ResearchPad - contraceptives https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Comparability of modern contraceptive use estimates between a face-to-face survey and a cellphone survey among women in Burkina Faso]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13849 The proliferation of cell phone ownership in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) presents the opportunity to collect public health indicators at a lower cost compared to face-to-face (FTF) surveys. This analysis assesses the equivalence of modern contraceptive prevalence estimates between a nationally representative FTF survey and a cell phone survey using random digit dialing (RDD) among women of reproductive age in Burkina Faso.MethodsWe analyzed data from two surveys conducted in Burkina Faso between December 2017 and May 2018. The FTF survey conducted by Performance Monitoring and Accountability (PMA2020) comprised a nationally representative sample of 3,556 women of reproductive age (15–49 years). The RDD survey was conducted using computer-assisted telephone interviewing and included 2,379 women of reproductive age.ResultsCompared to FTF respondents, women in the RDD sample were younger, were more likely to have a secondary degree and to speak French. RDD respondents were more likely to report using modern contraceptive use (40%) compared to FTF respondents (26%) and the difference remained unchanged after applying post-stratification weights to the RDD sample (39%). This difference surpassed the equivalence margin of 4%. The RDD sample also produced higher estimates of contraceptive use than the subsample of women who owned a phone in the FTF sample (32%). After adjusting for women’s sociodemographic factors, the odds of contraceptive use were 1.9 times higher (95% CI: 1.6–2.2) in the RDD survey compared to the FTF survey and 1.6 times higher (95% CI: 1.3–1.8) compared to FTF phone owners.ConclusionsModern contraceptive prevalence in Burkina Faso is over-estimated when using a cell phone RDD survey, even after adjusting for a number of sociodemographic factors. Further research should explore causes of differential estimates of modern contraceptive use by survey modes. ]]> <![CDATA[Incidence and determinants of Implanon discontinuation: Findings from a prospective cohort study in three health zones in Kinshasa, DRC]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7634 Kinshasa is Africa's third largest city and one of the continent’s most rapidly growing urban areas. PMA2020 data showed that Kinshasa has a modern contraceptive prevalence of 26.5% among married women in 2018. In Kinshasa’s method mix, the contraceptive implant recently became the dominant method among contraceptive users married and in union. This study provides insight into patterns of implant use in a high-fertility setting by evaluating the 24-month continuation rate for Implanon NXT and identifying the characteristics associated with discontinuation.MethodologyThis community-based, prospective cohort study followed 531 Implanon users aged 18–49 years at 6, 12 and 24 months. The following information was collected: socio-demographic characteristics, Method Information Index (MII) and contraceptive history. The main outcome variable for this study was implant discontinuation. The incidence rate of discontinuation is presented as events per 1000 person/months (p-m), from the date of enrolment. The Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to measure predictors of discontinuation.ResultsA total of 9158.13 p-m were available for analysis, with an overall incidence rate of 9.06 (95% CI: 9.04–9.08) removals per 1000 p-m. Of nine possible co-variates tested, the likelihood of discontinuation was higher among women who lived in military camps, had less than three children, never used injectables or implants in the past, had experienced heavy/prolonged bleeding, and whose MII score was less than 3.ConclusionIn addition to four client characteristics that predicted discontinuation, we identified one programmatic factor: quality of counseling as measured by the Method Information Index. Community providers in similar contexts should pay more attention to clients having less than three children, new adopters, and to clients living military camps as underserved population, where clients have less access to health facilities. More targeted counselling and follow-up is needed, especially on bleeding patterns. ]]> <![CDATA[Utilization of modern contraceptives and predictors among women in Shimelba refugee camp, Northern Ethiopia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897721d5eed0c4847d2504

Women living in refugee camps, in addition to the common hardships, such as drought, and famine, are also prone to another peculiar problem: an unintended pregnancy. The impact of unintended pregnancy is so severe that the rate of women who die or suffer an injury while giving birth in crisis settings is almost double the world average death rate. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the utilization of modern contraceptive and associated factors among women in the reproductive age group in Shimelba refugee camp, Northern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was employed and 329 study subjects were selected using simple random sampling technique with a face-to-face interview. The prevalence of using modern contraceptive was 47.7% and the study showed that being older [AOR = 0.017, 95%CI: 0.001, 0.467], being single [AOR = 0.17, 95%CI:0.031,0.914], being unemployed [AOR = 0.21, 95% CI:0.001,0.392], having no partner support [AOR = 0.006, 95% CI:0.001,0.044], and inconvenient service site AOR = 0.089,95% CI:0.013, 0.595] were factors that contributed to women not using modern contraceptive methods. Receipt of counseling on family planning utilization was more likely to helps women to use it [AOR = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.1095, 10.236]. Our study concluded that the current prevalence rate of contraceptive use is fairly good. However, much effort has to be made to improve this result. The situations in refugee can exacerbate the existing barriers to the use of contraceptives. Given its grave consequence on the livelihood of women, the contraceptive issue should be given due emphasis using several techniques including education to expand the awareness on modern contraceptive so as to augment access to family planning.

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<![CDATA[Quality of family planning services in Mexico: The perspective of demand]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52f0d5eed0c4842bd2c6

Introduction

Family planning (FP) is one of the key services provided by health care systems. Extending beyond matters of sexual and reproductive health, its area of influence impacts directly on the development of individuals and nations. After 60 years of intense FP activities in Mexico, and in light of recent restructuring of health service supply and financing, services need to be assessed from a user perspective.

Objective

Based on a comprehensive conceptual framework, this article assesses the quality of the FP services provided by the Mexican Ministry of Health (MoH). Analysis considers not only accessibility and availability but also the users’ perceptions of the care process, particularly as regards the interpersonal relations they experience with staff and the type of information they are provided.

Material and methods

This study used a descriptive, qualitative design based on maximum variation sampling in six Mexican states. It included visits to 12 clinics in urban and rural areas. Thematic analysis was performed on 86 semi-structured interviews administered to FP service users.

Results

While access was described by users as “easy,” their experiences revealed normalized barriers. One of our key findings referred to inverse availability, meaning that the contraceptive methods available were generally not the ones preferred by users, with their selection therefore being shaped by shortage of supplies. Challenges included disrespect for the free choice of FP users and coercion during consultations for contraception post obstetric event. Finally, information provided to users left considerable room for improvement.

Conclusions

After six decades of FP service supply, results indicate a series of quality issues that may lie at the heart of the unmet demand reported in the literature. Based on a comprehensive conceptual scheme, the present study analyzes the quality of services, highlighting areas for improvement that should be considered by the MoH in future efforts.

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<![CDATA[The cost-effectiveness of oral contraceptives compared to ‘no hormonal treatment’ for endometriosis-related pain: An economic evaluation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52d6d5eed0c4842bd0f0

Objective

To develop a preliminary cost-effectiveness model that compares oral contraceptives and ‘no hormonal treatment’ for the treatment of endometriosis-related pain.

Methods

A de novo preliminary state transition (Markov) model was developed. The model was informed by systematic literature review and expert opinion. The uncertainty around the results was assessed both by deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The economic evaluation was conducted from National Health Service (NHS) England perspective. The main outcome measure was incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY), with cost-effectiveness plane and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves presented for alternative willingness-to-pay thresholds.

Results

Oral contraceptives dominated ‘no hormonal treatment’ and provided more QALYs at a lower cost than ‘no hormonal treatment’, with a cost-effectiveness probability of 98%. A one-way sensitivity analysis excluding general practitioner consultations showed that oral contraceptives were still cost-effective.

Conclusions

The analyses showed that oral contraceptives could be an effective option for the treatment of endometriosis, as this treatment was shown to provide a higher level of QALYs at a lower cost, compared to ‘no hormonal treatment’. The results are subject to considerable parameter uncertainty as a range of assumptions were required as part of the modelling process.

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<![CDATA[Client and facility level determinants of quality of care in family planning services in Ethiopia: Multilevel modelling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5fab0ee8fa60be10f2

Introduction

Over the last two decades, while contraceptive use has improved in Ethiopia, the contraceptive prevalence rate remains low. In addition to socio-demographic and cultural factors, the quality of care in Family Planning (FP) services is an important determining factor of FP utilization. However, little research exists on the determinants of quality of care in FP services in Ethiopia. This study aims to identify the client and facility level determinants of quality of care in FP services in Ethiopia.

Methods

This study was based on the first Ethiopian Services Provision Assessment Plus (ESPA+) survey conducted in 2014. A total of 1247 clients nested in 374 health facilities were included in the analysis. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression modelling was conducted. The outcome variable, client satisfaction, was created using polychoric principal component analysis using eleven facets that reflect client satisfaction.

Results

The results showed that both client-level and facility-level factors were associated with quality of care in FP services in Ethiopia. At the client-level; provision of information on potential side effects of contraceptive method (AOR = 5.22, 95% CI: 2.13–12.80), and number of history and physical assessments (AOR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03–1.34) were positively associated with client satisfaction, whereas waiting times of 30 minutes to two hours (AOR = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03–0.33) was negatively associated with client satisfaction. At the facility-level; urban location (AOR = 4.61, 95% CI: 1.04–20.58), and availability of FP guidelines/protocols for providers (AOR = 4.90, 95% CI: 1.19–20.19) had positive significant effect on client satisfaction.

Conclusion

Quality improvement programs in FP services in Ethiopia should focus on shortening waiting times and provision of information about the potential side effects of contraceptive methods. It is also important to improve health providers’ skills in thorough client history taking and physical assessment. Further distribution and implementation of best practice guidelines for providers working in the FP services must be a priority.

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<![CDATA[Recreational Physical Activity and Premenstrual Syndrome in Young Adult Women: A Cross-Sectional Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7bab0ee8fa60b98711

Introduction

It is estimated that up to 75% of premenopausal women experience at least one premenstrual symptom and 8–20% meet clinical criteria for premenstrual syndrome. Premenstrual syndrome substantially reduces quality of life for many women of reproductive age, with pharmaceutical treatments having limited efficacy and substantial side effects. Physical activity has been recommended as a method of reducing menstrual symptom severity. However, this recommendation is based on relatively little evidence, and the relationship between physical activity, premenstrual symptoms, and premenstrual syndrome remains unclear.

Methods

We evaluated the relationship between physical activity and premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual symptoms among 414 women aged 18–31. Usual premenstrual symptom experience was assessed with a modified version of the Calendar of Premenstrual Experiences. Total, physical, and affective premenstrual symptom scores were calculated for all participants. Eighty women met criteria for moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome, while 89 met control criteria. Physical activity, along with dietary and lifestyle factors, was assessed by self-report.

Results

Physical activity was not significantly associated with total, affective, or physical premenstrual symptom score. Compared to the women with the lowest activity, women in tertiles 2 and 3 of activity, classified as metabolic equivalent task hours, had prevalence odds ratios for premenstrual syndrome of 1.5 (95% CI: 0.6–3.7) and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4–2.4), respectively (p-value for trend = 0.85).

Conclusions

We found no association between physical activity and either premenstrual symptom scores or the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome.

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<![CDATA[Incidence and Mortality Trends in German Women with Breast Cancer Using Age, Period and Cohort 1999 to 2008]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa7ab0ee8fa60ba8061

Longitudinal analysis investigates period (P), often as years. Additional scales of time are age (A) and birth cohort (C) Aim of our study was to use ecological APC analysis for women breast cancer incidence and mortality in Germany. Nation-wide new cases and deaths were obtained from Robert Koch Institute and female population from federal statistics, 1999–2008. Data was stratified into ten 5-years age-groups starting 20–24 years, ten birth cohorts starting 1939–43, and two calendar periods 1999–2003 and 2004–2008. Annual incidence and mortality were calculated: cases to 100,000 women per year. Data was analyzed using glm and apc packages of R. Breast cancer incidence and mortality increased with age. Secular rise in breast cancer incidence and decline in mortality was observed for period1999-2008. Breast cancer incidence and mortality declined with cohorts; cohorts 1950s showed highest incidence and mortality. Age-cohort best explained incidence and mortality followed by age-period-cohort with overall declining trends. Declining age-cohort mortality could be probable. Declining age-cohort incidence would require future biological explanations or rendered statistical artefact. Cohorts 1949–1958 could be unique in having highest incidence and mortality in recent time or future period associations could emerge relatively stronger to cohort to provide additional explanation of temporal change over cohorts.

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<![CDATA[A Lower Olfactory Capacity Is Related to Higher Circulating Concentrations of Endocannabinoid 2-Arachidonoylglycerol and Higher Body Mass Index in Women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da22ab0ee8fa60b7f39b

The endocannabinoid (eCB) system can promote food intake by increasing odor detection in mice. The eCB system is over-active in human obesity. Our aim is to measure circulating eCB concentrations and olfactory capacity in a human sample that includes people with obesity and explore the possible interaction between olfaction, obesity and the eCB system. The study sample was made up of 161 females with five groups of body mass index sub-categories ranging from under-weight to morbidly obese. We assessed olfactory capacity with the “Sniffin´Sticks” test, which measures olfactory threshold-discrimination-identification (TDI) capacity. We measured plasma concentrations of the eCBs 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonoylethanolamine or anandamide (AEA), and several eCB-related compounds, 2-acylglycerols and N-acylethanolamines. 2-AG and other 2-acylglycerols fasting plasma circulating plasma concentrations were higher in obese and morbidly obese subjects. AEA and other N-acylethanolamine circulating concentrations were lower in under-weight subjects. Olfactory TDI scores were lower in obese and morbidly obese subjects. Lower TDI scores were independently associated with higher 2-AG fasting plasma circulating concentrations, higher %body fat, and higher body mass index, after controlling for age, smoking, menstruation, and use of contraceptives. Our results show that obese subjects have a lower olfactory capacity than non-obese ones and that elevated fasting plasma circulating 2-AG concentrations in obesity are linked to a lower olfactory capacity. In agreement with previous studies we show that eCBs AEA and 2-AG, and their respective congeners have a distinct profile in relation to body mass index. The present report is the first study in humans in which olfactory capacity and circulating eCB concentrations have been measured in the same subjects.

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<![CDATA[Empirical lessons regarding contraception in a protracted refugee setting: A descriptive study from Maela camp on the Thai-Myanmar border 1996 – 2015]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db4fab0ee8fa60bdbc45

Conflict settings and refugee camps can be chaotic places, with large and rapid population movements, exacerbated public health problems, and ad hoc health services. Reproductive health care that includes family planning is of heightened importance in such settings, however, funding and resources tend to be constrained and geared towards acute health services such as trauma management and infectious disease containment. Here we report on the complexities and challenges of providing family planning in a post-emergency refugee setting, using the example of the largest refugee camp on the Thai-Myanmar border, in existence now for over 30 years. Data from 2009 demonstrates an upward trend in uptake of all contraceptives, especially long acting reversible contraception (LARC) and permanent methods (e.g. sterilization) over time. Increased uptake occurred during periods of time when there were boosts in funding or when barriers to access were alleviated. For example a surgeon fluent in local languages is correlated with increased uptake of tubal ligation in females. These data indicate that funding directed toward contraceptives in this refugee setting led to increases in contraceptives use. However, contraceptive uptake estimates depend on the baseline population which is difficult to measure in this setting. As far as we are aware, this is the longest reported review of family planning services for a refugee camp setting to date. The lessons learned from this setting may be valuable given the current global refugee crisis.

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<![CDATA[“A Baby Was an Added Burden”: Predictors and Consequences of Unintended Pregnancies for Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya: A Mixed-Methods Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9ddab0ee8fa60b68335

Introduction

Female sex workers (FSW) have high rates of unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections including HIV, and other adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Few services for FSWs include contraception. This mixed-methods study aimed to determine the rate, predictors and consequences of unintended pregnancy among FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya.

Methods

A prospective cohort study of non-pregnant FSWs was conducted. Quantitative data were collected quarterly, including a structured questionnaire and testing for pregnancy and HIV. Predictors of unintended pregnancy were investigated using multivariate logistic regression. Qualitative data were gathered through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with FSWs who became pregnant during the study, and interviews with five key informants. These data were transcribed, translated and analysed thematically.

Results

Four hundred women were enrolled, with 92% remaining in the cohort after one year. Fifty-seven percent reported using a modern contraceptive method (including condoms when used consistently). Over one-third (36%) of women were using condoms inconsistently without another method. Twenty-four percent had an unintended pregnancy during the study. Younger age, having an emotional partner and using traditional or no contraception, or condoms only, were independent predictors of unintended pregnancy. Women attributed pregnancy to forgetting to use contraception and being pressured not to by clients and emotional partners, as well as “bad luck”. They described numerous negative consequences of unintended pregnancy.

Conclusion

Modern contraceptive uptake is surprisingly low in this at-risk population, which in turn has a high rate of unintended pregnancy. The latter may result in financial hardship, social stigma, risk of abandonment, or dangerous abortion practices. FSWs face considerable barriers to the adoption of dual method contraceptive use, including low levels of control in their emotional and commercial relationships. Reproductive health services need to be incorporated into programs for sexually transmitted infections and HIV, which address the socially-determined barriers to contraceptive use.

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<![CDATA[Lifetime Abortion of Female Sex Workers in Iran: Findings of a National Bio-Behavioural Survey In 2010]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad1ab0ee8fa60bb66d2

Introduction

Unintended pregnancies and abortion may be considered as occupational hazards for female sex workers (FSWs). As our understanding of contraceptive and abortion practices of Iranian FSWs is very limited, this study tries to assess the dynamics of contraception and abortion among this sub-population.

Methods

This survey was conducted in 2010, by recruiting 872 FSWs through facility-based sampling from 21 sites in 14 cities in Iran. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a pilot-tested standardized risk assessment questionnaire. We applied the logistic regression model to investigate the correlates of induced abortion among FSWs.

Results

Of the 863 participants with valid responses to the abortion variable, 35.3% (95% CI: 32.1–38.6) acknowledged ever induced abortion and the annual rate of abortion was estimated at 20.7 per 1000 women. Around 31.2% of FSWs reported no usual contraceptive use, 32.6% barrier method, 23.6% non-barrier modern contraception methods, and 12.5% dual protection. In our multivariable model, older age (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.74, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.02, 2.96), group sex (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.35), history of travel for sex work (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.20), sexual violence (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.25, 2.50), STIs in last year (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.14), and accessing family planning services (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.49) were significant predictors of lifetime abortion.

Conclusions

The reproductive health needs of Iranian FSWs are unmet and around one-third of FSWs reported induced abortion. Scaling-up comprehensive family planning services and empowering FSWs to have safer sex practices may help them to prevent unintended pregnancies and further risk of HIV transmission.

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<![CDATA[Oral Contraceptives and Multiple Sclerosis/Clinically Isolated Syndrome Susceptibility]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa9ab0ee8fa60ba8871

Background

The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) is rising in women.

Objective

To determine whether the use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are associated with MS risk and whether this varies by progestin content.

Methods

We conducted a nested case-control study of females ages 14–48 years with incident MS or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) 2008–2011 from the membership of Kaiser Permanente Southern California. Controls were matched on age, race/ethnicity and membership characteristics. COC use up to ten years prior to symptom onset was obtained from the complete electronic health record.

Results

We identified 400 women with incident MS/CIS and 3904 matched controls. Forty- percent of cases and 32% of controls had used COCs prior to symptom onset. The use of COCs was associated with a slightly increased risk of MS/CIS (adjusted OR = 1.52, 95%CI = 1.21–1.91; p<0.001). This risk did not vary by duration of COC use. The association varied by progestin content being more pronounced for levenorgestrol (adjusted OR = 1.75, 95%CI = 1.29–2.37; p<0.001) than norethindrone (adjusted OR = 1.57, 95%CI = 1.16–2.12; p = 0.003) and absent for the newest progestin, drospirenone (p = 0.95).

Conclusions

Our findings should be interpreted cautiously. While the use of some combination oral contraceptives may contribute to the rising incidence of MS in women, an unmeasured confounder associated with the modern woman’s lifestyle is a more likely explanation for this weak association.

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<![CDATA[Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluation of a Gender Equity and Family Planning Intervention for Married Men and Couples in Rural India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae7ab0ee8fa60bbdf38

Background

Despite ongoing recommendations to increase male engagement and gender-equity (GE) counseling in family planning (FP) services, few such programs have been implemented and rigorously evaluated. This study evaluates the impact of CHARM, a three-session GE+FP counseling intervention delivered by male health care providers to married men, alone (sessions 1&2) and with their wives (session 3) in India.

Methods and Findings

A two-armed cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with young married couples (N = 1081 couples) recruited from 50 geographic clusters (25 clusters randomized to CHARM and a control condition, respectively) in rural Maharashtra, India. Couples were surveyed on demographics, contraceptive behaviors, and intimate partner violence (IPV) attitudes and behaviors at baseline and 9 &18-month follow-ups, with pregnancy testing at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Outcome effects on contraceptive use and incident pregnancy, and secondarily, on contraceptive communication and men’s IPV attitudes and behaviors, were assessed using logistic generalized linear mixed models. Most men recruited from CHARM communities (91.3%) received at least one CHARM intervention session; 52.5% received the couple’s session with their wife. Findings document that women from the CHARM condition, relative to controls, were more likely to report contraceptive communication at 9-month follow-up (AOR = 1.77, p = 0.04) and modern contraceptive use at 9 and 18-month follow-ups (AORs = 1.57–1.58, p = 0.05), and they were less likely to report sexual IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.48, p = 0.01). Men in the CHARM condition were less likely than those in the control clusters to report attitudes accepting of sexual IPV at 9-month (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.03) and 18-month (AOR = 0.51, p = 0.004) follow-up, and attitudes accepting of physical IPV at 18-month follow-up (AOR = 0.64, p = 0.02). No significant effect on pregnancy was seen.

Conclusions

Findings demonstrate that men can be engaged in FP programming in rural India, and that such an approach inclusive of GE counseling can improve contraceptive practices and reduce sexual IPV in married couples.

Trial Registration

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01593943

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<![CDATA[Factors Determining Quality of Care in Family Planning Services in Africa: A Systematic Review of Mixed Evidence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dafaab0ee8fa60bc4566

Background

Improving use of family planning services is key to improving maternal health in Africa, and provision of quality of care in family planning services is critical to support higher levels of contraceptive uptake. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the available evidence on factors determining the quality of care in family planning services in Africa.

Methods

Quantitative and qualitative studies undertaken in Africa, published in English, in grey and commercial literature, between 1990 and 2015 were considered. Methodological quality of included studies was assessed using standardized tools. Findings from the quantitative studies were summarized using narrative and tables. Client satisfaction was used to assess the quality of care in family planning services in the quantitative component of the review. Meta-aggregation was used to synthesize the qualitative study findings.

Results

From 4334 records, 11 studies (eight quantitative, three qualitative) met the review eligibility criteria. The review found that quality of care was influenced by client, provider and facility factors, and structural and process aspects of the facilities. Client’s waiting time, provider competency, provision/prescription of injectable methods, maintaining privacy and confidentiality were the most commonly identified process factors. The quality of stock inventory was the most commonly identified structural factor. The quality of care was also positively associated with privately-owned facilities. The qualitative synthesis revealed additional factors including access related factors such as ‘pre-requisites to be fulfilled by the clients and cost of services, provider workload, and providers’ behaviour.

Conclusion

There is limited evidence on factors determining quality of care in family planning services in Africa that shows quality of care is influenced by multiple factors. The evidence suggests that lowering access barriers and avoiding unnecessary pre-requisites for taking contraceptive methods are important to improve the quality of care in family planning services. Strategies to improve provider behavior and competency are important. Moreover, strategies that minimize client waiting time and ensure client confidentiality should be implemented to ensure quality of care in family planning services. However, no strong evidence based conclusions and recommendations may be drawn from the evidence. Future studies are needed to identify the most important factors associated with quality of care in family planning services in a wider range of African countries.

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<![CDATA[Improved Fecundity in Northern China: A Secular Trend from 1980 to 2003]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daf6ab0ee8fa60bc2ef4

Objective

This study aimed to assess the trend of human fecundity over time in China.

Methods

This retrospective study was conducted in Tongliao, China. Couples who were married during the time period between January 1, 1981 and December 31, 2003 were considered eligible for this study. A total of 27,413 individuals provided valid information via house-to-house interviews. The 12-month cumulative pregnancy rate (CPR) and annual percentage change were used as the outcome measurements.

Results

There was a significant increase in the CPR over the five successive time groups. A break point in 1988 divided the entire study period into two distinct segments: 1981–1988, during which the CPR increased from 72.2% to 84.2%, and 1988–2003, during which the CPR increased from 84.2% to 87.2%.

Conclusions

The findings were unlikely to be the result of biases, and could not be explained by increased medical treatment for infertility and changes in the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. Dramatic societal and behavioral changes due to the unique family planning policy and economic reform policies in China might have been the plausible reason for the results.

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<![CDATA[Barriers to Modern Contraceptive Use in Kinshasa, DRC]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da1dab0ee8fa60b7d6ed

Recent research from Kinshasa, DRC, has shown that only one in five married women uses modern contraception; over one quarter have an unmet need for family planning; and almost 400 health facilities across Kinshasa report that they provide modern contraception. This study addresses the question: with reasonable physical access and relatively high unmet need, why is modern contraceptive prevalence so low? To this end, the research team conducted 6 focus groups of women (non-users of any method, users of traditional methods, and users of modern methods) and 4 of husbands (of users of traditional methods and in non-user unions) in health zones with relatively strong physical access to FP services. Five key barriers emerged from the focus group discussions: fear of side effects (especially sterility), costs of the method, sociocultural norms (especially the dominant position of the male in family decision-making), pressure from family members to avoid modern contraception, and lack of information/misinformation. These findings are very similar to those from 12 other studies of sociocultural barriers to family planning in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, they have strong programmatic implications for the training of FP workers to counsel future clients and for the content of behavior change communication interventions.

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<![CDATA[Comparing Effectiveness of Active and Passive Client Follow-Up Approaches in Sustaining the Continued Use of Long Acting Reversible Contraceptives (LARC) in Rural Punjab: A Multicentre, Non-Inferiority Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9fdab0ee8fa60b72bad

Background

The use of long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods is very low in Pakistan with high discontinuation rates mainly attributed to method-related side effects. Mixed evidence is available on the effectiveness of different client follow-up approaches used to ensure method continuation. We compared the effectiveness of active and passive follow-up approaches in sustaining the use of LARC—and within ‘active’ follow-up, we further compared a telephone versus home-based approach in rural Punjab, Pakistan.

Methods

This was a 12-month multicentre non-inferiority trial conducted in twenty-two (16 rural- and 6 urban-based) franchised reproductive healthcare facilities in district Chakwal of Punjab province, between November 2013 and December 2014. The study comprised of three groups of LARC clients: a) home-based follow-up, b) telephone-based follow-up, and c) passive or needs-based follow-up. Participants in the first two study groups received counselling on scheduled follow-up from the field workers at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 month post-insertion whereas participants in the third group were asked to contact the health facility if in need of medical assistance relating to LARC method use. Study participants were recruited with equal allocation to each study group, but participants were not randomized. The analyses are based on 1,246 LARC (intra-uterine contraceptive device and implant) users that completed approximately 12-months of follow-up. The non-inferiority margin was kept at five percentage points for the comparison of active and passive follow-up and six percentage points for telephone and home-based approach. The primary outcome was cumulative probability of method continuation at 12-month among LARC users.

Results

Women recruited in home-based, telephone-based, and passive groups were 400, 419 and 427, respectively. The cumulative probability of LARC continuation at 12 month was 87.6% (95% CI 83.8 to 90.6) among women who received home-based follow-up; 89.1% (95% CI 85.7, 91.8) who received telephone-based follow-up; and 83.8% (95% CI 79.8 to 87.1) who were in the passive or needs-based follow-up group. The probability of continuation among women who were actively followed-up by field health educators—either through home-based visit or telephone-based follow-up was, 88.3% (95% CI 85.9 to 90.0). An adjusted risk difference of -4.1 (95% CI -7.8 to -0.28; p-value = 0.035) was estimated between active and passive follow-up. Whereas, within the active client follow-up, the telephone-based follow-up was found to be as effective as the home-based follow-up with an adjusted risk difference of 1.8 (95% CI -2.7 to 6.4; p-value = 0.431).

Conclusion

A passive follow-up approach was 5% inferior to an active follow-up approach; whereas telephone-based follow-up was as effective as the home-based visits in sustaining the use of LARC, and was far more resource efficient. Therefore, active follow-up could improve method continuation especially in the critical post-insertion period.

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<![CDATA[Association among Dietary Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses and Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7eab0ee8fa60b99ab7

Background

Previous studies have indicated that intake of dietary flavonoids or flavonoid subclasses is associated with the ovarian cancer risk, but presented controversial results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of these associations.

Methods

We performed a search in PubMed, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science from their inception to April 25, 2015 to select studies on the association among dietary flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and ovarian cancer risk. The information was extracted by two independent authors. We assessed the heterogeneity, sensitivity, publication bias and quality of the articles. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimates.

Results

Five cohort studies and seven case-control studies were included in the final meta-analysis. We observed that intake of dietary flavonoids can decrease ovarian cancer risk, which was demonstrated by pooled RR (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68–0.98). In a subgroup analysis by flavonoid subtypes, the ovarian cancer risk was also decreased for isoflavones (RR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.50–0.92) and flavonols (RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.58–0.80). While there was no compelling evidence that consumption of flavones (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.71–1.03) could decrease ovarian cancer risk, which revealed part sources of heterogeneity. The sensitivity analysis indicated stable results, and no publication bias was observed based on the results of Funnel plot analysis and Egger’s test (p = 0.26).

Conclusions

This meta-analysis suggested that consumption of dietary flavonoids and subtypes (isoflavones, flavonols) has a protective effect against ovarian cancer with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer except for flavones consumption. Nevertheless, further investigations on a larger population covering more flavonoid subclasses are warranted.

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<![CDATA[The Influence of Hormonal Factors on the Risk of Developing Cervical Cancer and Pre-Cancer: Results from the EPIC Cohort]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da42ab0ee8fa60b8a681

Background

In addition to HPV, high parity and hormonal contraceptives have been associated with cervical cancer (CC). However, most of the evidence comes from retrospective case-control studies. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate associations between hormonal factors and risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC).

Methods and Findings

We followed a cohort of 308,036 women recruited in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study. At enrollment, participants completed a questionnaire and provided serum. After a 9-year median follow-up, 261 ICC and 804 CIN3/CIS cases were reported. In a nested case-control study, the sera from 609 cases and 1,218 matched controls were tested for L1 antibodies against HPV types 11,16,18,31,33,35,45,52,58, and antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis and Human herpesvirus 2. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR), odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). The cohort analysis showed that number of full-term pregnancies was positively associated with CIN3/CIS risk (p-trend = 0.03). Duration of oral contraceptives use was associated with a significantly increased risk of both CIN3/CIS and ICC (HR = 1.6 and HR = 1.8 respectively for ≥15 years versus never use). Ever use of menopausal hormone therapy was associated with a reduced risk of ICC (HR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.4–0.8). A non-significant reduced risk of ICC with ever use of intrauterine devices (IUD) was found in the nested case-control analysis (OR = 0.6). Analyses restricted to all cases and HPV seropositive controls yielded similar results, revealing a significant inverse association with IUD for combined CIN3/CIS and ICC (OR = 0.7).

Conclusions

Even though HPV is the necessary cause of CC, our results suggest that several hormonal factors are risk factors for cervical carcinogenesis. Adherence to current cervical cancer screening guidelines should minimize the increased risk of CC associated with these hormonal risk factors.

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