiation is related to higher risk of HIV. HIV prevention efforts, including targeted HIV counseling and testing, must directly address gender issues.

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<![CDATA[Does AMH Reflect Follicle Number Similarly in Women with and without PCOS?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dab1ab0ee8fa60bab580

Context

Increased Anti-Mullerian Hormone in polycystic ovary syndrome, may be due to overactive follicles rather than reflect antral follicle count.

Objective

Does Anti-Mullerian Hormone reflect antral follicle count similarly in women with or without polycystic ovary syndrome or polycystic ovarian morphology?

Design

Cross-sectional, case-control.

Setting

Women who delivered preterm in 1999–2006. For each index woman, a woman with a term delivery was identified.

Patients

Participation rate was 69%. Between 2006–2008, 262 women were included, and diagnosed to have polycystic ovary syndrome, polycystic ovarian morphology or to be normal controls.

Intervention(s)

Blood tests, a clinical examination and vaginal ultrasound.

Main Outcome Measure(s)

Anti-Mullerian Hormone / antral follicle count -ratio, SHBG, androstenedione and insulin, to test potential influence on the Anti-Mullerian Hormone / antral follicle count -ratio.

Results

Mean Anti-Mullerian Hormone / antral follicle count ratio in women with polycystic ovary syndrome or polycystic ovarian morphology was similar to that of the controls (polycystic ovary syndrome: 1,2 p = 0,10 polycystic ovarian morphology: 1,2, p = 0,27 Controls 1,3). Anti-Mullerian Hormone showed a positive linear correlation to antral follicle count in all groups. Multivariate analysis did not change the results.

Conclusions

We confirmed the positive correlation between AMH and follicle count. Anti-Mullerian Hormone seems to be a reliable predictor of antral follicle count, independent of polycystic ovary syndrome diagnosis or ovarian morphology.

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<![CDATA[Bile Acid Metabolome after an Oral Lipid Tolerance Test by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabcab0ee8fa60baeeed

Context

Besides their role in intestinal resorption of lipids, bile acids are regarded as endocrine and metabolic signaling molecules. The detailed profile of bile acid species in peripheral blood after an oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT) is unknown.

Objective

We quantified the regulation of 18 bile acids after OLTT in healthy individuals.

Material and methods

100 volunteers were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters and underwent OLTT. Venous blood was drawn in the fasted state (0 h) and at 2h, 4h, and 6 h after OLTT. Serum concentrations of 18 bile acids were measured by LC-MS/MS.

Results

All of the 6 taurine-conjugated bile acids (TUDCA, THDCA, TCA, TCDCA, TDCA, TLCA) and all of the 6 glycine-conjugated bile acids (GUDCA, GHDCA, GCA, GCDCA, GDCA, GLCA) rose significantly at 2h and remained elevated during OLTT. Of the primary bile acids, CA remained unchanged, whereas CDCA significantly decreased at 4h. Of the secondary bile acids, DCA, UDCA and HDCA were not altered, whereas LCA decreased. There was a significant positive correlation between the intestinal feed-back regulator of bile acid synthesis FGF-19 and bile acids. This correlation seems to depend on all of the six taurine-conjugated bile acids and on GCA, GDCA, and GCDCA. Females and users of hormonal contraception displayed higher levels of taurine-conjugated bile acids.

Conclusions

The novelty of the study is based on the identification of single bile acids during OLTT. LC-MS/MS-based quantification of bile acids in serum provides a reliable tool for future investigation of endocrine and metabolic effects of bile acids.

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<![CDATA[Factors associated with HIV status disclosure to partners and its outcomes among HIV-positive women attending Care and Treatment Clinics at Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c92b3b3d5eed0c4843a4635

Background

Sub Saharan Africa continues to be the epicenter of HIV with 70% of people living with HIV globally. Women form nearly 60% of those living with HIV. Studies have shown disclosure of one’s HIV status is important in HIV prevention, in increasing partners who are tested and getting into care early as well as in improving retention in PMTCT and ART programs. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, factors and outcomes of HIV status disclosure to partners among HIV-positive women attending HIV care-and-treatment clinics (CTCs) at Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to June 2014 in 3 out of the 7 districts of Kilimanjaro region. The study population was HIV-positive women aged 15–49, who were attending for routine HIV care at 19 selected clinics. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with consenting women to collect necessary information. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the independent predictors of HIV status disclosure to partner.

Results

A total of 672 HIV-positive women in Moshi municipal, Hai and Mwanga districts were enrolled. Of them, 609 HIV-positive women reported to have a regular partner. Prevalence of serostatus disclosure to partners was 66%. Of the 400 who had disclosed; 56% did so within the first month of knowing their HIV status. In a multiple logistic regression model, HIV serostatus disclosure was higher among women who: were married/cohabiting (AOR = 4.16, 95% CI: 2.39–7.25; p<0.001), currently on ART (AOR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.11–3.82; p = 0.020), and who reported had ever communicated with partners on number of children (AOR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.15–2.98; p = 0.010) and contraceptives use (AOR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.27–3.20; p = 0.208). Most of the women (81%) who disclosed their HIV status to did not reported negative outcomes.

Conclusion

In this setting still a third of the HIV-positive women (34%) fail to disclose their HIV- serostatus to partners. Interventions to impart skills in communication and negotiation between partners may help in improving disclosure of HIV. Efforts to involve men in general sexual and reproductive health including couple counseling and testing will contribute in improving disclosure and communication on HIV among partners.

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<![CDATA[γ-Glutamyltransferase and Breast Cancer Risk Beyond Alcohol Consumption and Other Life Style Factors – A Pooled Cohort Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db0dab0ee8fa60bcabcc

Objective

Elevated γ-Glutamyltransferase serum levels are associated with increased risk of overall cancer incidence and several site-specific malignancies. In the present prospective study we report on the associations of serum γ-Glutamyltransferase with the risk of breast cancer in a pooled population-based cohort considering established life style risk factors.

Methods

Two cohorts were included in the present study, i.e. the Vorarlberg (n = 97,268) and the Malmoe cohort (n = 9,790). Cox proportional hazards regression models were fitted to estimate HRs for risk of breast cancer.

Results

In multivariate analysis adjusted for age, body mass index and smoking status, women with γ-Glutamyltransferase levels in the top quartile were at significantly higher risk for breast cancer compared to women in the lowest quartile (HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.35; p = 0.005). In the subgroup analysis of the Malmoe cohort, γ-Glutamyltransferase remained an independent risk factor for breast cancer when additionally considering alcohol intake. A statistically significant increase in risk was seen in women with γ-Glutamyltransferase-levels in the top versus lowest quartile in a multivariate model adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking status, physical activity, parity, oral contraceptive-use and alcohol consumption (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.11–1.69, p = 0.006).

Conclusion

Our findings identified γ-Glutamyltransferase as an independent risk factor for breast cancer beyond the consumption of alcohol and other life style risk factors.

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<![CDATA[Diurnal Cortisol Patterns and Dexamethasone Suppression Test Responses in Healthy Young Adults Born Preterm at Very Low Birth Weight]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da04ab0ee8fa60b75100

Background

Early life stress, such as painful and stressful procedures during neonatal intensive care after preterm birth, can permanently affect physiological, hormonal and neurobiological systems. This may contribute to altered programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and provoke changes in HPAA function with long-term health impacts. Previous studies suggest a lower HPAA response to stress in young adults born preterm compared with controls born at term. We assessed whether these differences in HPAA stress responsiveness are reflected in everyday life HPAA functioning, i.e. in diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, and reactivity to a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST), in unimpaired young adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g).

Methods

The participants were recruited from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults cohort study. At mean age 23.3 years (2.1 SD), 49 VLBW and 36 controls born at term participated in the study. For cortisol analyzes, saliva samples were collected on two consecutive days at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min after wake-up, at 12:00 h, 17:00 h and 22:00 h. After the last salivary sample of the first study day the participants were instructed to take a 0.5 mg dexamethasone tablet.

Results

With mixed-effects model no difference was seen in overall diurnal salivary cortisol between VLBW and control groups [13.9% (95% CI: -11.6, 47.0), P = 0.31]. Salivary cortisol increased similarly after awakening in both VLBW and control participants [mean difference -2.9% (29.2, 33.0), P = 0.85]. Also reactivity to the low-dose DST (awakening cortisol ratio day2/day1) was similar between VLBW and control groups [-1.1% (-53.5, 103.8), P = 0.97)].

Conclusions

Diurnal cortisol patterns and reactivity to a low-dose DST in young adulthood were not associated with preterm birth.

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<![CDATA[High Incidence of Unplanned Pregnancy after Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation: Findings from a Prospective Cohort Study in South Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad0ab0ee8fa60bb5d52

Background

Increased fertility rates in HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been attributed to improved immunological function; it is unknown to what extent the rise in pregnancy rates is due to unintended pregnancies.

Methods

Non-pregnant women ages 18–35 from four public-sector ART clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa, were enrolled into a prospective cohort and followed from August 2009–March 2011. Fertility intentions, contraception and pregnancy status were measured longitudinally at participants' routine ART clinic visits.

Findings

Of the 850 women enrolled, 822 (97%) had at least one follow-up visit and contributed 745.2 person-years (PY) at-risk for incident pregnancy. Overall, 170 pregnancies were detected in 161 women (incidence rate [IR]: 21.6/100 PY [95% confidence interval (CI): 18.5–25.2]). Of the 170 pregnancies, 105 (62%) were unplanned. Unmet need for contraception was 50% higher in women initiating ART in the past year as compared to women on ART>1 year (prevalence ratio 1.5 [95% CI: 1.1–2.0]); by two years post-ART initiation, nearly one quarter of women had at least one unplanned pregnancy. Cumulative incidence of pregnancy was equally high among recent ART initiators and ART experienced participants: 23.9% [95% CI: 16.4–34.1], 15.9% [12.0–20.8], and 21.0% [16.8–26.1] for women on ART 0–1 yr, >1 yr–2 yrs, and >2 yrs respectively (log-rank, p = 0.54). Eight hormonal contraceptive failures were detected [IR: 4.4 [95% CI: 2.2–8.9], 7/8 among women using injectable methods. Overall 47% (80/170) of pregnancies were not carried to term.

Conclusions

Rates of unintended pregnancies among women on ART are high, including women recently initiating ART with lower CD4 counts and higher viral loads. A substantial burden of pregnancy loss was observed. Integration of contraceptive services and counselling into ART care is necessary to reduce maternal and child health risks related to mistimed and unwanted pregnancies. Further research into injectable contraceptive failures on ART is warranted.

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