ResearchPad - coronary-heart-disease https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Atherosclerotic spontaneous coronary artery dissection (A-SCAD) in a patient with COVID-19: case report and possible mechanisms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12474 Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) may be atherosclerotic (A-SCAD) or non-atherosclerotic (NA-SCAD) in origin. Contemporary usage of the term ‘SCAD’ is typically synonymous with NA-SCAD. COVID-19 could induce a vascular inflammation localized in the coronary adventitia and periadventitial fat and contribute to the development of an A-SCAD of a vulnerable plaque in a susceptible patient.Case summaryIn this report we describe a case of a COVID-19 patient with past cardiac history of CAD who was admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Coronary angiography demonstrated the culprit lesion in the proximal LAD that presented with a very complex and unusual morphology, indicative of an A-SCAD. The diagnosis of A-SCAD was supported by the presence of a mild stenosis in the same coronary segment in the last angiogram performed 3 years previously. He was successfully treated by PCI, had a favourable course of the COVID-19 with no symptoms of pneumonia, and was discharged from the hospital after two negative tests for SARS-CoV-2.DiscussionA higher index of suspicion of A-SCAD is needed in patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 presenting with ACS. The proposed approach with ‘thrombolysis first’ for treating STEMI patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection could be unsafe in the case of underlying A-SCAD. ]]> <![CDATA[Risk of colorectal cancer in patients with alcoholism: A nationwide, population-based nested case-control study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7832 Colorectal cancer (CRC) is regarded as a multifactorial disease and shares many risk factors with alcoholism. However, the association between alcoholism and CRC remains controversial.ObjectivesIn this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between alcoholism and risk of CRC.MethodsWe performed a large-scale, population-based nested case-control study using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2013, derived from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, and collected data from 2000 to 2013. There were 49,095 diagnosed cases of CRC defined according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Each case was matched with three controls by sex, age, index date of CRC, and annual medical visits; a total of 147,285 controls were identified. Multiple risk factors of CRC in alcoholism cases were investigated using unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis.ResultsAmong 49,095 cases of CRC, alcoholism was associated with a significantly higher risk of CRC (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.631; 95% CI, 1.565–1.699) in multivariate logistic regression, after adjusting other CRC risk factors, and in stratified analysis with multivariate logistic regression. In addition, there was a time-dependent relationship between alcoholism duration and CRC risk in >1 year, > 2 years, >5 years, and > 11 years groups (adjusted ORs, 1.875, 2.050, 2.662 and 2.670; 95% CI, 1.788–1.967, 1.948–2.158, 2.498–2.835, and 2.511–2.989 respectively).ConclusionAn association between alcoholism and risk of CRC was found in this study. Furthermore, patients with longer alcoholism history showed higher likelihood of developing CRC, which indicates a time-dependent relationship between alcoholism exposure and CRC. Further research on colorectal tumorigenesis is needed. ]]> <![CDATA[Association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation and cardiovascular risk factors at one-year post myocardial infarction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7688 Randomized trials confirm the benefits of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on cardiovascular risk factors. Whether exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation provides the same favourable effects in real-life cardiac rehabilitation settings, in the modern era of myocardial infarction treatment, is less well known. We examined the association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors at one-year post myocardial infarction in patients included in the Swedish heart disease registry, SWEDEHEART.MethodsIn this retrospective registry-based cohort study, we included 19 136 patients post myocardial infarction (75% men, 62.8±8.7 years) who were registered in SWEDEHEART between 2011 and 2013. The association between attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (43% participation rate) and changes in cardiovascular risk profile between baseline and one-year follow-up was assessed using multivariable regression analysis adjusting for age, comorbidities and medication.ResultsAttenders more often reported to have stopped smoking (men 64% vs 50%; women 64% vs 53%, p<0.001 for both, only smokers at baseline considered), be more physically active (men 3.9±2.5 vs 3.4±2.7 days/week; women 3.8±2.6 vs 3.0±2.8 days/week, p<0.001 for both) and achieved a slightly larger reduction in triglycerides (men -0.2±0.8 vs -0.1±0.9 mmol/L, p = 0.001; women -0.1±0.6 vs 0.0±0.8 mmol/L, p = 0.01) at one-year compared to non-attenders. Male attenders gained less weight (+0.0±5.7 vs +0.3±5.7 kg, p = 0.01) while female attenders achieved better lipid control (total cholesterol -1.2±1.4 vs -0.9±1.4 mmol/L, p<0.001; low-density lipoprotein -1.2±1.2 vs -0.9 ±1.2 mmol/L, p<0.001) compared to non-attenders.ConclusionsIn an unselected registry cohort of patients post myocardial infarction, compared to non-attenders those attending exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation achieved significantly larger improvements in cardiovascular risk factors at one-year after the acute event. ]]> <![CDATA[Paleogenetic study on the 17th century Korean mummy with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5aafccf3463d7e7f05234537

While atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is known to be common among modern people exposed to various risk factors, recent paleopathological studies have shown that it affected ancient populations much more frequently than expected. In 2010, we investigated a 17th century Korean female mummy with presumptive ASCVD signs. Although the resulting report was a rare and invaluable conjecture on the disease status of an ancient East Asian population, the diagnosis had been based only on anatomical and radiological techniques, and so could not confirm the existence of ASCVD in the mummy. In the present study, we thus performed a paleogenetic analysis to supplement the previous conventional diagnosis of ASCVD. In aDNA extracted from the same Korean mummy, we identified the risk alleles of seven different SNPs (rs5351, rs10757274, rs2383206, rs2383207, rs10757278, rs4380028 and rs1333049) that had already been revealed to be the major risk loci of ASCVD in East Asian populations. The reliability of this study could be enhanced by cross-validation using two different analyses: Sanger and SNaPshot techniques. We were able to establish that the 17th century Korean female had a strong genetic predisposition to increased risk of ASCVD. The current paleogenetic diagnosis, the first of its kind outside Europe, re-confirms its utility as an adjunct modality for confirmatory diagnosis of ancient ASCVD.

]]>
<![CDATA[Influenza epidemics and acute respiratory disease activity are associated with a surge in autopsy-confirmed coronary heart disease death: results from 8 years of autopsies in 34 892 subjects]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6793fb6e-db94-4e87-b884-02de193e5155

Abstract

Aims

To determine whether influenza can trigger heart attacks, we investigated the impact of influenza epidemics on autopsy-proven coronary deaths.

Methods and results

We studied weekly death due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and chronic ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in autopsies conducted in 1993 to 2000 in St Petersburg, Russia. We plotted the weekly acute respiratory disease (ARD) counts and influenza epidemics against AMI and chronic IHD deaths. There were 11 892 subjects dying of AMI and 23 000 subjects dying of chronic IHD. Median age was 75 for women and 65 for men. In every year, a peak of AMI and chronic IHD deaths were present and coincided with the influenza epidemic and peak ARD activity. A similar pattern was seen for each subgroup of men, women, subjects 50 years or older, and subjects 70 years or older. When comparing the average influenza epidemic weeks to average off-season weeks, the odds for AMI and chronic IHD death increased by 1.30 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08–1.56) and 1.10 (95% CI: 0.97–1.26), respectively.

Conclusion

Influenza epidemics are associated with a rise in autopsy-confirmed coronary deaths. Influenza vaccination should be advocated for patients at high risk of developing cardiovascular events.

]]>
<![CDATA[A case report of recurrent spontaneous coronary artery dissection and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: a treatment dilemma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf18fdbd2-0052-492e-89dc-c1ca6790e74f

Abstract

Background

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an uncommon cause of acute coronary syndrome in younger females with no pre-existing history of coronary artery disease. Recurrent SCAD is common after a first episode and can involve the same coronary artery or present as a new dissection unrelated to the initial lesion. Current recommendations advise for a conservative approach in the absence of haemodynamic compromise and flow limitations. Conversely, there are no clear guidelines for the management of early recurrent SCAD.

Case summary

A 52-year-old woman with history of obesity, asthma, and prediabetes presented with chest pain and electrocardiogram (ECG) showing inferior wall ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Coronary angiography revealed proximal right coronary artery (RCA) dissection and distal left anterior descending artery (LAD) dissection, while left ventriculogram showed Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC). Angiography revealed no flow limitations so conservative management was pursued. She returned within a couple of days with recurrent chest pain and ECG showing similar findings of inferior STEMI. Repeat angiography confirmed progression of the proximal RCA SCAD with resolution of distal LAD SCAD. Since flow through the distal RCA was still preserved, conservative medical management was continued. She presented a third time for palpitations only and another repeat coronary angiogram showed healing RCA SCAD.

Discussion

Management of early recurrent SCAD continues to be a clinical dilemma. In addition, our patient had features of TC which shares a similar clinical risk factor profile with SCAD thus it may be prudent to further investigate for TC in patients presenting with SCAD and have suggestive features of TC on history and echocardiography.

]]>
<![CDATA[Left main coronary artery dissection revealed by transoesophageal echocardiography]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N501bd904-780f-4036-a9a5-97c7a030e3c6 ]]> <![CDATA[Repetitive restenosis in a biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent with hypersensitivity reaction: a case report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N65bfdf77-b875-464d-9bfb-5c391b420997

Abstract

Background 

Hypersensitivity reaction is a classic cause of in-stent restenosis (ISR) in coronary stents, typically reported in bare-metal stents and first-generation drug-eluting stents. Biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (BP-SES) was developed with the concept of biocompatibility, and there has been no report of ISR of BP-SES with hypersensitivity reaction.

Case summary 

An 81-year-old woman presented with ST-elevation acute inferior myocardial infarction. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed for the culprit lesion in the left circumflex artery with a permanent polymer everolimus-eluting stent (PP-EES), followed by BP-SES implantation in the left anterior descending artery. Eight months later, coronary angiography showed total occlusion of the PP-EES and diffuse ISR in the BP-SES, treated with a paclitaxel-eluting balloon. Fluorodeoxyglucose with positron emission tomography showed increased uptake around the BP-SES, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed a late gadolinium-enhanced area around both stents. Four months later, she developed re-ISR in the BP-SES, and optical coherence tomography demonstrated diffuse-layered neointimal hyperplasia with microvascularization and peri-strut low-intensity area. She was successfully treated with coronary artery bypass grafting.

Discussion 

Our case demonstrated repetitive short-term ISR of the BP-SES. Observation by both intravascular and non-invasive imaging modalities suggested the presence of hypersensitivity reaction localized in the stent. Hypersensitivity to the metal may be a possible mechanism because both stents are composed of L605 cobalt–chromium alloy. This is the first report of ISR of a BP-SES with hypersensitivity reaction. Non-invasive imaging can be useful to assess this critical condition.

]]>
<![CDATA[Lomitapide treatment in a female with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: a case report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne4bfe948-2207-4aed-af2f-408b0bc26369

Abstract

Background

Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an autosomal-dominant inherited disease presenting with highly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Untreated, the patient can develop atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease already in adolescence. Treatment with statins and ezetimibe is usually not sufficient and LDL apheresis is often required. Lomitapide, an inhibitor of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, reduces LDL-C and triglyceride levels and can be used alone or in combination with other therapies in homozygous FH. However, experience with this agent is still limited.

Case summary

We present a young female who was diagnosed with homozygous FH at 6 years of age. She shows a complete lack of normal LDL receptor activity and no cholesterol-lowering effect from statins. The patient was treated with LDL apheresis from 7 years of age. When LDL apheresis treatment extended to twice a week, she began to experience adverse effects, including catheter-related complications, infections, and hospital admissions. When lomitapide treatment was initiated, the frequency of apheresis reduced, the LDL-C levels improved and she has not had any further hospital admissions since. Initially, she suffered from gastrointestinal disturbances. However, after 3 years of treatment with lomitapide 20 mg/day, the patient has not experienced any adverse effects.

Discussion

In this female with homozygous FH adding lomitapide treatment to LDL apheresis has contributed to improved LDL-C levels, a reduction in LDL apheresis sessions and enhanced quality of life. No adverse effects have been reported. These findings suggest that lomitapide can be a drug of choice in patients with homozygous FH.

]]>
<![CDATA[Transcatheter aortic valve replacement using the ACURATE NEOTM valve to treat pure aortic regurgitation in a degenerated aortic homograft valve]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5fe5085c-09e3-4bdb-ba3c-3eb41403a227 ]]> <![CDATA[Primary percutaneous coronary intervention for a left main bifurcation lesion without stenting using excimer laser with optical coherence tomography guidance: a case report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb0bc0c8e-64ce-4d60-b630-ea8cc456d50d

Abstract

Background

Optimal strategy for treating bifurcation lesions or lesions with large thrombus in left main disease remains elusive. Excimer laser coronary angioplasty (ELCA) is a therapeutic option for thrombotic lesions in acute coronary syndrome.

Case summary

A 68-year-old man with chest pain was transferred to our emergency department, and subsequently diagnosed as inferior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Emergent coronary angiography revealed a 75% stenosis in the left main trunk (LMT). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed massive thrombus at the distal LMT to the ostial left anterior descending artery (LAD) and left circumflex artery (LCx). ELCA was performed in the three directions from LMT to proximal LAD, proximal LCx, and obtuse marginal branch. OCT after ELCA showed reduction of thrombus and no apparent plaque rupture or calcification, implying that coronary thrombosis was caused by OCT-defined plaque erosion. Intracoronary electrocardiogram of the LCx showed ST-segment elevation which corresponded to inferior ST-segment elevation, whereas no intracoronary electrocardiogram ST-segment elevation was detected for LAD. Taking all of the data including angiographic appearance, OCT-derived residual lumen size and residual thrombus volume, and strategic options into consideration, we completed percutaneous coronary intervention without stent deployment. He has been free from any cardiac events thereafter for 8 months.

Discussion

Optimal strategy of coronary intervention for bifurcation lesions, especially LMT bifurcations, remains elusive. ELCA may have a potential to safely reduce intracoronary thrombus in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome with OCT guidance.

]]>
<![CDATA[Agreement between cardiovascular disease risk assessment tools: An application to the United Arab Emirates population]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9ca1ffb4-d1e9-4710-8aa8-6eec943148b3

Introduction

Evidence regarding the performance of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment tools is limited in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Therefore, we assessed the agreement between various externally validated CVD risk assessment tools in the UAE.

Methods

A secondary analysis of the Abu Dhabi Screening Program for Cardiovascular Risk Markers (AD-SALAMA) data, a large population-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Abu Dhabi, UAE during the period 2009 until 2015, was performed in July 2019. The analysis included 2,621 participants without type 2 Diabetes and without history of cardiovascular diseases. The CVD risk assessment tools included in the analysis were the World Health Organization for Middle East and North Africa Region (WHO-MENA), the systematic coronary risk evaluation for high risk countries (SCORE-H), the pooled cohort risk equations for white (PCRE-W) and African Americans (PCRE-AA), the national cholesterol education program Framingham risk score (FRAM-ATP), and the laboratory Framingham risk score (FRAM-LAB).

Results

The overall concordance coefficient was 0.50. The agreement between SCORE-H and PCRE-W, PCRE-AA, FRAM-LAB, FRAM-ATP and WHO-MENA, were 0.47, 0.39, 0.0.25, 0.42 and 0.18, respectively. PCRE-AA classified the highest proportion of participants into high-risk category of CVD (16.4%), followed by PCRE-W (13.6%), FRAM-LAB (6.9%), SCORE-H (4.5%), FRAM-ATP (2.7%), and WHO-MENA (0.4%).

Conclusions

We found a poor agreement between various externally validated CVD risk assessment tools when applied to a large data collected in the UAE. This poses a challenge to choose any of these tools for clinical decision-making regarding the primary prevention of CVD in the country.

]]>
<![CDATA[Impact of Baseline Glycemic Control on Residual Cardiovascular Risk in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus and High‐Risk Vascular Disease Treated With Statin Therapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc4762326-63bd-40bf-8e8c-4efde826dec6

Background

The contemporary impact of glycemic control on patients with diabetes mellitus at high cardiovascular risk remains unclear. We evaluated the utility of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as a marker of risk on the composite end point of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, and coronary revascularization in an optimally treated population with diabetes mellitus and established coronary artery disease enrolled in the ACCELERATE (Assessment of Clinical Effects of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Inhibition With Evacetrapib in Patients at a High Risk for Vascular Outcomes) trial.

Methods and Results

We included all patients with established diabetes mellitus and measured HbA1c (N=8145) and estimated Kaplan‐Meier (KM) events rates, stratified by increasing baseline HbA1c levels censored at 30 months. We then performed a multivariable regression for the primary end point. Increasing baseline HbA1c was strongly associated with the occurrence of the primary end point (KM estimate, 12.6–18.2; P<0.001). Increasing baseline HbA1c was also associated with the triple end point of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke (KM estimate, 7.8–11.3; P=0.003) as well as the individual end points of nonfatal myocardial infarction (KM estimate, 3.1–7.0; P<0.001), hospitalization for unstable angina (KM estimate, 1.8–5.0; P=0.003), and revascularization (KM estimate, 7.3–11.1; P=0.001), although not stroke (KM estimate, 1.4–2.4; P=0.45). The rates of cardiovascular mortality (KM estimate, 2.6–4.3; P=0.21) and all‐cause mortality (KM estimate, 4.8–5.9; P=0.21) were similar regardless of baseline HbA1c levels. When adjusting for relevant baseline characteristics, baseline HbA1c was an independent predictor for the primary end point (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02–1.11; P=0.003).

Conclusions

Glycemic control, as measured by HbA1c, remains strongly and independently associated with cardiovascular outcomes in high‐risk patients with diabetes mellitus on statin therapy.

Clinical Trial Registration

URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01687998.

]]>
<![CDATA[Temporal Trends Analysis of the Characteristics, Management, and Outcomes of Women With Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS): ACS Israeli Survey Registry 2000‐2016]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N220cc0c6-d248-450f-920c-372fe8c5d07b

Background

Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death among women. Despite improvements in the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), women with an ACS remain at higher risk.

Methods and Results

We performed a time‐dependent analysis of the management and outcomes of women admitted with ACS who enrolled in the prospective biennial ACS Israeli Surveys between 2000 and 2016. Surveys were divided into 3 time periods (2000‐2004, 2006‐2010, and 2013‐2016). Outcomes included 30‐day major adverse cardiac events (death, myocardial infarction, stroke, unstable angina, stent thrombosis, urgent revascularization) and 1‐year mortality. Overall, 3518 women were admitted with an ACS. Their mean age (70±12 years) was similar among the time periods. Over the time course of the study, more women were admitted with non–ST‐elevation ACS (51.9%, 59.6%, and 66.1%, respectively; P<0.001), and statins and percutaneous coronary intervention were increasingly utilized (66%, 91%, 93%, and 42%, 60%, and 68%, respectively; P<0.001 for each). Among women with ST‐segment–elevation myocardial infarction, more primary percutaneous coronary interventions were performed (48.5%, 84.7%, and 95.3%, respectively; P<0.001). The rate of 30‐day major adverse cardiac events has significantly decreased over the years (24.6%, 18.6%, and 13.5%, respectively; P<0.001). However, 1‐year mortality rates declined only from 2000 to 2004 (16.9%, 12.8%, and 12.3%; P=0.007 for the overall difference), and this change was not significant after propensity matching or multivariate analysis.

Conclusions

Over more than a decade, 30‐day major adverse cardiac events have decreased among women with ACS. Advances in pharmacological treatments and an early invasive approach may have accounted for this improvement. However, the lack of further reduction in 1‐year mortality rates among women suggests that more measures should be provided in this high‐risk population.

]]>
<![CDATA[Clinical and Laboratory Predictors for Plaque Erosion in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N79df3e24-1d49-4b15-a392-5e3f059f8006

Background

Plaque erosion is responsible for 25% to 40% of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Recent studies suggest that anti‐thrombotic therapy without stenting may be an option for this subset of patients. Currently, however, an invasive procedure is required to make a diagnosis of plaque erosion. The aim of this study was to identify clinical or laboratory predictors of plaque erosion in patients with ACS to enable a diagnosis of erosion without additional invasive procedures.

Methods and Results

Patients with ACS who underwent optical coherence tomography imaging were selected from 11 institutions in 6 countries. The patients were classified into plaque rupture, plaque erosion, or calcified plaque, and predictors were identified using multivariable logistic modeling. Among 1241 patients with ACS, 477 (38.4%) patients were found to have plaque erosion. Plaque erosion was more frequent in non–ST‐segment elevation‐ACS than in ST‐segment–elevation myocardial infarction (47.9% versus 29.8%, P=0.0002). Multivariable logistic regression models showed 5 independent parameters associated with plaque erosion: age <68 years, anterior ischemia, no diabetes mellitus, hemoglobin >15.0 g/dL, and normal renal function. When all 5 parameters are present in a patient with non–ST‐segment elevation‐ACS, the probability of plaque erosion increased to 73.1%.

Conclusions

Clinical and laboratory parameters associated with plaque erosion are explored in this retrospective registry study. These parameters may be useful to identify the subset of ACS patients with plaque erosion and guide them to conservative management without invasive procedures. The results of this exploratory analysis need to be confirmed in large scale prospective clinical studies.

Clinical Trial Registration

URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03479723.

]]>
<![CDATA[Chest Pain Center Accreditation Is Associated With Improved In‐Hospital Outcomes of Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients in China: Findings From the CCC‐ACS Project]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne92784ee-7da4-4024-9836-0ef8067253f1

Background

Chest pain center (CPC) accreditation plays an important role in the management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, no evidence shows whether the outcomes of AMI patients are improved with CPC accreditation in China.

Methods and Results

This retrospective analysis is based on a predesigned nationwide registry, CCC‐ACS (Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China‐Acute Coronary Syndrome). The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including all‐cause death, reinfarction, stent thrombosis, stroke, and heart failure. A total of 15 344 AMI patients, from 40 CPC‐accredited hospitals, were enrolled, including 7544 admitted before and 7800 after accreditation. In propensity score matching, 6700 patients in each group were matched. The incidence of 7‐day MACE (6.7% versus 8.0%; P=0.003) and all‐cause death (1.1% versus 1.6%; P=0.021) was lower after accreditation. In multivariate adjusted mixed‐effects Cox proportional hazards models, CPC accreditation was associated with significantly decreased risk of MACE (hazard ratio: 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68–0.91) and all‐cause death (hazard ratio: 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51–0.99). The risk of MACE and all‐cause death both followed a reverse J‐shaped trend: the risk of MACE and all‐cause death decreased gradually after achieving CPC accreditation, with minimal risk occurring in the first year, but increased in the second year and after.

Conclusions

Based on a large‐scale national registry data set, CPC accreditation was associated with better in‐hospital outcomes for AMI patients. However, the benefits seemed to attenuate over time, and reaccreditation may be essential for maintaining AMI care quality and outcomes.

]]>
<![CDATA[TRAF1 Exacerbates Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury via ASK1–JNK/p38 Signaling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N25044c54-7dbb-4296-805d-88d43fefec22

Background

After acute myocardial infarction, the recovery of ischemic myocardial blood flow may cause myocardial reperfusion injury, which reduces the efficacy of myocardial reperfusion. Ways to reduce and prevent myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are of great clinical significance in the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction. TRAF1 (tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor 1) is an important adapter protein that is implicated in molecular events regulating immunity, inflammation, and cell death. Little is known about the role and impact of TRAF1 in myocardial I/R injury.

Methods and Results

TRAF1 expression is markedly induced in wild‐type mice and cardiomyocytes after I/R or hypoxia/reoxygenation stimulation. I/R models were established in TRAF1 knockout mice and wild type mice (n=10 per group). We demonstrated that TRAF1 deficiency protects against myocardial I/R–induced loss of heat function, inflammation, and cardiomyocyte death. In addition, overexpression of TRAF1 in primary cardiomyocytes promotes hypoxia/reoxygenation‐induced inflammation and apoptosis in vitro. Mechanistically, TRAF1 promotes myocardial I/R injury through regulating ASK1 (apoptosis signal‐regulating kinase 1)–mediated JNK/p38 (c‐Jun N‐terminal kinase/p38) MAPK (mitogen‐activated protein kinase) cascades.

Conclusions

Our results indicated that TRAF1 aggravates the development of myocardial I/R injury by enhancing the activation of ASK1‐mediated JNK/p38 cascades. Targeting the TRAF1–ASK1–JNK/p38 pathway provide feasible therapies for cardiac I/R injury.

]]>
<![CDATA[ST‐Segment–Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Patients Without Standard Modifiable Cardiovascular Risk Factors—How Common Are They, and What Are Their Outcomes?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na4528cf4-a76b-4a5f-bdfc-74c2ee855a76

Background

Programs targeting the standard modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (SMuRFs: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking) are critical to tackling coronary heart disease at a community level. However, myocardial infarction in SMuRF‐less individuals is not uncommon. This study uses 2 sequential large, multicenter registries to examine the proportion and outcomes of SMuRF‐less ST‐segment–elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients.

Methods and Results

We identified 3081 STEMI patients without a prior history of cardiovascular disease in the Australian GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) and CONCORDANCE (Cooperative National Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome Care) registries, encompassing 42 hospitals, between 1999 and 2017. We examined the proportion that were SMuRF‐less as well as outcomes. The primary outcome was in‐hospital mortality, and the secondary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, or heart failure, during the index admission). Multivariate regression models were used to identify predictors of major adverse cardiovascular events. Of STEMI patients without a prior history of cardiovascular disease 19% also had no history of SMuRFs. This proportion increased from 14% to 23% during the study period (P=0.0067). SMuRF‐less individuals had a higher in‐hospital mortality rate than individuals with 1 or more SMuRFs. There were no clinically significant differences in major adverse cardiovascular events at 6 months between the 2 groups.

Conclusions

A substantial and increasing proportion of STEMI presentations occur independently of SMuRFs. Discovery of new markers and mechanisms of disease beyond standard risk factors may facilitate novel preventative strategies. Studies to assess longer‐term outcomes of SMuRF‐less STEMI patients are warranted.

]]>
<![CDATA[Perceptions of chest pain and healthcare seeking behavior for chest pain in northern Tanzania: A community-based survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7595d5eed0c4843cfecf

Background

Little is known about community perceptions of chest pain and healthcare seeking behavior for chest pain in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods

A two-stage randomized population-based cluster survey with selection proportional to population size was performed in northern Tanzania. Self-identified household healthcare decision-makers from randomly selected households were asked to list all possible causes of chest pain in an adult and asked where they would go if an adult household member had chest pain.

Results

Of 718 respondents, 485 (67.5%) were females. The most commonly cited causes of chest pain were weather and exercise, identified by 342 (47.6%) and 318 (44.3%) respondents. Two (0.3%) respondents identified ‘heart attack’ as a possible cause of chest pain. A hospital was selected as the preferred healthcare facility for an adult with chest pain by 277 (38.6%) respondents. Females were less likely to prefer a hospital than males (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.47–0.90, p = 0.008).

Conclusions

There is little community awareness of cardiac causes of chest pain in northern Tanzania, and most adults reported that they would not present to a hospital for this symptom. There is an urgent need for educational interventions to address this knowledge deficit and guide appropriate care-seeking behavior.

]]>
<![CDATA[The association between heat stroke and subsequent cardiovascular diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca36d5eed0c48452a8d5

Background

Recent studies have indicated that several critical illnesses are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Nonetheless, studies of the association between heat-related illnesses (HRIs) and subsequent CVDs are still limited. We sought to evaluate whether heat stroke (HS) was associated with an increased CVD incidence.

Methods

The data from the nationwide, population-based, retrospective, cohort study described herein were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The outcome evaluated in this study was the cumulative incidence of CVDs, which was compared between patients with HS, patients with other HRIs and a control group during a 14-year follow-up period.

Results

Our analyses included 150 HS cases, 150 patients with other HRIs and 150 patients without HRIs. The HS patients had a significantly higher incidence of developing CVDs than the other HRI and control patients (32.67% vs. 23.33% vs. 16.67%, p = 0.005). Patients with HS had an increased incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared with that of the controls (6% vs. 2.67%, p = 0.042) and an increased incidence of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) compared with those of the other HRI and control patients (12% vs. 6% vs. 4.67%, p = 0.038). An increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was also found in the patients with HS and other HRIs compared to that in the controls (17.33% vs. 14.67% vs. 6.67%, p = 0.016).

Conclusion

Prior HS was associated with an increased incidence of CVDs, particularly AMI and AIS, and an increased incidence of CKD.

]]>