ResearchPad - crime https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Determinants of HIV testing among Filipino women: Results from the 2013 Philippine National Demographic and Health Survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13810 The prevalence of having ever tested for HIV in the Philippines is very low and is far from the 90% target of the Philippine Department of Health (DOH) and UNAIDS, thus the need to identify the factors associated with ever testing for HIV among Filipino women.MethodsWe analysed the 2013 Philippine National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). The NDHS is a nationally representative survey which utilized a two-stage stratified design to sample Filipino women aged 15–49. We considered the following exposures in our study: socio-demographic characteristics of respondent and her partner (i.e., age of respondent, age of partner, wealth index, etc.), sexual practices and contraception (i.e., age at first intercourse, condom use, etc.), media access, tobacco use, HIV knowledge, tolerance to domestic violence, and women’s empowerment. The outcome variable is HIV testing. We used logistic regression for survey data to study the said associations.ResultsOut of 16,155 respondents, only 372 (2.4%) have ever tested for HIV. After adjusting for confounders, having tertiary education (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.15; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.15–4.04), living with partner (aOR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.19–2.48), tobacco use (aOR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.13–3.11); belonging to the middle class (aOR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.30–5.67), richer (aOR = 3.00; 95% CI: 1.37–5.68), and richest (aOR = 4.14; 95% CI: 1.80–5.91) populations, having weekly television access (aOR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.04–2.94) or internet access (aOR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.35–3.00), living in a rural area (aOR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.34–2.61); and being a Muslim (aOR = 2.30; 95% CI: 1.15–4.57) were associated with ever testing for HIV.ConclusionsThe low percentage of respondents who test for HIV is a call to further strengthen efforts to promote HIV testing among Filipino women. Information on its determinants can be used to guide the crafting and implementation of interventions to promote HIV testing to meet DOH and UNAIDS targets. ]]> <![CDATA[Life within a limited radius: Investigating activity space in women with a history of child abuse using global positioning system tracking]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7709 Early experiences of childhood sexual or physical abuse are often associated with functional impairments, reduced well-being and interpersonal problems in adulthood. Prior studies have addressed whether the traumatic experience itself or adult psychopathology is linked to these limitations. To approach this question, individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and healthy individuals with and without a history of child abuse were investigated. We used global positioning system (GPS) tracking to study temporal and spatial limitations in the participants’ real-life activity space over the course of one week. The sample consisted of 228 female participants: 150 women with PTSD and emotional instability with a history of child abuse, 35 mentally healthy women with a history of child abuse (healthy trauma controls, HTC) and 43 mentally healthy women without any traumatic experiences in their past (healthy controls, HC). Both traumatized groups—i.e. the PTSD and the HTC group—had smaller movement radii than the HC group on the weekends, but neither spent significantly less time away from home than HC. Some differences between PTSD and HC in movement radius seem to be related to correlates of PTSD psychopathology, like depression and physical health. Yet group differences between HTC and HC in movement radius remained even when contextual and individual health variables were included in the model, indicating specific effects of traumatic experiences on activity space. Experiences of child abuse could limit activity space later in life, regardless of whether PTSD develops.

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<![CDATA[Effectiveness of the Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) in reducing intimate partner violence and hazardous alcohol use in Zambia (VATU): A randomized controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3889b1ed-7187-41ba-b4d5-94f42ba3d649

Background

Both intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol misuse are highly prevalent, and partner alcohol misuse is a significant contributor to women’s risk for IPV. There are few evidence-based interventions to address these problems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We evaluated the effectiveness of an evidence-based, multi-problem, flexible, transdiagnostic intervention, the Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) in reducing (a) women’s experience of IPV and (b) their male partner’s alcohol misuse among couples in urban Zambia.

Methods and findings

This was a single-blind, parallel-assignment randomized controlled trial in Lusaka, Zambia. Women who reported moderate or higher levels of IPV and their male partners with hazardous alcohol use were enrolled as a couple and randomized to CETA or treatment as usual plus safety checks (TAU-Plus). The primary outcome, IPV, was assessed by the Severity of Violence Against Women Scale (SVAWS) physical/sexual violence subscale, and the secondary outcome, male alcohol misuse, by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Assessors were blinded. Analyses were intent-to-treat. Primary outcome assessments were planned at post-treatment, 12 months post-baseline, and 24 months post-baseline. Enrollment was conducted between May 23, 2016, and December 17, 2016. In total, 123 couples were randomized to CETA, 125 to TAU-Plus. The majority of female (66%) and a plurality of male (48%) participants were between 18 and 35 years of age. Mean reduction in IPV (via SVAWS subscale score) at 12 months post-baseline was statistically significantly greater among women who received CETA compared to women who received TAU-Plus (−8.2, 95% CI −14.9 to −1.5, p = 0.02, Cohen’s d effect size = 0.49). Similarly, mean reduction in AUDIT score at 12 months post-baseline was statistically significantly greater among men who received CETA compared to men who received TAU (−4.5, 95% CI −6.9 to −2.2, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d effect size = 0.43). The Data and Safety Monitoring Board recommended the trial be stopped early due to treatment effectiveness following the 12-month post-baseline assessment, and CETA was offered to control participants. Limitations of the trial included the lack of a true control condition (i.e., that received no intervention), self-reported outcomes that may be subject to social desirability bias, and low statistical power for secondary IPV outcomes.

Conclusions

Results showed that CETA was more effective than TAU-Plus in reducing IPV and hazardous alcohol use among high-risk couples in Zambia. Future research and programming should include tertiary prevention approaches to IPV, such as CETA, rather than offering only community mobilization and primary prevention.

Trial registration

The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02790827).

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<![CDATA[Matching response to need: What makes social networks fit for providing bereavement support?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8accc6d5eed0c48498ff77

The objectives of this study were to explore the goodness of fit between the bereaved peoples’ needs and the support offered by their social networks; to ascertain whether this support was experienced as helpful or unhelpful by bereaved people; and to explore both the types of social networks that offer effective support and the characteristics of the communities that encourage and nurture such networks. This study was based on qualitative interviews from twenty bereaved people, in Western Australia, interviewed in 2013. A framework analysis of these interviews was undertaken using a deductive approach based on the goodness of fit framework. Much of this support is provided informally in community settings by a range of people already involved in the everyday lives of those recently bereaved; and that support can be helpful or unhelpful depending on its amount, timing, function and structure. Improving the fit between the bereaved person’s needs and the support offered may thus involve identifying and enhancing the caring capacity of existing networks. An important strategy for achieving this is to train community members in mapping and developing these naturally occurring networks. Some such networks will include relationships of long standing, others may be circles of care formed during a period of caring. Peer support bereavement networks develop from these existing networks and may also recruit new members who were not part of the caring circle. The findings endorse social models of bereavement care that fit within a public health approach rather than relying solely on professional care. As exemplified by Compassionate Communities policies and practices, establishing collaboration between community networks and professional services is vital for effective and sustainable bereavement care.

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<![CDATA[Linking childhood emotional abuse and depressive symptoms: The role of emotion dysregulation and interpersonal problems]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f149dd5eed0c48467a3fc

Childhood abuse is a major public health problem that has been linked to depression in adulthood. Although different types of childhood abuse often co-occur, few studies have examined their unique impact on negative mental health outcomes. Most studies have focused solely on the consequences of childhood physical or sexual abuse; however, it has been suggested that childhood emotional abuse is more strongly related to depression. It remains unclear which underlying psychological processes mediate the effect of childhood emotional abuse on depressive symptoms. In a cross-sectional study in 276 female college students, multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine whether childhood emotional abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse were independently associated with depressive symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and interpersonal problems. Subsequently, OLS regression analyses were used to determine whether emotion dysregulation and interpersonal problems mediate the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and depressive symptoms. Of all types of abuse, only emotional abuse was independently associated with depressive symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and interpersonal problems. The effect of childhood emotional abuse on depressive symptoms was mediated by emotion dysregulation and the following domains of interpersonal problems: cold/distant and domineering/controlling. The results of the current study indicate that detection and prevention of childhood emotional abuse deserves attention from Child Protective Services. Finally, interventions that target emotion regulation skills and interpersonal skills may be beneficial in prevention of depression.

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<![CDATA[White noise speech illusions in the general population: The association with psychosis expression and risk factors for psychosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe35d5eed0c484e5b70f

Introduction

Positive psychotic experiences are associated with increased rate of white noise speech illusions in patients and their relatives. However, findings have been conflicting to what degree speech illusions are associated with subclinical expression of psychosis in the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between speech illusions and positive psychotic experiences in a general population sample. In addition, the hypothesis that speech illusions are on the pathway from known risk factors for psychosis (childhood adversity and recent life events) to subthreshold expression of psychosis, was examined.

Methods

In a follow-up design (baseline and 6 months) the association between the number of white noise speech illusions and self-reported psychotic experiences, assessed with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), was investigated in a general population sample (n = 112). In addition, associations between speech illusions and childhood adversity and life events, using the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse questionnaire and the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, were investigated.

Results

No association was found between the CAPE positive scale and the number of white noise speech illusions. The CAPE positive scale was significantly associated with childhood adversity between 12 and 16 years (B = 0.980 p = 0.001) and life events (B = 0.488 p = 0.044). The number of speech illusions showed no association with either life events or childhood adversity.

Conclusion

In the nonclinical population, the pathway from risk factors to expression of subclinical psychotic experiences does not involve white noise speech illusions as an intermediate outcome.

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<![CDATA[The prevalence of religiosity and association between religiosity and alcohol use, other drug use, and risky sexual behaviours among grade 8-10 learners in Western Cape, South Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca34d5eed0c48452a8c1

Background

Alcohol and other drug use (AOD) and risky sexual behaviours remain high among adolescents in South Africa and globally. Religiosity influences, mitigates and provides resilience against engaging in risky behaviours among young people but few South African studies have explored potential associations between religiosity, AOD use and risky sex. We report the prevalence of religiosity and association between religiosity and AOD use and risky sexual behaviours among learners in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

Methods

Between May and August 2011, a cross sectional survey was conducted among 20 227 learners from 240 public schools randomly selected through a stratified multistage sampling design to determine the prevalence of AOD use and sexual risk behaviours. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the association between religiosity, AOD use and risky sexual behaviours.

Results

The learners were aged 10–23 years. Almost three quarters (74%) of learners reported high religiosity (defined as attending religious services or activities at least 1–2 times a month). More female than male learners had high religiosity. The prevalence of past 30 day reported alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use was 23%, 19% and 8% respectively. Compared to learners with low religiosity, those with high religiosity were less likely to engage in AOD use: specifically alcohol use, (AOR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.76–0.97), tobacco use (AOR = 0.76, 95%CI: 0.67–0.87), cannabis use (AOR = 0.57, 95%CI: 0.48–0.68) in the last 30 days. They were also less likely to engage in risky sexual behaviours (AOR = 0.90, 95%CI: 0.81–0.99).

Conclusion

Religiosity was associated with lower odds of reported AOD use and risky sexual behaviours among learners in the Western Cape. This calls for further exploration on how to incorporate religiosity into AOD use and risky sexual behaviour interventions.

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<![CDATA[Violence against Afghan women by husbands, mothers-in-law and siblings-in-law/siblings: Risk markers and health consequences in an analysis of the baseline of a randomised controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c65dce9d5eed0c484dec55d

Background

Violence by mothers-in-law, as well as husbands, is a recognised problem in many countries. It has been given little attention in research on violence and its importance as a health problem, and aggravator of husband violence, has not been well established. Our aim was to describe patterns and the frequency of mother-in-law and sibling-in-law/sibling physical violence in relation to physical violence from husbands, and to describe risk characteristics and associated health behaviours of women with different abuse exposures.

Methods

1,463 women aged 18–48 were recruited into a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate a women empowerment intervention in 6 villages of Kabul and Nangarhar provinces. The women were interviewed at baseline. The analysis uses bi-variable and multivariable logistic regression.

Results

932 of the women were currently married. Of these, 14% of women experienced mother-in-law physical violence and 23.2% of women experienced physical spousal violence in the previous 12 months. For 7.0% of women, these exposures were combined. Physical violence was associated with food insecurity and having to borrow for food, being in a polygamous marriage, living with their mother-in-law, as well as province of residence (higher in Nangarhar). Women who had earnings were relatively protected. Whilst most mothers-in-law were described in positive terms, those who used physical violence were much less likely to be described so and a quarter were described as very strict and controlling and 16.8% as cruel. Overall slightly more women described their husband in positive terms than their mother-in-law, but there was a very strong correlation between the way in which husbands were perceived and the violence of their mothers.

Women’s mental health (depression, suicidal thoughts and PTSD symptoms score), self-rated general health, disability and beating of their children were all strongly associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure. The strength of the association was much greater for all of these problems if the IPV was combined with physical violence from a mother-in-law or sibling-in-law/sibling. Experienced alone, violence from the mother-in-law or a sibling-in-law/sibling was associated with an elevated risk of all of these problems except depression.

Interpretation

Mother-in-law and sibling-in-law/sibling physical violence is an appreciable problem among the women studied in Afghanistan, linked to poverty. It has a major impact on women’s health, componding the heath impact of IPV. In this setting conceptualising women’s risk and exposure to violence at home as only in terms of IPV is inadequate and the framing of domestic violence much more appropriately captures women’s risks and exposures. We suggest that it may be fruitful for many women to target violence prevention at the domestic unit rather than just at women and their husbands.

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<![CDATA[Adolescent offenders' current whereabouts predict locations of their future crimes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b529fd5eed0c4842bcce5

Knowing where crime is likely to happen can help prevent it. Here I investigate whether two basic mechanisms of human mobility—preferential return and spatial exploration—explain and predict where offenders commit future crimes. A sample of 843 adolescents reported their hourly whereabouts during four days. In line with findings from other sources and populations, their locations were concentrated and predictable. During the subsequent four years, 70 of the 843 were apprehended for committing one or more crimes. Compared to others, these 70 future offenders had visited slightly more different locations. However, their action radius and the predictability of their whereabouts had been very similar to those who would not become offenders. The offenders perpetrated most of their crimes around places they had visited before, including places where they previously offended. These findings show that the predictability of human mobility applies to offending and to offenders as well, and helps us understand and forecast where they will commit future crimes. They may prove particularly useful in criminal investigations, as they suggest that police should generally prioritize suspects who are familiar with the location of the crime and its environs, either because of their legal routine activities or because of their prior offences.

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<![CDATA[Human trafficking and labor exploitation: Toward identifying, implementing, and evaluating effective responses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59ff0ed5eed0c4841359d5

In an Editorial, Ligia Kiss and Cathy Zimmerman discuss the need for research on the prevention of human trafficking and mitigation of its effects.

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<![CDATA[Correlated impulses: Using Facebook interests to improve predictions of crime rates in urban areas]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c61e910d5eed0c48496f765

Much research has examined how crime rates vary across urban neighborhoods, focusing particularly on community-level demographic and social characteristics. A parallel line of work has treated crime at the individual level as an expression of certain behavioral patterns (e.g., impulsivity). Little work has considered, however, whether the prevalence of such behavioral patterns in a neighborhood might be predictive of local crime, in large part because such measures are hard to come by and often subjective. The Facebook Advertising API offers a special opportunity to examine this question as it provides an extensive list of “interests” that can be tabulated at various geographic scales. Here we conduct an analysis of the association between the prevalence of interests among the Facebook population of a ZIP code and the local rate of assaults, burglaries, and robberies across 9 highly populated cities in the US. We fit various regression models to predict crime rates as a function of the Facebook and census demographic variables. In general, models using the variables for the interests of the whole adult population on Facebook perform better than those using data on specific demographic groups (such as Males 18-34). In terms of predictive performance, models combining Facebook data with demographic data generally have lower error rates than models using only demographic data. We find that interests associated with media consumption and mating competition are predictive of crime rates above and beyond demographic factors. We discuss how this might integrate with existing criminological theory.

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<![CDATA[Context for layering women’s nutrition interventions on a large scale poverty alleviation program: Evidence from three eastern Indian states]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c50c47dd5eed0c4845e881d

Over 70 million women of reproductive age are undernourished in India. Most poverty alleviation programs have not been systematically evaluated to assess impact on women’s empowerment and nutrition outcomes. National Rural Livelihoods Mission’s poverty alleviation and livelihoods generation initiative is an opportune platform to layer women’s nutrition interventions being tapped by project Swabhimaan in three eastern Indian states—Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Odisha. A cross-sectional baseline survey covering 8755 mothers of children under-two years of age, one of the three primary target groups of program are presented. Standardized questionnaire was administered and anthropometric measurements were undertaken from October 2016 to January 2017. 21 indicators on women’s empowerment, Body Mass Index and Mid-upper Arm Circumference for nutrition status, food insecurity indicators as per the Food Insecurity Experience Scale and selected indicators for assessing women’s access to basic health services were included. National Rural Livelihoods Mission operates in contexts with stark social and gender inequalities. Self-help group members exhibited better control on financial resources and participation in community activities than non-members. Using Body Mass Index, at least 45% mothers were undernourished irrespective of their enrolment in self-help groups. Higher proportion of self-help group members (77%-87%) belonged to food insecure households than non-members (66%-83%). Proportion of mothers reporting receipt of various components of antenatal care service package varied from over 90% for tetanus toxoid vaccination to less than 10% for height measurement. Current use of family planning methods was excruciatingly low (8.2%-32.4%) in all states but positively skewed towards self-help group members. Participation in monthly fixed day health camps was a concern in Bihar. Layering women’s nutrition interventions as stipulated under Swabhimaan may yield better results for women’s empowerment and nutrition status under National Rural Livelihoods Mission. While this opportunity exists in all three states, Bihar with a higher proportion of matured self-help groups offers more readiness for Swabhimaan implementation.

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<![CDATA[Negative mood induction: Affective reactivity in recurrent, but not persistent depression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c478c6fd5eed0c484bd24e8

Background

Despite the high clinical and epidemiological relevance of persistent depression, little is known about its specific psychopathology and whether it is distinct from recurrent depression. Depression in general has been associated with blunted affective reactivity but the evidence from previous studies is inconsistent. Here, we asked whether affective reactivity might differ between persistent and recurrent depression.

Methods

Twenty patients with persistent depression, 20 patients with recurrent depression and 20 healthy controls (HC) were recruited. Both patient groups showed moderate symptom severity. All participants underwent a sad mood induction procedure. Affective reactivity was assessed with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) before and after mood induction.

Results

We found a striking difference in affective reactivity between patient groups. While the persistent group showed blunted reactivity to mood induction, the recurrent group demonstrated an affective response that was comparable to HC, with an increase in negative and a decrease in positive affect. Blunted affective reactivity was thus specifically associated with persistent in contrast to recurrent depression.

Conclusions

These results highlight affective reactivity as an important psychopathological feature that differs between the two patient groups. Preserved affective reactivity to emotional stimuli in the recurrent group might reflect a resilience factor against persistence of depression.

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<![CDATA[<i>PLoS Medicine</i> Issue Image | Vol. 16(1) January 2019]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca27bd5eed0c48441e474

Human trafficking and labor exploitation: Toward identifying, implementing, and evaluating effective responses

Worldwide, some 25 million people are estimated to be victims of human trafficking, including migrant workers who are subject to different forms of serious exploitation and abuse. In an Editorial, Ligia Kiss and Cathy Zimmerman discuss the need for researchers to move beyond documentation of the nature of trafficking phenomena and the contexts in which they occur, and aim to understand the different settings and relevant causal factors. Appropriate research methods can then be evaluated and used to investigate approaches aimed at the prevention of human trafficking and mitigation of its damaging and prolonged effects on the people and families involved.

Image Credit: Free-Photos, Pixabay

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<![CDATA[Are we validly assessing major depression disorder risk and associated factors among mothers of young children? A cross-sectional study involving home visitation programs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3d0182d5eed0c48403c018

Failure to account for misclassification error accruing from imperfect case-finding instruments can produce biased estimates of suspected major depression disorder (MDD) risk factor associations. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of misclassification error on the magnitude of measures of association between suspected risk factors and MDD assessed using the Center of Epidemiological Studies on Depression—Short Form during the prenatal and postnatal periods. Baseline data were collected from 520 mothers participating in two home visitation studies in Oklahoma City between 2010 and 2014. A Bayesian binomial latent class model was used to compare the prevalence proportion ratio (PPR) between suspected risk factors and MDD with and without adjustment for misclassification error and confounding by period of MDD symptom on-set. Adjustment for misclassification error and confounding by period of MDD on-set (prenatal vs postnatal) showed that the association between suspected risk factors and MDD is underestimated (-) and overestimated (+) differentially in different source populations of low-income mothers. The median bias in the magnitude of PPR estimates ranged between -.47 (95% Bayesian Credible Intervals [BCI]: -10.67, 1.90) for intimate partner violence to +.06 (95%BCI: -0.37, 0.47) for race/ethnicity among native-born US residents. Among recent Hispanic immigrants, bias ranged from -.77 (95%BCI: -15.31, 0.96) for history of childhood maltreatment to +.10 (95%BCI: -0.17, 0.39) for adequacy of family resources. Overall, the extent of bias on measures of association between maternal MDD and suspected risk factors is considerable without adjustment for misclassification error and is even higher for confounding by period of MDD assessment. Consideration of these biases in MDD prevention research is warranted.

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<![CDATA[Does a history of sexual and physical childhood abuse contribute to HIV infection risk in adulthood? A study among post-natal women in Harare, Zimbabwe]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c390bb2d5eed0c48491ddfa

Background

Sexual and physical abuse in childhood creates a great health burden including on mental and reproductive health. A possible link between child abuse and HIV infection has increasingly attracted attention. This paper investigated whether a history of child physical and sexual abuse is associated with HIV infection among adult women.

Methods

A cross sectional survey was conducted among 2042 postnatal women (mean age = 26y) attending six public primary health care clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe within 6 weeks post-delivery. Clinic records were reviewed for mother’s antenatal HIV status. Participants were interviewed about childhood abuse including physical or sexual abuse before 15 years of age, forced first sex before 16, HIV risk factors such as age difference at first sex before age 16. Multivariate analyses assessed the associations between mother’s HIV status and child physical and sexual abuse while controlling for confounding variables.

Results

More than one in four (26.6%) reported abuse before the age of 15: 14.6% physical abuse and 9.1% sexual abuse,14.3% reported forced first sex and 9.0% first sex before 16 with someone 5+ years older. Fifteen percent of women tested HIV positive during the recent antenatal care visit. In multivariate analysis, childhood physical abuse (aOR 3.30 95%CI 1.58–6.90), sexual abuse (3.18 95%CI: 1.64–6.19), forced first sex (aOR 1.42, 95%CI: 1.00–2.02), and 5+ years age difference with first sex partner (aOR 1.66 95%CI 1.09–2.53) were independently associated with HIV infection.

Conclusion

This study highlights that child physical and/or sexual abuse may increase risk for HIV acquisition. Further research is needed to assess the pathways to HIV acquisition from childhood to adulthood. Prevention of child abuse must form part of the HIV prevention agenda in Sub-Saharan Africa.

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<![CDATA[Child protection outcomes of the Australian Nurse Family Partnership Program for Aboriginal infants and their mothers in Central Australia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141ec6d5eed0c484d28300

Background

The Nurse Family Partnership Program developed in the USA, designed to improve mother and infant/child outcomes, has reported lower rates of child protection system involvement. The study tested the hypothesis that an adapted Nurse Family Partnership Program implemented in an Aboriginal community in Central Australia (the FPP) would improve Child Protection outcomes.

Methods

This was a retrospective and prospective cohort study drawing on linked administrative data, including birth registry, primary health care client information system, FPP program data, and child protection data. Participants were children of women eligible for the FPP program (an exposed and a control group of women, eligible but not referred) live-born between 1/3/2009 (program commencement) and 31/12/2015. Child protection data covered all reports, investigations, substantiations and out-of-home care placements from the time of the child’s birth to 31/12/2016. Generalised linear modelling was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of involvement with child protection and type of involvement (report, investigation, substantiation, out-of-home-care placement) among FPP and control children.

Results

FPP mothers (n = 291) were on average younger, were more likely to be first-time mothers and experiencing housing instability than control mothers (n = 563). Among younger mothers ≤20 years, FPP children had statistically significantly lower rates of involvement with child protection (ARRreport = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.82; ARRinvestigation = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.64; ARRsubstantiation = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.96) and experience fewer days in care (ARR = 0.10, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.48). Among children of first-time mothers, FPP children also had statistically significantly lower rates of involvement with child protection (ARRreport = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.83; ARRinvestigation = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.67; ARRsubstantiation = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.18 to 0.80) and fewer days in care (ARR = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.27).

Conclusion

Study results suggest a modified Nurse Family Partnership delivered by an Indigenous community-controlled organisation may have reduced child protection system involvement in a highly vulnerable First Nations population, especially in younger or first-time mothers. Testing these results with an RCT design is desirable.

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<![CDATA[Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form for inpatients with schizophrenia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0b0fd5eed0c484427365

Background

The evaluation of childhood trauma is essential for the treatment of schizophrenia. The short form of Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF) is a widely used measure of the experience of childhood trauma in the general population. Nevertheless, data regarding the psychometric property of CTQ-SF for assessing childhood trauma of patients with schizophrenia are very limited.

Methods

Two hundred Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia completed the Chinese CTQ-SF, the Child Psychological Maltreatment Scale (CPMS), the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II). To assess test-retest reliability of the CTQ-SF, all patients completed the CTQ-SF again two weeks later. Concurrent and convergent validity was assessed by analyzing Pearson bivariate correlation coefficients between CTQ-SF and CPMS, IES-R, and DES-II.

Results

The Cronbach’s α coefficient of the Chinese CTQ-SF was 0.81, and the two-week re-test reliability was 0.81 (P<0.01). The criterion-related validity coefficients of CTQ-SF with the CMPS, IES-R and DES-II were 0.61, 0.41, and 0.51, respectively.

Conclusion

The Chinese CTQ-SF has satisfactory psychometric properties to measure childhood abuse or neglect in Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia.

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<![CDATA[Epidemiological characteristics and determinants of dengue transmission during epidemic and non-epidemic years in Fortaleza, Brazil: 2011-2015]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ed74cd5eed0c484f13e7f

Background

After being eliminated during the 1950s, dengue reemerged in Brazil in the 1980s. Since then, incidence of the disease has increased, as serotypes move within and between cities. The co-circulation of multiple serotypes contributes to cycles of epidemic and interepidemic years, and a seasonal pattern of transmission is observed annually. Little is known regarding possible differences in the epidemiology of dengue under epidemic and interepidemic scenarios. This study addresses this gap and aims to assess the epidemiological characteristics and determinants of epidemic and interepidemic dengue transmission, utilizing data from the 5th largest city in Brazil (Fortaleza), at fine spatial and temporal scales.

Methods/Principal findings

Longitudinal models of monthly rates of confirmed dengue cases were used to estimate the differential contribution of contextual factors to dengue transmission in Fortaleza between 2011 and 2015. Models were stratified by annual climatological schedules and periods of interepidemic and epidemic transmission, controlling for social, economic, structural, entomological, and environmental factors. Results revealed distinct seasonal patterns between interepidemic and epidemic years, with persistent transmission after June in interepidemic years. Dengue was strongly associated with violence across strata, and with poverty and irregular garbage collection during periods of low transmission, but not with other indicators of public service provision or structural deprivation. Scrapyards and sites associated with tire storage were linked to incidence differentially between seasons, with the strongest associations during transitional precipitation periods. Hierarchical clustering analysis suggests that the dengue burden concentrates in the southern periphery of the city, particularly during periods of minimal transmission.

Conclusions/Significance

Our findings have direct programmatic implications. Vector control operations must be sustained after June even in non-epidemic years. More specifically, scrapyards and sites associated with tires (strongly associated with incidence during periods of minimal transmission), require sustained entomological surveillance, particularly during interepidemic intervals and in the urban periphery. Intersectoral collaborations that address urban violence are critical for facilitating the regular activities of vector control agents.

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<![CDATA[Development and implementation of a pediatric adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and other determinants of health questionnaire in the pediatric medical home: A pilot study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1ab855d5eed0c4840279c7

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are associated with poor health outcomes, underlining the significance of early identification and intervention. Currently, there is no validated tool to screen for ACEs exposure in childhood. To fill this gap, we designed and implemented a pediatric ACEs questionnaire in an urban pediatric Primary Care Clinic. Questionnaire items were selected and modified based on literature review of existing childhood adversity tools. Children twelve years and under were screened via caregiver report, using the developed instrument. Cognitive interviews were conducted with caregivers, health providers, and clinic staff to assess item interpretation, clarity, and English/Spanish language equivalency. Using a rapid cycle assessment, information gained from the interviews were used to iteratively change the instrument. Additional questions assessed acceptability of screening within primary care and preferences around administration. Twenty-eight (28) caregivers were administered the questionnaire. Cognitive interviews conducted among caregivers and among 16 health providers and clinic staff resulted in the changes in wording and addition of examples in the items to increase face validity. In the final instrument, no new items were added; however, two items were merged and one item was split into three separate items. While there was a high level of acceptability of the overall questionnaire, some caregivers reported discomfort with the sexual abuse, separation from caregiver, and community violence items. Preference for methods of administration were split between tablet and paper formats. The final Pediatric ACE and other Determinants of Health Questionnaire is a 17-item instrument with high face validity and acceptability for use within primary care settings. Further evaluation on the reliability and construct validity of the instrument is being conducted prior to wide implementation in pediatric practice.

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