ResearchPad - coronary-heart-disease-(incl.-cardiac-intervention) https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Atherosclerotic spontaneous coronary artery dissection (A-SCAD) in a patient with COVID-19: case report and possible mechanisms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12474 Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) may be atherosclerotic (A-SCAD) or non-atherosclerotic (NA-SCAD) in origin. Contemporary usage of the term ‘SCAD’ is typically synonymous with NA-SCAD. COVID-19 could induce a vascular inflammation localized in the coronary adventitia and periadventitial fat and contribute to the development of an A-SCAD of a vulnerable plaque in a susceptible patient.Case summaryIn this report we describe a case of a COVID-19 patient with past cardiac history of CAD who was admitted for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Coronary angiography demonstrated the culprit lesion in the proximal LAD that presented with a very complex and unusual morphology, indicative of an A-SCAD. The diagnosis of A-SCAD was supported by the presence of a mild stenosis in the same coronary segment in the last angiogram performed 3 years previously. He was successfully treated by PCI, had a favourable course of the COVID-19 with no symptoms of pneumonia, and was discharged from the hospital after two negative tests for SARS-CoV-2.DiscussionA higher index of suspicion of A-SCAD is needed in patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 presenting with ACS. The proposed approach with ‘thrombolysis first’ for treating STEMI patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection could be unsafe in the case of underlying A-SCAD. ]]> <![CDATA[A case report of recurrent spontaneous coronary artery dissection and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: a treatment dilemma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf18fdbd2-0052-492e-89dc-c1ca6790e74f

Abstract

Background

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an uncommon cause of acute coronary syndrome in younger females with no pre-existing history of coronary artery disease. Recurrent SCAD is common after a first episode and can involve the same coronary artery or present as a new dissection unrelated to the initial lesion. Current recommendations advise for a conservative approach in the absence of haemodynamic compromise and flow limitations. Conversely, there are no clear guidelines for the management of early recurrent SCAD.

Case summary

A 52-year-old woman with history of obesity, asthma, and prediabetes presented with chest pain and electrocardiogram (ECG) showing inferior wall ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Coronary angiography revealed proximal right coronary artery (RCA) dissection and distal left anterior descending artery (LAD) dissection, while left ventriculogram showed Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC). Angiography revealed no flow limitations so conservative management was pursued. She returned within a couple of days with recurrent chest pain and ECG showing similar findings of inferior STEMI. Repeat angiography confirmed progression of the proximal RCA SCAD with resolution of distal LAD SCAD. Since flow through the distal RCA was still preserved, conservative medical management was continued. She presented a third time for palpitations only and another repeat coronary angiogram showed healing RCA SCAD.

Discussion

Management of early recurrent SCAD continues to be a clinical dilemma. In addition, our patient had features of TC which shares a similar clinical risk factor profile with SCAD thus it may be prudent to further investigate for TC in patients presenting with SCAD and have suggestive features of TC on history and echocardiography.

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<![CDATA[Left main coronary artery dissection revealed by transoesophageal echocardiography]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N501bd904-780f-4036-a9a5-97c7a030e3c6 ]]> <![CDATA[Repetitive restenosis in a biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent with hypersensitivity reaction: a case report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N65bfdf77-b875-464d-9bfb-5c391b420997

Abstract

Background 

Hypersensitivity reaction is a classic cause of in-stent restenosis (ISR) in coronary stents, typically reported in bare-metal stents and first-generation drug-eluting stents. Biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent (BP-SES) was developed with the concept of biocompatibility, and there has been no report of ISR of BP-SES with hypersensitivity reaction.

Case summary 

An 81-year-old woman presented with ST-elevation acute inferior myocardial infarction. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed for the culprit lesion in the left circumflex artery with a permanent polymer everolimus-eluting stent (PP-EES), followed by BP-SES implantation in the left anterior descending artery. Eight months later, coronary angiography showed total occlusion of the PP-EES and diffuse ISR in the BP-SES, treated with a paclitaxel-eluting balloon. Fluorodeoxyglucose with positron emission tomography showed increased uptake around the BP-SES, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed a late gadolinium-enhanced area around both stents. Four months later, she developed re-ISR in the BP-SES, and optical coherence tomography demonstrated diffuse-layered neointimal hyperplasia with microvascularization and peri-strut low-intensity area. She was successfully treated with coronary artery bypass grafting.

Discussion 

Our case demonstrated repetitive short-term ISR of the BP-SES. Observation by both intravascular and non-invasive imaging modalities suggested the presence of hypersensitivity reaction localized in the stent. Hypersensitivity to the metal may be a possible mechanism because both stents are composed of L605 cobalt–chromium alloy. This is the first report of ISR of a BP-SES with hypersensitivity reaction. Non-invasive imaging can be useful to assess this critical condition.

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<![CDATA[Lomitapide treatment in a female with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia: a case report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne4bfe948-2207-4aed-af2f-408b0bc26369

Abstract

Background

Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an autosomal-dominant inherited disease presenting with highly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Untreated, the patient can develop atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease already in adolescence. Treatment with statins and ezetimibe is usually not sufficient and LDL apheresis is often required. Lomitapide, an inhibitor of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, reduces LDL-C and triglyceride levels and can be used alone or in combination with other therapies in homozygous FH. However, experience with this agent is still limited.

Case summary

We present a young female who was diagnosed with homozygous FH at 6 years of age. She shows a complete lack of normal LDL receptor activity and no cholesterol-lowering effect from statins. The patient was treated with LDL apheresis from 7 years of age. When LDL apheresis treatment extended to twice a week, she began to experience adverse effects, including catheter-related complications, infections, and hospital admissions. When lomitapide treatment was initiated, the frequency of apheresis reduced, the LDL-C levels improved and she has not had any further hospital admissions since. Initially, she suffered from gastrointestinal disturbances. However, after 3 years of treatment with lomitapide 20 mg/day, the patient has not experienced any adverse effects.

Discussion

In this female with homozygous FH adding lomitapide treatment to LDL apheresis has contributed to improved LDL-C levels, a reduction in LDL apheresis sessions and enhanced quality of life. No adverse effects have been reported. These findings suggest that lomitapide can be a drug of choice in patients with homozygous FH.

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<![CDATA[Transcatheter aortic valve replacement using the ACURATE NEOTM valve to treat pure aortic regurgitation in a degenerated aortic homograft valve]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5fe5085c-09e3-4bdb-ba3c-3eb41403a227 ]]> <![CDATA[Primary percutaneous coronary intervention for a left main bifurcation lesion without stenting using excimer laser with optical coherence tomography guidance: a case report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb0bc0c8e-64ce-4d60-b630-ea8cc456d50d

Abstract

Background

Optimal strategy for treating bifurcation lesions or lesions with large thrombus in left main disease remains elusive. Excimer laser coronary angioplasty (ELCA) is a therapeutic option for thrombotic lesions in acute coronary syndrome.

Case summary

A 68-year-old man with chest pain was transferred to our emergency department, and subsequently diagnosed as inferior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Emergent coronary angiography revealed a 75% stenosis in the left main trunk (LMT). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed massive thrombus at the distal LMT to the ostial left anterior descending artery (LAD) and left circumflex artery (LCx). ELCA was performed in the three directions from LMT to proximal LAD, proximal LCx, and obtuse marginal branch. OCT after ELCA showed reduction of thrombus and no apparent plaque rupture or calcification, implying that coronary thrombosis was caused by OCT-defined plaque erosion. Intracoronary electrocardiogram of the LCx showed ST-segment elevation which corresponded to inferior ST-segment elevation, whereas no intracoronary electrocardiogram ST-segment elevation was detected for LAD. Taking all of the data including angiographic appearance, OCT-derived residual lumen size and residual thrombus volume, and strategic options into consideration, we completed percutaneous coronary intervention without stent deployment. He has been free from any cardiac events thereafter for 8 months.

Discussion

Optimal strategy of coronary intervention for bifurcation lesions, especially LMT bifurcations, remains elusive. ELCA may have a potential to safely reduce intracoronary thrombus in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome with OCT guidance.

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