ResearchPad - cotton https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Sublethal and transgenerational effects of sulfoxaflor on the demography and feeding behaviour of the mirid bug <i>Apolygus lucorum</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14540 Sulfoxaflor, the first commercially available sulfoximine insecticide, has been used for the control of sap-feeding insect pests such as plant bugs and aphids on a variety of crops. However, its sublethal effects on the mirid bug Apolygus lucorum, one of the key insect pests of Bt cotton and fruit trees in China, have not been fully examined. Here, we evaluated the demography and feeding behaviour of A. lucorum exposed to sulfoxaflor. The leaf-dipping bioassay showed that the LC10 and LC30 of sulfoxaflor against 3rd-instar nymphs of this insect were 1.23 and 8.37 mg L-1, respectively. The LC10 significantly extended the nymphal duration and decreased the oviposition period by 5.29 days and female fecundity by 56.99% in the parent generation (F0). The longer duration of egg, 5th-instar nymphs, preadult, and male adult longevity were observed in the F1 generation (F1) at LC10. At the LC30, the duration of egg and 1st-instar nymph, female adult longevity, and oviposition period of the F1 were significantly shorter, while the nymphal duration in the F0 and duration of 5th-instar nymphs, preadult survival rate, and male adult longevity in the F1 significantly increased. The net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r), and finite rate of increase (λ) in the F1 were not significantly affected by these two concentrations, whereas the mean generation time (T) was lower at the LC30. Additionally, the probe counts and cells mixture feeding time were markedly lengthened by the LC10 and LC30, respectively, when A. lucorum nymphs exposed to sulfoxaflor fed on Bt cotton plants without insecticides. These results clearly indicate that sulfoxaflor causes sublethal effects on A. lucorum and the transgenerational effects depend on the tested concentrations.

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<![CDATA[Vulnerability of cotton subjected to hail damage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b528ed5eed0c4842bcb6d

This paper establishes the quantitative relationships between hail fall parameters and crop damages by examining the impacts of 49 hail hazard scenarios on cotton in the bud stage and boll stage. This study utilizes simulated cotton hail hazard to analyze the following data: hail size, hail fall density, and crop damages (i.e., defoliation rate, branch breaking rate, and the fruit falling rate). The results are as follows: 1) cotton vulnerability increased via an increase in crop damages as the hail hazard magnitude increased; 2) crop damages exhibit significant logistic relationships with hail diameter and hail fall density, and the fit was better at the bud stage than at the boll stage; 3) cotton is more vulnerable to hail hazard at the bud stage than at the boll stage, and the bud stage is a critical period for cotton hail disaster prevention and mitigation; and 4) damages to cotton plant at the bud stage and boll stage were less sensitive to hail size from hail fall density. Thus, we suggest that hail diameter can be used as the priority indicator to predict hail-induced crop damages. These results provide a sound basis for developing a comprehensive evaluation of hail damage in cotton, which is crucial for promoting sustainable cotton production. We recommend that the impacts of hail-induced crop damages on yield and fiber quality need to be addressed further in future studies.

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<![CDATA[Does prey encounter and nutrient content affect prey selection in wolf spiders inhabiting Bt cotton fields?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f764d5eed0c48438603d

Wolf spiders are abundant and voracious predators at the soil-plant interface in cotton crops. Among other prey, they attack late-instar larvae of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa spp., an economically important pest. Consequently, wolf spiders in transgenic Bt cotton could provide significant biological control of Bt-resistant Helicoverpa larvae that descend to the soil to pupate. The predator-prey interactions between wolf spiders and Helicoverpa could, however, be constrained by the presence of alternative prey and intraguild predators. This study used laboratory enclosures to analyse the effect of alternative prey on predatory selection of the wolf spider Tasmanicosa leuckartii Thorell. The prey included another wolf spider Hogna crispipes Koch (potential intraguild predator), the ground cricket Teleogryllus commodus Walker (minor pest), and Helicoverpa armigera larvae (major pest). We tested if encounter rates, prey vulnerability, and prey nutritional content influenced the likelihood that a prey was attacked. In three-way food webs, Tasmanicosa encountered and attacked Teleogryllus and Helicoverpa in similar frequencies. However, in the presence of a competing intraguild predator and potential prey (Hogna) in a four-way food web, Tasmanicosa did not always attack Teleogryllus at first encounter, but still attacked Helicoverpa at each encounter. Helicoverpa (protein-poor) and Hogna (protein-rich) were consumed by Tasmanicosa in similar proportions, suggesting that Tasmanicosa might benefit from nutrient balance as an outcome of diverse prey in this food web. As Teleogryllus (protein rich) escapes quicker than Helicoverpa and Hogna, Hogna may be an easier protein-rich option than Teleogryllus. Field surveys showed that while Teleogryllus was the most common prey, wolf spiders feed on diverse insect taxa, as well as other spiders. That Tasmanicosa readily attacked Helicoverpa larvae in the presence of alternative prey is an encouraging result that supports the potential of Tasmanicosa predation to assist in the control of Bt-resistant Helicoverpa larvae and thereby inhibit the proliferation and spread of resistance.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Soil Salinity on the Expression of Bt Toxin (Cry1Ac) and the Control Efficiency of Helicoverpa armigera in Field-Grown Transgenic Bt Cotton]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa6ab0ee8fa60ba7b92

An increasing area of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is being planted in saline-alkaline soil in China. The Bt protein level in transgenic cotton plants and its control efficiency can be affected by abiotic stress, including high temperature, water deficiency and other factors. However, how soil salinity affects the expression of Bt protein, thus influencing the control efficiency of Bt cotton against the cotton bollworm (CBW) Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) in the field, is poorly understood. Our objective in the present study was to investigate the effects of soil salinity on the expression of Bt toxin (Cry1Ac) and the control efficiency of Helicoverpa armigera in field-grown transgenic Bt cotton using three natural saline levels (1.15 dS m-1 [low soil-salinity], 6.00 dS m-1 [medium soil-salinity] and 11.46 dS m-1 [high soil-salinity]). We found that the Bt protein content in the transgenic Bt cotton leaves and the insecticidal activity of Bt cotton against CBW decreased with the increasing soil salinity in laboratory experiments during the growing season. The Bt protein content of Bt cotton leaves in the laboratory were negatively correlated with the salinity level. The CBW populations were highest on the Bt cotton grown in medium-salinity soil instead of the high-salinity soil in field conditions. A possible mechanism may be that the relatively high-salinity soil changed the plant nutritional quality or other plant defensive traits. The results from this study may help to identify more appropriate practices to control CBW in Bt cotton fields with different soil salinity levels.

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<![CDATA[Whitefly attraction to rosemary (Rosmarinus officinialis L.) is associated with volatile composition and quantity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf799

Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) is an important insect pest, causing severe damage to agricultural crops. The pest was recorded in a commercial rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, Lamiaceae) field, colonizing rosemary variety (var.) '2', but not '11'. A series of field and controlled laboratory choice bioassays confirmed the observed phenomenon. Mature potted plants of the two varieties were randomly organized in a lemon verbena (Lippia citrodora) and lemon grass (Cymbopogon spp.) fields. Seven days later var. '2' was significantly more colonized by whiteflies than var. '11'. Under lab conditions, whiteflies were significantly more attracted to var. '2' plantlets than to var. '11' following choice bioassays. Furthermore, cotton plants dipped in an essential oil emulsion of var. '2' had significantly greater colonization than cotton plants dipped in the essential oil emulsion of var. '11'. Similar results were obtained in 'plant-plant', 'plant-no plant' as well as, 'essential oil—essential oil' choice bioassay designs. Analyses of the essential oils of the two varieties identified a set of common and unique volatiles in each variety. Among these volatiles were β-caryophyllene and limonene, two compounds known to be associated with plant-insect interactions. The attraction of B. tabaci to pure (>95%) β-caryophyllene and limonene using a range of concentrations was examined in vitro by choice bioassays. The compounds were attractive to the insect at moderate concentration, but not at the lowest or highest concentrations used, where the insect was not attracted or repelled, respectively. Limonene attracted the insects at rates that were 10-fold lower than β-caryophyllene. The results emphasized the role of host plant volatiles in shaping the structure of B. tabaci populations in nature and in agricultural systems, and provided insights into the factors that contribute to the development of insect populations with unique characteristics. The results could also serve for future development of bio-pesticides and in breeding programs.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of Complete Nucleotide Sequences of 12 Gossypium Chloroplast Genomes: Origin and Evolution of Allotetraploids]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db3bab0ee8fa60bd4e3d

Background

Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is a model system for the analysis of polyploidization. Although ascertaining the donor species of allotetraploid cotton has been intensively studied, sequence comparison of Gossypium chloroplast genomes is still of interest to understand the mechanisms underlining the evolution of Gossypium allotetraploids, while it is generally accepted that the parents were A- and D-genome containing species. Here we performed a comparative analysis of 13 Gossypium chloroplast genomes, twelve of which are presented here for the first time.

Methodology/Principal Findings

The size of 12 chloroplast genomes under study varied from 159,959 bp to 160,433 bp. The chromosomes were highly similar having >98% sequence identity. They encoded the same set of 112 unique genes which occurred in a uniform order with only slightly different boundary junctions. Divergence due to indels as well as substitutions was examined separately for genome, coding and noncoding sequences. The genome divergence was estimated as 0.374% to 0.583% between allotetraploid species and A-genome, and 0.159% to 0.454% within allotetraploids. Forty protein-coding genes were completely identical at the protein level, and 20 intergenic sequences were completely conserved. The 9 allotetraploids shared 5 insertions and 9 deletions in whole genome, and 7-bp substitutions in protein-coding genes. The phylogenetic tree confirmed a close relationship between allotetraploids and the ancestor of A-genome, and the allotetraploids were divided into four separate groups. Progenitor allotetraploid cotton originated 0.43–0.68 million years ago (MYA).

Conclusion

Despite high degree of conservation between the Gossypium chloroplast genomes, sequence variations among species could still be detected. Gossypium chloroplast genomes preferred for 5-bp indels and 1–3-bp indels are mainly attributed to the SSR polymorphisms. This study supports that the common ancestor of diploid A-genome species in Gossypium is the maternal source of extant allotetraploid species and allotetraploids have a monophyletic origin. G. hirsutum AD1 lineages have experienced more sequence variations than other allotetraploids in intergenic regions. The available complete nucleotide sequences of 12 Gossypium chloroplast genomes should facilitate studies to uncover the molecular mechanisms of compartmental co-evolution and speciation of Gossypium allotetraploids.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation and Exploration of Favorable QTL Alleles for Salt Stress Related Traits in Cotton Cultivars (G. hirsutum L.)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9ddab0ee8fa60b684d7

Soil salinization is one of the major problems in global agricultural production. Cotton is a pioneer crop with regard to salt stress tolerance, and can be used for saline-alkali land improvement. The large-scale detection of salt tolerance traits in cotton accessions, and the identification of elite quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/genes for salt-tolerance have been very important in salt tolerance breeding. Here, 43 advanced salt-tolerant and 31 highly salt-sensitive cultivars were detected by analyzing ten salt tolerance related traits in 304 upland cotton cultivars. Among them, 11 advanced salt-tolerance and eight highly salt-sensitive cultivars were consistent with previously reported results. Association analysis of ten salt-tolerance related traits and 145 SSRs was performed, and a total of 95 significant associations were detected; 17, 41, and 37 of which were associated with germinative index, seedling stage physiological index, and four seedling stage biochemical indexes, respectively. Of these associations, 20 SSR loci were simultaneously associated with two or more traits. Furthermore, we detected 117 elite alleles associated with salt-tolerance traits, 4 of which were reported previously. Among these loci, 44 (37.60%) were rare alleles with a frequency of less than 5%, 6 only existed in advanced salt-tolerant cultivars, and 2 only in highly salt-sensitive cultivars. As a result, 13 advanced salt-tolerant cultivars were selected to assemble the optimal cross combinations by computer simulation for the development of salt-tolerant accessions. This study lays solid foundations for further improvements in cotton salt-tolerance by referencing elite germplasms, alleles associated with salt-tolerance traits, and optimal crosses.

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<![CDATA[Evidence that agricultural use of pesticides selects pyrethroid resistance within Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations from cotton growing areas in Burkina Faso, West Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc698

Many studies have shown the role of agriculture in the selection and spread of resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to insecticides. However, no study has directly demonstrated the presence of insecticides in breeding sources as a source of selection for this resistance. It is in this context that we investigated the presence of pesticide residues in breeding habitats and their formal involvement in vector resistance to insecticides in areas of West Africa with intensive farming. This study was carried out from June to November 2013 in Dano, southwest Burkina Faso in areas of conventional (CC) and biological cotton (BC) growing. Water and sediment samples collected from breeding sites located near BC and CC fields were submitted for chromatographic analysis to research and titrate the residual insecticide content found there. Larvae were also collected in these breeding sites and used in toxicity tests to compare their mortality to those of the susceptible strain, Anopheles gambiae Kisumu. All tested mosquitoes (living and dead) were analyzed by PCR for species identification and characterization of resistance genes. The toxicity analysis of water from breeding sites showed significantly lower mortality rates in breeding site water from biological cotton (WBC) growing sites compared to that from conventional cotton (WCC) sites respective to both An. gambiae Kisumu (WBC: 80.75% vs WCC: 92.75%) and a wild-type strain (49.75% vs 66.5%). The allele frequencies L1014F, L1014S kdr, and G116S ace -1R mutations conferring resistance, respectively, to pyrethroids and carbamates / organophosphates were 0.95, 0.4 and 0.12. Deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin were identified in the water samples taken in October/November from mosquitoes breeding in the CC growing area. The concentrations obtained were respectively 0.0147ug/L and 1.49 ug/L to deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin. Our results provided evidence by direct analysis (biological and chromatographic tests) of the role of agriculture as a source of selection pressure on vectors to insecticides used in growing areas.

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<![CDATA[Nitrapyrin addition mitigates nitrous oxide emissions and raises nitrogen use efficiency in plastic-film-mulched drip-fertigated cotton field]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf622

Nitrification inhibitors (NIs) have been used extensively to reduce nitrogen losses and increase crop nitrogen nutrition. However, information is still scant regarding the influence of NIs on nitrogen transformation, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and nitrogen utilization in plastic-film-mulched calcareous soil under high frequency drip-fertigated condition. Therefore, a field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of nitrapyrin (2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)-pyridine) on soil mineral nitrogen (N) transformation, N2O emission and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a drip-fertigated cotton-growing calcareous field. Three treatments were established: control (no N fertilizer), urea (225 kg N ha-1) and urea+nitrapyrin (225 kg N ha-1+2.25 kg nitrapyrin ha-1). Compared with urea alone, urea plus nitrapyrin decreased the average N2O emission fluxes by 6.6–21.8% in June, July and August significantly in a drip-fertigation cycle. Urea application increased the seasonal cumulative N2O emission by 2.4 kg N ha-1 compared with control, and nitrapyrin addition significantly mitigated the seasonal N2O emission by 14.3% compared with urea only. During the main growing season, the average soil ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) concentration was 28.0% greater and soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) concentration was 13.8% less in the urea+nitrapyrin treatment than in the urea treatment. Soil NO3--N and water-filled pore space (WFPS) were more closely correlated than soil NH4+-N with soil N2O fluxes under drip-fertigated condition (P<0.001). Compared with urea alone, urea plus nitrapyrin reduced the seasonal N2O emission factor (EF) by 32.4% while increasing nitrogen use efficiency by 10.7%. The results demonstrated that nitrapyrin addition significantly inhibited soil nitrification and maintained more NH4+-N in soil, mitigated N2O losses and improved nitrogen use efficiency in plastic-film-mulched calcareous soil under high frequency drip-fertigated condition.

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<![CDATA[Transcriptome Profiling Analysis Reveals That Flavonoid and Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle Are Important during Anther Development in Upland Cotton]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa9ab0ee8fa60ba881e

Background

Previous transcriptome profiling studies have investigated the molecular mechanisms of pollen and anther development, and identified many genes involved in these processes. However, only 51 anther ESTs of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) were found in NCBI and there have been no reports of transcriptome profiling analyzing anther development in Upland cotton, a major fiber crop in the word.

Methodology/Principal Finding

Ninety-eight hundred and ninety-six high quality ESTs were sequenced from their 3′-ends and assembled into 6,643 unigenes from a normalized, full-length anther cDNA library of Upland cotton. Combined with previous sequenced anther-related ESTs, 12,244 unigenes were generated as the reference genes for digital gene expression (DGE) analysis. The DGE was conducted on anthers that were isolated at tetrad pollen (TTP), uninucleate pollen (UNP), binucleate pollen (BNP) and mature pollen (MTP) periods along with four other tissues, i.e., roots (RO), stems (ST), leaves (LV) and embryos (EB). Through transcriptome profiling analysis, we identified 1,165 genes that were enriched at certain anther development periods, and many of them were involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, pentose and glucuronate interconversion, flavonoid biosynthesis, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism.

Conclusions/Significance

We first generated a normalized, full-length cDNA library from anthers and performed transcriptome profiling analysis of anther development in Upland cotton. From these results, 10,178 anther expressed genes were identified, among which 1,165 genes were stage-enriched in anthers. And many of these stage-enriched genes were involved in some important processes regulating anther development.

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<![CDATA[Geminivirus-Mediated Delivery of Florigen Promotes Determinate Growth in Aerial Organs and Uncouples Flowering from Photoperiod in Cotton]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da07ab0ee8fa60b76153

Background

Plant architecture and the timing and distribution of reproductive structures are fundamental agronomic traits shaped by patterns of determinate and indeterminate growth. Florigen, encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis and SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT) in tomato, acts as a general growth hormone, advancing determinate growth. Domestication of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) converted it from a lanky photoperiodic perennial to a highly inbred, compact day-neutral plant that is managed as an annual row-crop. This dramatic change in plant architecture provides a unique opportunity to analyze the transition from perennial to annual growth.

Methodology/Principal Findings

To explore these architectural changes, we addressed the role of day-length upon flowering in an ancestral, perennial accession and in a domesticated variety of cotton. Using a disarmed Cotton leaf crumple virus (CLCrV) as a transient expression system, we delivered FT to both cotton accessions. Ectopic expression of FT in ancestral cotton mimicked the effects of day-length, promoting photoperiod-independent flowering, precocious determinate architecture, and lanceolate leaf shape. Domesticated cotton infected with FT demonstrated more synchronized fruiting and enhanced “annualization”. Transient expression of FT also facilitated simple crosses between wild photoperiodic and domesticated day-neutral accessions, effectively demonstrating a mechanism to increase genetic diversity among cultivated lines of cotton. Virus was not detected in the F1 progeny, indicating that crosses made by this approach do not harbor recombinant DNA molecules.

Conclusions

These findings extend our understanding of FT as a general growth hormone that regulates shoot architecture by advancing organ-specific and age-related determinate growth. Judicious manipulation of FT could benefit cotton architecture to improve crop management.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Leaves]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da54ab0ee8fa60b8e98d

This study investigated sucrose metabolism of the youngest fully expanded main-stem leaf (MSL) and the subtending leaf of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll (LSCB) of salt-tolerant (CCRI-79) and salt-sensitive (Simian 3) cultivars and its relationship to boll weight under low, medium and high soil salinity stress in Dafeng, China, in 2013 and 2014. The results showed that with increased soil salinity, 1) both the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased, while the internal CO2 concentration firstly declined, and then increased in the MSL and LSCB; 2) carbohydrate contents in the MSL reduced significantly, while sucrose and starch contents in the LSCB increased, as did the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) in both the MSL and LSCB; 3) but invertase activity in both the MSL and LSCB did not change significantly. Our study also showed that the LSCB was more sensitive to soil salinity than was the MSL. Of the measured physiological indices, higher SPS activity, mainly controlled by sps3, may contribute to adaption of the LSCB to soil salinity stress because SPS is beneficial for efficiently sucrose synthesis, reduction of cellular osmotic potential and combined actions of Pn, and sucrose transformation rate and SPS may contribute to the reduction in boll weight under soil salinity stress.

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<![CDATA[Non-Cellulosic Polysaccharides from Cotton Fibre Are Differently Impacted by Textile Processing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da76ab0ee8fa60b96c98

Cotton fibre is mainly composed of cellulose, although non-cellulosic polysaccharides play key roles during fibre development and are still present in the harvested fibre. This study aimed at determining the fate of non-cellulosic polysaccharides during cotton textile processing. We analyzed non-cellulosic cotton fibre polysaccharides during different steps of cotton textile processing using GC-MS, HPLC and comprehensive microarray polymer profiling to obtain monosaccharide and polysaccharide amounts and linkage compositions. Additionally, in situ detection was used to obtain information on polysaccharide localization and accessibility. We show that pectic and hemicellulosic polysaccharide levels decrease during cotton textile processing and that some processing steps have more impact than others. Pectins and arabinose-containing polysaccharides are strongly impacted by the chemical treatments, with most being removed during bleaching and scouring. However, some forms of pectin are more resistant than others. Xylan and xyloglucan are affected in later processing steps and to a lesser extent, whereas callose showed a strong resistance to the chemical processing steps. This study shows that non-cellulosic polysaccharides are differently impacted by the treatments used in cotton textile processing with some hemicelluloses and callose being resistant to these harsh treatments.

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<![CDATA[Highly Arid Oasis Yield, Soil Mineral N Accumulation and N Balance in a Wheat-Cotton Rotation with Drip Irrigation and Mulching Film Management]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dabbab0ee8fa60bae982

Few systematic studies have been carried out on integrated N balance in extremely arid oasis agricultural areas. A two-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the N input and output balances under long-term fertilization conditions. Five treatments were chosen, namely CK (no fertilizer), NPK, NPKS (10% straw return N and 90% chemical N), NPKM (one third urea-N, two thirds sheep manure) and NPKM+ (1.5 times NPKM). The results show an abundance of dry and wet N deposition (33 kg N ha-1 yr-1) in this area. All treatments (excluding CK) showed no significant difference in wheat production (P>0.05). NPKM gave higher cotton yields (P<0.05). In both crops, NPKM and NPKS treatments had a relatively higher N harvest index (NHI). 15N-labeled results reveal that the fertilizer N in all N treatments leached to<1 m depth and a high proportion of fertilizer-N remained in the top 60 cm of the soil profile. The NPKM+ treatment had the highest residual soil mineral N (Nmin, 558 kg Nd ha-1), and NPKM and NPKS treatments had relatively low soil Nmin values (275 and 293 kg N ha-1, respectively). Most of the treatments exhibited very high apparent N losses, especially the NPKM+ treatment (369kg N ha-1). Our arid research area had a strikingly high N loss compared to less arid agricultural areas. Nitrogen inputs therefore need careful reconsideration, especially the initial soil Nmin, fertilizer N inputs, dry and wet deposition, and appropriate organic and straw inputs which are all factors that must be taken into account under very arid conditions.

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<![CDATA[Comparative genomic study of ALDH gene superfamily in Gossypium: A focus on Gossypium hirsutum under salt stress]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf6b9

Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are a superfamily of enzymes which play important role in the scavenging of active aldehydes molecules. In present work, a comprehensive whole-genomic study of ALDH gene superfamily was carried out for an allotetraploid cultivated cotton species, G. hirsutum, as well as in parallel relative to their diploid progenitors, G. arboreum and G. raimondii. Totally, 30 and 58 ALDH gene sequences belong to 10 families were identified from diploid and allotetraploid cotton species, respectively. The gene structures among the members from same families were highly conserved. Whole-genome duplication and segmental duplication might be the major driver for the expansion of ALDH gene superfamily in G. hirsutum. In addition, the expression patterns of GhALDH genes were diverse across tissues. Most GhALDH genes were induced or repressed by salt stress in upland cotton. Our observation shed lights on the molecular evolutionary properties of ALDH genes in diploid cottons and their alloallotetraploid derivatives. It may be useful to mine key genes for improvement of cotton response to salt stress.

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<![CDATA[Deep Sequencing Reveals Differences in the Transcriptional Landscapes of Fibers from Two Cultivated Species of Cotton]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9ecab0ee8fa60b6cea0

Cotton (Gossypium) fiber is the most prevalent natural product used in the textile industry. The two major cultivated species, G. hirsutum (Gh) and G. barbadense (Gb), are allotetraploids with contrasting fiber quality properties. To better understand the molecular basis for their fiber differences, EST pyrosequencing was used to document the fiber transcriptomes at two key development stages, 10 days post anthesis (dpa), representing the peak of fiber elongation, and 22 dpa, representing the transition to secondary cell wall synthesis. The 617,000 high quality reads (89% of the total 692,000 reads) from 4 libraries were assembled into 46,072 unigenes, comprising 38,297 contigs and 7,775 singletons. Functional annotation of the unigenes together with comparative digital gene expression (DGE) revealed a diverse set of functions and processes that were partly linked to specific fiber stages. Globally, 2,770 contigs (7%) showed differential expression (>2-fold) between 10 and 22 dpa (irrespective of genotype), with 70% more highly expressed at 10 dpa, while 2,248 (6%) were differentially expressed between the genotypes (irrespective of stage). The most significant genes with differential DGE at 10 dpa included expansins and lipid transfer proteins (higher in Gb), while at 22 dpa tubulins, cellulose, and sucrose synthases showed higher expression in Gb. DGE was compared with expression data of 10 dpa-old fibers from Affymetrix microarrays. Among 543 contigs showing differential expression on both platforms, 74% were consistent in being either over-expressed in Gh (242 genes) or in Gb (161 genes). Furthermore, the unigene set served to identify 339 new SSRs and close to 21,000 inter-genotypic SNPs. Subsets of 88 SSRs and 48 SNPs were validated through mapping and added 65 new loci to a RIL genetic map. The new set of fiber ESTs and the gene-based markers complement existing available resources useful in basic and applied research for crop improvement in cotton.

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<![CDATA[A Landscape View of Agricultural Insecticide Use across the Conterminous US from 1997 through 2012]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa4ab0ee8fa60ba7098

Simplification of agricultural landscapes is expected to have positive effects on many crop pests and negative effects on their natural enemies, potentially leading to increased pest pressure, decreased crop yield, and increased insecticide use. While many intermediate links in this causal chain have empirical support, there is mixed evidence for ultimate relationships between landscape simplification, crop yield, and insecticide use, especially at large spatial and temporal scales. We explored relationships between landscape simplification (proportion of a county in harvested cropland) and insecticide use (proportion of harvested cropland treated with insecticides), using county-level data from the US Census of Agriculture and a variety of standard and spatiotemporal regression techniques. The best model indicated that insecticide use across the US has increased between 1997 and 2012, was strongly dependent on the crops grown in a county, increased with average farm income and size, and increased with annual growing degree days. After accounting for those variables, and other unidentified spatial and temporal structure in the data, there remained a statistically significant, moderate, positive relationship between insecticide use and landscape simplification. These results lend general support to the causal chain outlined above, and to the notion that a landscape perspective is useful for managing ecosystem services that are provided by mobile organisms and valuable to agriculture.

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<![CDATA[An example of host plant expansion of host-specialized Aphis gossypii Glover in the field]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60bdfe28

The host plant expansion of host-specialized Aphis gossypii (Glover) has been well studied in the laboratory; however, this phenomenon is poorly understood in the field. Here, we provide a series of laboratory and field experiments to assess the role of zucchini in the host plant expansion of cotton-specialized aphids. We observed that cotton-specialized aphids possessed the ability to expand on a new host plant (cucumber), with individuals first recorded on June 12 and consequently increasing exponentially in number in a field cage. A bioassay experiment showed that aphids from both cotton and cucumber preferred their natal host, but clones from zucchini have a stronger preference for cucumber than cotton or zucchini. A total of 1512 individuals were collected from a cotton field (mixed cotton and cucurbit plot), cotton farmland (cotton alone) and a field cage and sequenced to identify their biotypes. The results for apterous individuals from the cotton field showed that more cucurbit-specialized biotypes occurred on cucumber and more cotton-specialized biotypes occurred on cotton and zucchini. A majority (> 97.0%) of aphids from both the field cage and cotton farmland were cotton-specialized individuals. Consequently, eliminating intermediate host plants may be an effective measure to suppress A. gossypii outbreaks, because cotton and cucumber are often grown together in fields and greenhouses.

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<![CDATA[GhMCS1, the Cotton Orthologue of Human GRIM-19, Is a Subunit of Mitochondrial Complex I and Associated with Cotton Fibre Growth]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da7bab0ee8fa60b98aea

GRIM-19 (Gene associated with Retinoid-Interferon-induced Mortality 19) is a subunit of mitochondrial respiratory complex I in mammalian systems, and it has been demonstrated to be a multifunctional protein involved in the cell cycle, cell motility and innate immunity. However, little is known about the molecular functions of its homologues in plants. Here, we characterised GhMCS1, an orthologue of human GRIM-19 from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and found that it was essential for maintaining complex integrity and mitochondrial function in cotton. GhMCS1 was detected in various cotton tissues, with high levels expressed in developing fibres and flowers and lower levels in leaves, roots and ovules. In fibres at different developmental stages, GhMCS1 expression peaked at 5–15 days post anthesis (dpa) and then decreased at 20 dpa and diminished at 25 dpa. By Western blot analysis, GhMCS1 was observed to be localised to the mitochondria of cotton leaves and to colocalise with complex I. In Arabidopsis, GhMCS1 overexpression enhanced the assembly of complex I and thus respiratory activity, whereas the GhMCS1 homologue (At1g04630) knockdown mutants showed significantly decreased respiratory activities. Furthermore, the mutants presented with some phenotypic changes, such as smaller whole-plant architecture, poorly developed seeds and fewer trichomes. More importantly, in the cotton fibres, both the GhMCS1 transcript and protein levels were correlated with respiratory activity and fibre developmental phase. Our results suggest that GhMCS1, a functional ortholog of the human GRIM-19, is an essential subunit of mitochondrial complex I and is involved in cotton fibre development. The present data may deepen our knowledge on the potential roles of mitochondria in fibre morphogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Cell Suspension Culture-Mediated Incorporation of the Rice Bel Gene into Transgenic Cotton]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da16ab0ee8fa60b7b487

Cotton plants engineered for resistance to the herbicides, glyphosate or glufosinate have made a considerable impact on the production of the crop worldwide. In this work, embryogenic cell cultures derived from Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Coker 312 hypocotyl callus were transformed via Agrobacterium tumefaciens with the rice cytochrome P450 gene, CYP81A6 (bel). In rice, bel has been shown to confer resistance to both bentazon and sulfanylurea herbicides. Transformed cells were selected on a liquid medium supplemented alternately or simultaneously with kanamycin (50mg/L) and bentazon (4.2 µmol). A total of 17 transgenic cotton lines were recovered, based on the initial resistance to bentazon and on PCR detection of the bel transgene. Bel integration into the cotton genome was confirmed by Southern blot and expression of the transgene was verified by RT-PCR. In greenhouse and experimental plot trials, herbicide (bentazon) tolerance of up to 1250mg/L was demonstrated in the transgenic plants. Transgenic lines with a single copy of the bel gene showed normal Mendelian inheritance of the characteristic. Importantly, resistance to bentazon was shown to be stably incorporated in the T1, T2 and T3 generations of self-fertilised descendents and in plants outcrossed to another upland cotton cultivar. Engineering resistance to bentazon in cotton through the heterologous expression of bel opens the possibility of incorporating this trait into elite cultivars, a strategy that would give growers a more flexible alternative to weed management in cotton crops.

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