ResearchPad - coronary-angioplasty https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The adipokine vaspin is associated with decreased coronary in-stent restenosis <i>in vivo</i> and inhibits migration of human coronary smooth muscle cells <i>in vitro</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7692 Percutaneous coronary intervention represents the most important treatment modality of coronary artery stenosis. In-stent restenosis (ISR) is still a limitation for the long-term outcome despite the introduction of drug eluting stents. It has been shown that adipokines directly influence vessel wall homeostasis by influencing the function of endothelial cells and arterial smooth muscle cells. Visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin vaspin was recently identified as a member of serine protease inhibitor family and serveral studies could demonstrate a relation to metabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate a role of vaspin in the development of in-stent restenosis in vivo and on migration of smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells in vitro.MethodsWe studied 85 patients with stable coronary artery disease who underwent elective and successful PCI with implatation of drug eluting stents. Blood samples were taken directly before PCI. Vaspin plasma levels were measured by specific ELISA. ISR was evaluated eight months later by coronary angiography. Human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) migration was analyzed by an in-vitro migration assay with different concentrations (0.004ng/mL up to 40ng/mL) of vaspin as well as by an scratch assay. For proliferation an impedance measurement with specialiced E-Plates was performed.ResultsDuring the follow up period, 14 patients developed ISR. Patients with ISR had significantly lower vaspin plasma levels compared to patients without ISR (0.213 ng/ml vs 0.382 ng/ml; p = 0.001). In patients with plasma vaspin levels above 1.35 ng/ml we could not observe any restenosis. There was also a significant correlation of plasma vaspin levels and late lumen loss in the stented coronary segments. Further we could demonstrate that vaspin nearly abolishes serum induced migration of HCASMC (100% vs. 9%; p<0.001) in a biphasic manner but not migration of HUVEC. Proliferation of HCASMC and HUVEC was not modulated by vaspin treatment.ConclusionWe were able to show that the adipokine vaspin selectively inhibits human coronary SMC migration in vitro and has no effect on HUVEC migration. Vaspin had no effect on proliferation of HUVEC which is an important process of the healing of the stented vessel. In addition, the occurrence of ISR after PCI with implantation of drug eluting stents was significantly associated with low vaspin plasma levels before intervention. Determination of vaspin plasma levels before PCI might be helpful in the identification of patients with high risk for development of ISR after stent implantation. In addition, the selective effects of vaspin on smooth muscle cell migration could potentially be used to reduce ISR without inhibition of re-endothelialization of the stented segment. ]]> <![CDATA[Apolipoprotein B correlates with intra-plaque necrotic core volume in stable coronary artery disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac91d5eed0c484d08a4e

Objective

To determine the relationship between plaque composition and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein B (Apo-B), and Apo-A1 using virtual-histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS).

Methods

We assessed plaque composition in patients with stable coronary artery disease (SCD) admitted to our hospital for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between November 1, 2012, and March 10, 2015. Before PCI, fibrous (FI), fibrofatty (FF), necrotic core (NC), and dense calcium (DC) regions were evaluated using VH-IVUS, and the contributions of each to the culprit lesion volume were recorded. Plasma LDL-C, HDL-C, Apo-B, and Apo-A1 levels were assessed before PCI. The relationship between the regions on VH-IVUS and plasma lipid levels was assessed. Patients were categorized into low Apo-B (LAB) and high Apo-B (HAB) groups, based on the overall cohort median Apo-B level.

Results

We enrolled 115 patients (median Apo-B, 91 mg/dL, male n = 88) with 57 and 58 patients in the LAB (Apo-B ≤ 90 mg/dL) and HAB (Apo-B ≥ 91 mg/dL) groups, respectively. Vessel, plaque, and %NC volumes were significantly greater in the HAB group than in the LAB group. The %FI, %FF, and %DC volumes were similar in both groups. In all 115 patients, the %NC volume correlated with LDL-C (r = 0.2353, P = 0.0114) and Apo-B (r = 0.2487, P = 0.0074) but not with HDL-C and Apo A-1. The high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level tended to be higher in the HAB group than in the LAB group. Multiple regression analysis showed that being male, Apo-A1, and Apo-B were significant predictors of %NC volume extent.

Conclusions

Elevated Apo-B level was related to the %NC in target coronary artery lesions in SCD patients, suggesting a role of Apo-B as a biomarker of unstable plaque in this population.

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<![CDATA[Development of a risk score for predicting the benefit versus harm of extending dual antiplatelet therapy beyond 6 months following percutaneous coronary intervention for stable coronary artery disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1498d5eed0c48467a3af

Background

Decisions on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) duration should balance the opposing risks of ischaemia and bleeding. Our aim was to develop a risk score to identify stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) patients undergoing PCI who would benefit or suffer from extending DAPT beyond 6 months.

Methods

Retrospective analysis of a cohort of patients who completed 6 months of DAPT following PCI. Predictors of ischaemic and bleeding events for the 6–12 month period post-PCI were identified and a risk score was developed to estimate the likelihood of benefiting from extending DAPT beyond 6 months. Incidence of mortality, ischaemic and bleeding events for patients treated with DAPT for 6 vs. 6–12 months, was compared, stratified by strata of the risk score.

Results

The study included 2,699 patients. Over 6 months’ follow up, there were 78 (2.9%) ischaemic and 43 (1.6%) bleeding events. Four variables (heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤30%, left main or three vessel CAD, status post (s/p) PCI and s/p stroke) predicted ischemic events, two variables (age>75, haemoglobin <10 g/dL) predicted bleeding. In the lower stratum of the risk score, 6–12 months of treatment with DAPT resulted in increased bleeding (p = 0.045) with no decrease in ischaemic events. In the upper stratum, 6–12 months DAPT was associated with reduced ischaemic events (p = 0.029), with no increase in bleeding.

Conclusion

In a population of SCAD patients who completed 6 months of DAPT, a risk score for subsequent ischaemic and bleeding events identified patients likely to benefit from continuing or stopping DAPT.

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<![CDATA[Temporal trends in prevalence and antithrombotic treatment among Asians with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: A nationwide Korean population-based study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c3ad5eed0c484bd0ebc

Background

We investigated the recent 10-year trends in the number of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in relation to prescription patterns of antithrombotic therapy.

Methods

We analyzed the annual prevalence of PCI and patterns of antithrombotic therapy after PCI, including antiplatelets and oral anticoagulants (vitamin K antagonists and non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants [NOACs]), in patients with AF between 2006 and 2015 by using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Independent factors associated with triple therapy (oral anticoagulant plus dual antiplatelet) prescription were assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis.

Results

The number of patients with AF undergoing PCI increased gradually from 2006 (n = 2,140) to 2015 (n = 3,631) (ptrend<0.001). In 2006, only 22.7% of patients received triple therapy after PCI although 96.2% of them were indicated for anticoagulation (CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2). The prescription rate of triple therapy increased to 38.3% in 2015 (ptrend<0.001), which was mainly attributed to a recent increment of NOAC-based triple therapy from 2013 (17.5% in 2015). Previous ischemic stroke or systemic embolism, old age, hypertension, and congestive heart failure were significantly associated with a higher triple therapy prescription rate, whereas previous myocardial infarction, PCI, and peripheral arterial disease were associated with triple therapy underuse.

Conclusions

From 2006 to 2015, the number of patients with AF undergoing PCI and the prescription rate of triple therapy increased gradually with a recent increment of NOAC-based antithrombotic therapy from 2013. Previous myocardial infarction, peripheral artery disease, and PCI were associated with underuse of triple therapy.

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<![CDATA[Relationship between FFR, CFR and coronary microvascular resistance – Practical implications for FFR-guided percutaneous coronary intervention]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d017ad5eed0c48403bbb1

Objective

The aim was threefold: 1) expound the independent physiological parameters that drive FFR, 2) elucidate contradictory conclusions between fractional flow reserve (FFR) and coronary flow reserve (CFR), and 3) highlight the need of both FFR and CFR in clinical decision making. Simple explicit theoretical models were supported by coronary data analyzed retrospectively.

Methodology

FFR was expressed as a function of pressure loss coefficient, aortic pressure and hyperemic coronary microvascular resistance. The FFR-CFR relationship was also demonstrated mathematically and was shown to be exclusively dependent upon the coronary microvascular resistances. The equations were validated in a first series of 199 lesions whose pressures and distal velocities were monitored. A second dataset of 75 lesions with pre- and post-PCI measures of FFR and CFR was also analyzed to investigate the clinical impact of our hemodynamic reasoning.

Results

Hyperemic coronary microvascular resistance and pressure loss coefficient had comparable impacts (45% and 49%) on FFR. There was a good concordance (y = 0.96 x − 0.02, r2 = 0.97) between measured CFR and CFR predicted by FFR and coronary resistances. In patients with CFR < 2 and CFR/FFR ≥ 2, post-PCI CFR was significantly >2 (p < 0.001), whereas it was not (p = 0.94) in patients with CFR < 2 and CFR/FFR < 2.

Conclusion

The FFR behavior and FFR-CFR relationship are predictable from basic hemodynamics. Conflicting conclusions between FFR and CFR are explained from coronary vascular resistances. As confirmed by our results, FFR and CFR are complementary; they could jointly contribute to better PCI guidance through the CFR-to-FFR ratio in patients with coronary artery disease.

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<![CDATA[Predicting return to work after acute myocardial infarction: Socio-occupational factors overcome clinical conditions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0ae3d5eed0c484426da0

Objectives

Return to work after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), a leading cause of death globally, is a multidimensional process influenced by clinical, psychological, social and occupational factors, the single impact of which, however, is still not well defined. The objective of this study was to investigate these 4 factors on return to work (RTW) within 365 days after AMI in a homogeneous cohort of patients who had undergone an urgent coronary angioplasty.

Participants

We studied 102 patients, in employment at the time of AMI (88.24% of men), admitted to the Department of Cardiology of the University-Hospital of Ferrara between March 2015 to December 2016. Demographical and clinical characteristics were obtained from the cardiological records. After completing an interview on social and occupational variables and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HADS) questionnaire, patients underwent exercise capacity measurement and spirometry.

Results

Of the 102 patients, only 12 (12.76%) held a university degree, 68.63% were employees and 31.37% self-employed. The median number of sick-leave days was 44 (IQR 33–88). At day 30, 78.5% of all subjects had not returned to work, at day 60, 40.8% and at day 365 only 7.3% had not resumed working. At univariate analyses, educational degree (p = 0.026), self-employment status (p = 0.0005), white collar professional category (p = 0.020) and HADS depression score were significant for earlier return to work. The multivariate analysis confirms that having a university degree, being self-employed and presenting a lower value of HADS depression score increase the probability of a quicker return to work.

Conclusions

These findings suggest that the strongest predictors of returning to work within 1 year after discharge for an acute myocardial infarction are related more to socio-occupational than to clinical parameters.

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<![CDATA[Relationship of body mass index and waist circumference with clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0afad5eed0c484427095

Background

A biphasic, U-shape relationship has been reported between body mass index (BMI) and clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and the cardiovascular risk following PCI has not been reported.

Methods

A prospective cohort study was performed. A major adverse cardiac event (MACE) was defined as a composite of cardiac death (CD), nonfatal myocardial infarction (NFMI) and target vessel revascularization (TVR). Patients were evenly divided into 4 groups according to BMI (Q1BMI, Q2BMI, Q3BMI and Q4BMI) and WC (Q1WC, Q2WC, Q3WC and Q4WC).

Results

A total of 1,421 patients were observed for 5 years. The risk of the composite events of CD and NFMI (CD/NFMI) was lower in the Q3WC and Q4WC groups than in the Q1WC group, whereas it was only marginally lower in the Q2BMI group than in the Q1BMI group (ANOVA, p = 0.062). The risk of MACE was highest in the Q1WC group and lowest in the Q3WC group; however, the risk of MACE did not differ among the 4 groups, according to BMI. Multivariate Cox-regression analyses showed that the risk of CD/NFMI gradually decreased with BMI (linear p = 0.030) and with WC (linear p = 0.015). The risks of TVR and MACEs that were driven by TVRs showed a distinguishing biphasic, U-shaped relationship with WC (nonlinear p = 0.009) but not with BMI (nonlinear p = 0.439). Landmark survival analysis showed that the incidences of CD and NFMI were higher in the lower BMI groups and lower WC groups than in the higher BMI groups and higher WC groups, respectively, until 1 year and did not differ afterward. In contrast, the incidence of MACE was highest in Q1WC and lowest in Q3WC (log-rank p = 0.003), whereas the incidence was not different among the groups according to BMI.

Conclusions

Both BMI and WC were associated with a lower risk of early episodes of CD and NFMI after PCI. In the late period after PCI, WC demonstrated a biphasic, U-shaped association between cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity, whereas BMI did not.

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<![CDATA[Impact of diabetes mellitus in patients undergoing contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention: Results from a Korean nationwide study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c181339d5eed0c484774871

Objectives

Despite an obvious improvement in the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) and survival rate of patients with CAD during recent decades, diabetes mellitus (DM) is still considered a risk factor of adverse clinical outcomes in these patients. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the clinical implications of DM in patients with CAD who underwent contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods

Based on the National Health Insurance claims data in South Korea, patients aged 18 years or older who had undergone PCI for the diagnosis of CAD between 2011 and 2015 were analyzed. Patients were classified into the DM (n = 26,872) and non-DM (n = 54,243) groups. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality, and it was compared between the two groups via a propensity score matching analysis.

Results

The study population was categorized as patients with angina (n = 49,228) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI, n = 31,887). The study population had a median follow-up of 2.1 years (interquartile range, 1.1–3.2). After the propensity score matching analysis, 8,157 and 4,266 pairs of patients with angina and AMI were identified, respectively. In the matched angina group, the incidence of all-cause death was significantly higher in patients with DM (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16–1.47; p<0.001) than in those without DM. Moreover, in the matched AMI group, the incidence of all-cause death was significantly higher in patients with DM (aHR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.19–1.53; p<0.001) than in those without DM.

Conclusions

In patients undergoing contemporary PCI in Korea, the presence of DM was associated with poorer clinical outcomes.

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<![CDATA[Moderate-intensity versus high-intensity statin therapy in Korean patients with angina undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents: A propensity-score matching analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141f07d5eed0c484d2955a

Objectives

It is unclear whether high-intensity statin therapy provides incremental clinical benefits over moderate-intensity statin therapy in Asian patients with angina. This study sought to compare the clinical outcomes of moderate- and high-intensity statin therapies in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for angina in Korean patients.

Methods

Based on the national health insurance claims data in South Korea, patients aged 18 years or older without a known history of coronary artery disease, who underwent PCI with drug-eluting stents due to angina between 2011 and 2015, were enrolled. According to the intensity of statin therapy, patients were categorized into moderate-intensity statin therapy (n = 23,863) and high-intensity statin therapy (n = 9,073) groups. The primary endpoint, defined as a composite of all-cause death and myocardial infarction, was compared between the two groups using a propensity-score matching analysis.

Results

During the follow-up period (median, 2.0 years; interquartile range, 1.1–3.1), 1,572 patients had 1,367 deaths and 242 myocardial infarctions. After propensity-score matching, there were 8,939 matched pairs. There was no significant difference in the incidence of the primary endpoint between the two groups (adjusted hazard ratio of high-intensity statin therapy, 1.093; 95% confidence interval: 0.950–1.259; p = 0.212).

Conclusions

In Korean patients undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents for angina, the high-intensity statin therapy did not provide additional clinical benefits over the moderate-intensity statin therapy.

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<![CDATA[Enhancing the prediction of acute kidney injury risk after percutaneous coronary intervention using machine learning techniques: A retrospective cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c06f031d5eed0c484c6d333

Background

The current acute kidney injury (AKI) risk prediction model for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from the American College of Cardiology (ACC) National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) employed regression techniques. This study aimed to evaluate whether models using machine learning techniques could significantly improve AKI risk prediction after PCI.

Methods and findings

We used the same cohort and candidate variables used to develop the current NCDR CathPCI Registry AKI model, including 947,091 patients who underwent PCI procedures between June 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011. The mean age of these patients was 64.8 years, and 32.8% were women, with a total of 69,826 (7.4%) AKI events. We replicated the current AKI model as the baseline model and compared it with a series of new models. Temporal validation was performed using data from 970,869 patients undergoing PCIs between July 1, 2016, and March 31, 2017, with a mean age of 65.7 years; 31.9% were women, and 72,954 (7.5%) had AKI events. Each model was derived by implementing one of two strategies for preprocessing candidate variables (preselecting and transforming candidate variables or using all candidate variables in their original forms), one of three variable-selection methods (stepwise backward selection, lasso regularization, or permutation-based selection), and one of two methods to model the relationship between variables and outcome (logistic regression or gradient descent boosting). The cohort was divided into different training (70%) and test (30%) sets using 100 different random splits, and the performance of the models was evaluated internally in the test sets. The best model, according to the internal evaluation, was derived by using all available candidate variables in their original form, permutation-based variable selection, and gradient descent boosting. Compared with the baseline model that uses 11 variables, the best model used 13 variables and achieved a significantly better area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.752 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.749–0.754) versus 0.711 (95% CI 0.708–0.714), a significantly better Brier score of 0.0617 (95% CI 0.0615–0.0618) versus 0.0636 (95% CI 0.0634–0.0638), and a better calibration slope of observed versus predicted rate of 1.008 (95% CI 0.988–1.028) versus 1.036 (95% CI 1.015–1.056). The best model also had a significantly wider predictive range (25.3% versus 21.6%, p < 0.001) and was more accurate in stratifying AKI risk for patients. Evaluated on a more contemporary CathPCI cohort (July 1, 2015–March 31, 2017), the best model consistently achieved significantly better performance than the baseline model in AUC (0.785 versus 0.753), Brier score (0.0610 versus 0.0627), calibration slope (1.003 versus 1.062), and predictive range (29.4% versus 26.2%). The current study does not address implementation for risk calculation at the point of care, and potential challenges include the availability and accessibility of the predictors.

Conclusions

Machine learning techniques and data-driven approaches resulted in improved prediction of AKI risk after PCI. The results support the potential of these techniques for improving risk prediction models and identification of patients who may benefit from risk-mitigation strategies.

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<![CDATA[Troponin I Assay for Identification of a Significant Coronary Stenosis in Patients with Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction and Wide QRS Complex]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dae2ab0ee8fa60bbc1e9

Background

Common ECG criteria such as ST-segment changes are of limited value in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and bundle branch block or wide QRS complex. A large proportion of these patients do not suffer from an AMI, whereas those with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) equivalent AMI benefit from an aggressive treatment. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic information of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in hemodynamically stable patients with wide QRS complex and suspected AMI.

Methods

In 417 out of 1818 patients presenting consecutively between 01/2007 and 12/2008 in a prospective multicenter observational study with suspected AMI a prolonged QRS duration was observed. Of these, n = 117 showed significant obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) used as diagnostic outcome variable. cTnI was determined at admission.

Results

Patients with significant CAD had higher cTnI levels compared to individuals without (median 250ng/L vs. 11ng/L; p<0.01). To identify patients needing a coronary intervention, cTnI yielded an area under the receiver operator characteristics curve of 0.849. Optimized cut-offs with respect to a sensitivity driven rule-out and specificity driven rule-in strategy were established (40ng/L/96ng/L). Application of the specificity optimized cut-off value led to a positive predictive value of 71% compared to 59% if using the 99th percentile cut-off. The sensitivity optimized cut-off value was associated with a negative predictive value of 93% compared to 89% provided by application of the 99th percentile threshold.

Conclusion

cTnI determined in hemodynamically stable patients with suspected AMI and wide QRS complex using optimized diagnostic thresholds improves rule-in and rule-out with respect to presence of a significant obstructive CAD.

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<![CDATA[Development of Accelerated Coronary Atherosclerosis Model Using Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Knock-Out Swine with Balloon Injury]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa0ab0ee8fa60ba5784

Background

Several animal models have facilitated the evaluation and pathological understanding of atherosclerosis, but a definitive animal model of coronary atherosclerosis is not available. We therefore developed low density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR-KO) pigs with hypercholesterolemia, a model which rapidly developed coronary atherosclerosis following balloon injury.

Methods and Results

We deleted LDLR exon regions from cultured porcine fetal fibroblasts and cloned LDLR knockout (LDLR-KO) embryos microinjecting fetal fibroblast nuclei into enucleated oocytes. Twelve LDLR-KO pigs were fed a 2.0% cholesterol and 20% fat diet. Baseline serum LDL cholesterol level was 510.0±86.1 mg/dL. Balloon injury was created in 46 coronary segments and necropsy were obtained 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks later. Coronary artery sections were reviewed to evaluate lesion progression. We found lipid accumulation with foam cells and inflammatory cells beginning four weeks after balloon injury. The mean ratio of macrophages to plaque area was significantly higher in the four- weeks and eight-week animals compared with those at 2-weeks (8.79% ± 5.98% and 17.00% ± 10.38% vs. 1.14% ± 1.88%, P < 0.0001). At 12 weeks the ratio decreased toward the level at 2 week level (4.00% ± 4.56%, P = 0.66 vs. baseline). Advanced coronary atherosclerotic lesions contained lipid pools at eight-weeks with fibrous components beginning at 12 weeks.

Conclusions

We developed a model of rapid coronary atherosclerosis using LDLR KO pigs with balloon injury. This model may be useful for preclinical evaluation of medication or devices, and may also help investigate mechanisms of plaque progression.

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<![CDATA[Access to percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and 30-day mortality in patients with incident STEMI: Differentials by educational level and gender over 11 years]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db51ab0ee8fa60bdc290

Background

Socioeconomic status and gender are associated with access to cardiac procedures and mortality after AMI, also in countries with universal health care systems. Our objective was to evaluate the association and trends of educational level or gender and the following outcomes: 1) access to PTCA; 2) 30-day mortality.

Methods

We conducted an observational study based on 14,013 subjects aged 35–74 years, residing in Rome in 2001, and hospitalised for incident STEMI within 2012 in the Lazio region. We estimated adjusted ORs of educational level or gender and: 1) PTCA within 2 days after hospitalisation, 2) 30-day mortality. We evaluated time trends of outcomes, and time trends of educational or gender differentials estimating ORs stratified by time period (two time periods between 2001 and 2012). We performed a hierarchical analysis to account for clustering of hospitals.

Results

Access to PTCA among patients with incident STEMI increased during the study period, while 30-day mortality was stable. We observed educational differentials in PTCA procedure only in the first time period, and gender differentials in both periods. Patterns for 30-day mortality were less marked, with educational differentials emerging only in the second period, and gender differentials only in the first one, with patients with low educational level and females being disadvantaged.

Conclusions

Educational differentials in the access to PTCA disappeared in Lazio region over time, coherently with scientific literature, while gender differentials seem to persist. It may be important to assess the role of female gender in patients with STEMI, both from a social and a clinical point of view.

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<![CDATA[Feasibility and Safety of Evaluating Patients with Prior Coronary Artery Disease Using an Accelerated Diagnostic Algorithm in a Chest Pain Unit]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9feab0ee8fa60b72f38

An accelerated diagnostic protocol for evaluating low-risk patients with acute chest pain in a cardiologist-based chest pain unit (CPU) is widely employed today. However, limited data exist regarding the feasibility of such an algorithm for patients with a history of prior coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of the current study was to assess the feasibility and safety of evaluating patients with a history of prior CAD using an accelerated diagnostic protocol. We evaluated 1,220 consecutive patients presenting with acute chest pain and hospitalized in our CPU. Patients were stratified according to whether they had a history of prior CAD or not. The primary composite outcome was defined as a composite of readmission due to chest pain, acute coronary syndrome, coronary revascularization, or death during a 60-day follow-up period. Overall, 268 (22%) patients had a history of prior CAD. Non-invasive evaluation was performed in 1,112 (91%) patients. While patients with a history of prior CAD had more comorbidities, the two study groups were similar regarding hospitalization rates (9% vs. 13%, p = 0.08), coronary angiography (13% vs. 11%, p = 0.41), and revascularization (6.5% vs. 5.7%, p = 0.8) performed during CPU evaluation. At 60-days the primary endpoint was observed in 12 (1.6%) and 6 (3.2%) patients without and with a history of prior CAD, respectively (p = 0.836). No mortalities were recorded. To conclude, Patients with a history of prior CAD can be expeditiously and safely evaluated using an accelerated diagnostic protocol in a CPU with outcomes not differing from patients without such a history.

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<![CDATA[Simplified Models of Non-Invasive Fractional Flow Reserve Based on CT Images]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da30ab0ee8fa60b840f4

Invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR) is the gold standard to assess the functional coronary stenosis. The non-invasive assessment of diameter stenosis (DS) using coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) has high false positive rate in contrast to FFR. Combining CTA with computational fluid dynamics (CFD), recent studies have shown promising predictions of FFRCT for superior assessment of lesion severity over CTA alone. The CFD models tend to be computationally expensive, however, and require several hours for completing analysis. Here, we introduce simplified models to predict noninvasive FFR at substantially less computational time. In this retrospective pilot study, 21 patients received coronary CTA. Subsequently a total of 32 vessels underwent invasive FFR measurement. For each vessel, FFR based on steady-state and analytical models (FFRSS and FFRAM, respectively) were calculated non-invasively based on CTA and compared with FFR. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 90.6% (87.5%), 80.0% (80.0%), 95.5% (90.9%), 88.9% (80.0%) and 91.3% (90.9%) respectively for FFRSS (and FFRAM) on a per-vessel basis, and were 75.0%, 50.0%, 86.4%, 62.5% and 79.2% respectively for DS. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.963, 0.954 and 0.741 for FFRSS, FFRAM and DS respectively, on a per-patient level. The results suggest that the CTA-derived FFRSS performed well in contrast to invasive FFR and they had better diagnostic performance than DS from CTA in the identification of functionally significant lesions. In contrast to FFRCT, FFRSS requires much less computational time.

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<![CDATA[The Effect of Metformin on Diastolic Function in Patients Presenting with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da05ab0ee8fa60b759bd

Introduction

Diastolic dysfunction is an important predictor of poor outcome after myocardial infarction. Metformin treatment improved diastolic function in animal models and patients with diabetes. Whether metformin improves diastolic function in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unknown.

Methods

The GIPS-III trial randomized STEMI patients, without known diabetes, to metformin or placebo initiated directly after PCI. The previously reported primary endpoint was left ventricular ejection fraction at 4 months, which was unaffected by metformin treatment. This is a predefined substudy to determine an effect of metformin on diastolic function. For this substudy trans-thoracic echocardiography was performed during hospitalization and after 4 months. Diastolic dysfunction was defined as having the combination of a functional alteration (i.e. decreased tissue velocity: mean of septal e’ and lateral e’) and a structural alteration (i.e. increased left atrial volume index (LAVI)). In addition, left ventricular mass index and transmitral flow velocity (E) to mean e' ratio (E/e’) were measured to determine an effect of metformin on individual echocardiographic markers of diastolic function.

Results

In 237 (63%) patients included in the GIPS-III trial diastolic function was measured during hospitalization as well as at 4 months. Diastolic dysfunction was present in 11 (9%) of patients on metformin and 11 (9%) patients on placebo treatment (P = 0.98) during hospitalization. After 4 months 22 (19%) of patients with metformin and 18 (15%) patients with placebo (P = 0.47) had diastolic dysfunction. In addition, metformin did not improve any of the individual echocardiographic markers of diastolic function.

Conclusions

In contrast to experimental and observational data, our randomized placebo controlled trial did not suggest a beneficial effect of short-term metformin treatment on diastolic function in STEMI patients.

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<![CDATA[Duration of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention for coronary chronic total occlusion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf52b

Background

The duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after drug-eluting stent implantation in coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) remains unclear.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed a total of 512 patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the Samsung Medical Center CTO registry. Patients were separated into ≤ 12-month (199, 38.9%) vs. > 12 month (313, 61.1%) based on DAPT duration with aspirin and clopidogrel. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) during follow-up.

Results

Median follow-up duration was 67 (interquartile range: 51–84) months. MACCE occurred in 43 patients (21.6%) in the ≤ 12-month and 55 patients (17.6%) in the > 12-month groups. In the propensity-matched population, the rate of MACCE did not differ significantly between the ≤ 12-month and > 12-month group (19.4% vs. 18.8%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.95; 95% confidential interval [CI], 0.52–1.76, p = 0.88). Moreover, moderate or severe bleeding according to BARC criteria (type 2, 3 or 5) was also similar between the ≤ 12-month and > 12-month group (2.5% vs. 1.9%; HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.20–4.96, p = 0.99).

Conclusion

Among patients treated with PCI for CTO, DAPT with durations of ≤ 12-month showed similar long-term clinical outcomes compared to > 12-month DAPT.

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<![CDATA[Early Discharge in Low-Risk Patients Hospitalized for Acute Coronary Syndromes: Feasibility, Safety and Reasons for Prolonged Length of Stay]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e8ab0ee8fa60b6c07d

Introduction

Length of hospital stay (LHS) is an indicator of clinical effectiveness. Early hospital discharge (≤72 hours) is recommended in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) at low risk of complications, but reasons for prolonged LHS poorly reported.

Methods

We collected data of ACS patients hospitalized at the Geneva University Hospitals from 1st July 2013 to 30th June 2015 and used the Zwolle index score to identify patients at low risk (≤ 3 points). We assessed the proportion of eligible patients who were successfully discharged within 72 hours and the reasons for prolonged LHS. Outcomes were defined as adherence to recommended therapies, major adverse events at 30 days and patients' satisfaction using a Likert-scale patient-reported questionnaire.

Results

Among 370 patients with ACS, 255 (68.9%) were at low-risk of complications but only 128 (50.2%)were eligible for early discharge, because of other clinical reasons for prolonged LHS (e.g. staged coronary revascularization, cardiac monitoring) in 127 patients (49.8%). Of the latter, only 45 (35.2%) benefitted from an early discharge. Reasons for delay in discharge in the remaining 83 patients (51.2%) were mainly due to delays in additional investigations, titration of medical therapy, admission or discharge during weekends. In the early discharge group, at 30 days, only one patient (2.2%) had an adverse event (minor bleeding), 97% of patients were satisfied by the medical care.

Conclusion

Early discharge was successfully achieved in one third of eligible ACS patients at low risk of complications and appeared sufficiently safe while being overall appreciated by the patients.

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<![CDATA[Appropriate Use of Cardiac Stress Testing with Imaging: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e1ab0ee8fa60b698b6

Background

Appropriate use criteria (AUC) for cardiac stress tests address concerns about utilization growth and patient safety. We systematically reviewed studies of appropriateness, including within physician specialties; evaluated trends over time and in response to AUC updates; and characterized leading indications for inappropriate/rarely appropriate testing.

Methods

We searched PubMed (2005–2015) for English-language articles reporting stress echocardiography or myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) appropriateness. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression.

Results

Thirty-four publications of 41,578 patients were included, primarily from academic centers. Stress echocardiography appropriate testing rates were 53.0% (95% CI, 45.3%–60.7%) and 50.9% (42.6%–59.2%) and inappropriate/rarely appropriate rates were 19.1% (11.4%–26.8%) and 28.4% (23.9%–32.8%) using 2008 and 2011 AUC, respectively. Stress MPI appropriate testing rates were 71.1% (64.5%–77.7%) and 72.0% (67.6%–76.3%) and inappropriate/rarely appropriate rates were 10.7% (7.2%–14.2%) and 15.7% (12.4%–19.1%) using 2005 and 2009 AUC, respectively. There was no significant temporal trend toward rising rates of appropriateness for stress echocardiography or MPI. Unclassified stress echocardiograms fell by 79% (p = 0.04) with updated AUC. There were no differences between cardiac specialists and internists.

Conclusions

Rates of appropriate use tend to be lower for stress echocardiography compared to MPI, and updated AUC reduced unclassified stress echocardiograms. There is no conclusive evidence that AUC improved appropriate use over time. Further research is needed to determine if integration of appropriateness guidelines in academic and community settings is an effective approach to optimizing inappropriate/rarely appropriate use of stress testing and its associated costs and patient harms.

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<![CDATA[Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Counterpulsation during Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction and Cardiogenic Shock: Insights from the British Columbia Cardiac Registry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da46ab0ee8fa60b8bb69

Background

Cardiogenic shock complicating ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In the primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) era, randomized trials have not shown a survival benefit with intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) therapy. This differs to observational data which show a detrimental effect, potentially reflecting bias and confounding. Without robust and valid risk adjustment, findings from non-randomized studies may remain biased.

Methods

We compared long-term mortality following IABP therapy in patients with cardiogenic shock undergoing PPCI during 2008–2013 from the British Columbia Cardiac Registry. We addressed measured and unmeasured confounding using propensity score and instrumental variable methods.

Results

A total of 12,105 patients with STEMI were treated with PPCI during the study period. Of these, 700 patients (5.8%) had cardiogenic shock. Of the patients with cardiogenic shock, 255 patients (36%) received IABP therapy. Multivariable analyses identified IABP therapy to be associated with increased mortality up to 3 years (HR = 1.67, 95% CI:1.20–2.67, p<0.001). This association was lost in propensity-matched analyses (HR = 1.23, 95% CI: 0.84–1.80, p = 0.288). When addressing measured and unmeasured confounders, instrumental variable analyses demonstrated that IABP therapy was not associated with mortality at 3 years (Δ = 16.7%, 95% CI: -12.7%, 46.1%, p = 0.281). Subgroup analyses demonstrated IABP was associated with increased mortality in non-diabetics; patients not undergoing multivessel intervention; patients without renal disease and patients not having received prior thrombolysis.

Conclusions

In this observational analysis of patients with STEMI and cardiogenic shock, when adjusting for confounding, IABP therapy had a neutral effect with no association with long-term mortality. These findings differ to previously reported observational studies, but are in keeping with randomized trial data.

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