ResearchPad - culture https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The two types of society: Computationally revealing recurrent social formations and their evolutionary trajectories]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13873 Comparative social science has a long history of attempts to classify societies and cultures in terms of shared characteristics. However, only recently has it become feasible to conduct quantitative analysis of large historical datasets to mathematically approach the study of social complexity and classify shared societal characteristics. Such methods have the potential to identify recurrent social formations in human societies and contribute to social evolutionary theory. However, in order to achieve this potential, repeated studies are needed to assess the robustness of results to changing methods and data sets. Using an improved derivative of the Seshat: Global History Databank, we perform a clustering analysis of 271 past societies from sampling points across the globe to study plausible categorizations inherent in the data. Analysis indicates that the best fit to Seshat data is five subclusters existing as part of two clearly delineated superclusters (that is, two broad “types” of society in terms of social-ecological configuration). Our results add weight to the idea that human societies form recurrent social formations by replicating previous studies with different methods and data. Our results also contribute nuance to previously established measures of social complexity, illustrate diverse trajectories of change, and shed further light on the finite bounds of human social diversity.

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<![CDATA[Stereoscopic optimization of industrial structure of the equipment manufacturing industry from the perspective of collaborative emissions reduction: Evidence from China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11230 Equipment manufacturing industry is one of the major industries of the Chinese economy. Previous researches have revealed that the industry has dilemmas of unreasonable industrial structure and high pollution. Using the data of 30 provinces in 2006-2015 in China, this study calculated a comprehensive pollution indicator when estimating the possible pollution reduction brought by the optimization of industrial structure and then evaluated the reasonable level of capital allocation of provinces and industries by using the methods of nonlinear programming and stochastic frontier method. Under the target of collaborative emission reduction, the results show that the optimized output of China’s equipment manufacturing industry could be increased by 5.42%, the energy intensity could be reduced by about 10.4%, and the comprehensive emission intensity could be reduced by about 7.47%. Due to the industry heterogeneity and regional heterogeneity, industrial capacity should be transferred between industries and regions. Since the capital investment in the equipment manufacturing industry is significantly mismatched between industries and regions, the capital allocation of provincial industries in China needs to be adjusted properly. This study provides theoretically and practically reference for collaborative pollution reduction, industry restructure, spatial layout and capital investment, which contributes to achieving the stereoscopic optimization of equipment manufacturing industry.

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<![CDATA[A descriptive cross sectional study comparing barriers and determinants of physical activity of Sri Lankan middle aged and older adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7830 Benefits of physical activities are numerous. Barriers for physical exercise may differ among middle aged and older adults. Therefore, identifying and comparing the barriers for participating in regular physical exercises among middle aged and older adults will be useful in designing age specific physical exercise programmes.MethodsThis descriptive cross sectional study was carried out among 206 Sri Lankan adults in the age range of 40–84 years in the Colombo North region of Sri Lanka using culturally validated questionnaires to determine and compare the barriers and factors associated with regular physical activity participation. Majority were males (56%) and 54% were < 60 years. People in the age range of 40–59 years were considered as middle age and ≥ 60 years as older adults. Bivariate analysis and multivariate analysis was carried out to determine the significant factors that are associated with regular physical activity participation.ResultsLack of free time (52%), feeling too lazy (26%) and bad weather (29%) were the main barriers for the participants. In < 60 years, high level of income (p = 0.008) and in ≥ 60 years, being a male (p = 0.016), having a high level of education (P = 0.002) and a high BMI (p = 0.002) had a significant negative association with the level of physical activities.ConclusionsContrary to findings from surveys in several developed countries, this study showed that having a high level of education and being a male were strongly related with lack of physical activity participation. ]]> <![CDATA[Understanding ambivalence in help-seeking for suicidal people with comorbid depression and alcohol misuse]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5bd48253-819c-499c-aeec-83c12fc90159

Help-seeking prior to a suicide attempt is poorly understood. Participants were recruited from a previous research trial who reported a history of suicidal behaviours upon follow-up. Qualitative interviews were conducted with six adults to understand their lived experience of a suicide attempt and the issues affecting help-seeking prior to that attempt. Participants described being aware of personal and professional supports available; however, were ambivalent about accessing them for multiple reasons. This paper employs an ecological systems framework to better understand the complex and multi-layered interpersonal, societal and cultural challenges to help-seeking that people with suicidal ideation can experience.

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<![CDATA[Development of a novel, high‐throughput screening tool for efficient perfusion‐based cell culture process development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd3b05775-5795-4f40-ac2c-e27599441829

Abstract

Perfusion technology has been successfully used for the commercial production of biotherapeutics, in particular unstable recombinant proteins, for more than a decade. However, there has been a general lack of high‐throughput cell culture tools specifically for perfusion‐based cell culture processes. Here, we have developed a high‐throughput cell retention operation for use with the ambr® 15 bioreactor system. Experiments were run in both 24 and 48 reactor configurations for comparing perfusion mimic models, media development, and clone screening. Employing offline centrifugation for cell retention and a variable volume model developed with MATLAB computational software, the established screening model has demonstrated cell culture performance, productivity, and product quality were comparable to bench scale bioreactors. The automated, single use, high‐throughput perfusion mimic is a powerful tool that enables us to have rapid and efficient process development of perfusion‐based cell culture processes.

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<![CDATA[Framework for advancing rigorous research]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N328f6937-f161-45e0-b425-111f053b4a66

There is a pressing need to increase the rigor of research in the life and biomedical sciences. To address this issue, we propose that communities of 'rigor champions' be established to campaign for reforms of the research culture that has led to shortcomings in rigor. These communities of rigor champions would also assist in the development and adoption of a comprehensive educational platform that would teach the principles of rigorous science to researchers at all career stages.

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<![CDATA[Real‐time quantification and supplementation of bioreactor amino acids to prolong culture time and maintain antibody product quality]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6f61ecd6-9c31-436c-9024-063094a9a877

Abstract

Real‐time monitoring of cell cultures in bioreactors can enable expedited responses necessary to correct potential batch failure perturbations which may normally go undiscovered until the completion of the batch and result in failure. Currently, analytical technologies are dedicated to real‐time monitoring of bioreactor parameters such as pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature, nutrients such as glucose and glutamine, or metabolites such as lactate. Despite the importance of amino acids as the building blocks of therapeutic protein products, other than glutamine their concentrations are not commonly measured. Here, we present a study into amino acid monitoring, supplementation strategies, and how these techniques may impact the cell growth profiles and product quality. We used preliminary bioreactor runs to establish baselines by determining initial amino acid consumption patterns, the results of which were used to select a pool of amino acids which gets depleted in the bioreactor. These amino acids were combined into blends which were supplemented into bioreactors during a subsequent run, the concentrations of which were monitored using a mass spectrometry based at‐line method we developed to quickly assess amino acid concentrations from crude bioreactor media. We found that these blends could prolong culture life, reversing a viable cell density decrease that was leading to batch death. Additionally, we assessed how these strategies might impact protein product quality, such as the glycan profile. The amino acid consumption data were aligned with the final glycan profiles in principal component analysis to identify which amino acids are most closely associated with glycan outcomes.

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<![CDATA[The role of moral reasoning & personality in explaining lyrical preferences]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N58765145-20be-4ad7-966a-c2141b60fcef

Previous research has supported that personality traits can act to a precursor to media preferences. Due to the ongoing association between morality and media preferences in public and political discourse (e.g., blaming immoral behaviours on media preferences), this research sought to expand the knowledge about factors that contribute to media preferences by investigating if moral reasoning styles explain some of the variance that was not already explained by personality traits. A specific form of media preferences were chosen – lyrical preferences in metal music – as claims between metal lyrical themes and behaviour have been ongoing since the 1980s, despite a lack of empirical evidence to support these claims. A lyrical preferences scale was developed, and utilizing this scale, it was found that different types of metal fans exhibit different moral reasoning styles dependent on their metal sub-genre identification. Further, it was found that moral reasoning styles explain a portion of the variance in lyrical preferences that weren’t already explained by personality traits. In particular, lyrical preferences were often thematically consistent with moral reasoning content and personality traits, such as that individuals that preferred lyrics about celebrating metal culture and unity had higher levels of the group loyalty moral reasoning domain alongside being higher in extraversion. The implications of moral reasoning styles and personality traits as being precursors to media preferences are discussed.

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<![CDATA[Parallelized microscale fed-batch cultivation in online-monitored microtiter plates: implications of media composition and feed strategies for process design and performance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1cdbe9e8-748c-4f6e-890d-3e880524e985

Limited throughput represents a substantial drawback during bioprocess development. In recent years, several commercial microbioreactor systems have emerged featuring parallelized experimentation with optical monitoring. However, many devices remain limited to batch mode and do not represent the fed-batch strategy typically applied on an industrial scale. A workflow for 32-fold parallelized microscale cultivation of protein secreting Corynebacterium glutamicum in microtiter plates incorporating online monitoring, pH control and feeding was developed and validated. Critical interference of the essential media component protocatechuic acid with pH measurement was revealed, but was effectively resolved by 80% concentration reduction without affecting biological performance. Microfluidic pH control and feeding (pulsed, constant and exponential) were successfully implemented: Whereas pH control improved performance only slightly, feeding revealed a much higher optimization potential. Exponential feeding with µ = 0.1 h−1 resulted in the highest product titers. In contrast, other performance indicators such as biomass-specific or volumetric productivity resulted in different optimal feeding regimes.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (10.1007/s10295-019-02243-w) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[Delays in arrival and treatment in emergency departments: Women, children and non-trauma consultations the most at risk in humanitarian settings]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823bcd5eed0c484638f1b

Introduction

Delays in arrival and treatment at health facilities lead to negative health outcomes. Individual and external factors could be associated with these delays. This study aimed to assess common factors associated with arrival and treatment delays in the emergency departments (ED) of three hospitals in humanitarian settings.

Methodology

This was a cross-sectional study based on routine data collected from three MSF-supported hospitals in Afghanistan, Haiti and Sierra Leone. We calculated the proportion of consultations with delay in arrival (>24 hours) and in treatment (based on target time according to triage categories). We used a multinomial logistic regression model (MLR) to analyse the association between age, sex, hospital and diagnosis (trauma and non-trauma) with these delays.

Results

We included 95,025 consultations. Males represented 65.2%, Delay in arrival was present in 27.8% of cases and delay in treatment in 27.2%. The MLR showed higher risk of delay in arrival for females (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.2–1.3), children <5 (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.4–1.5), patients attending to Gondama (OR 30.0, 95% CI 25.6–35.3) and non-trauma cases (OR 4.7, 95% CI 4.4–4.8). A higher risk of delay in treatment was observed for females (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.1), children <5 (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.9–2.1), patients attending to Martissant (OR 14.6, 95% CI 13.9–15.4) and non-trauma cases (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.5–1.7).

Conclusions

Women, children <5 and non-trauma cases suffered most from delays. These delays could relate to educational and cultural barriers, and severity perception of the disease. Treatment delay could be due to insufficient resources with consequent overcrowding, and severity perception from medical staff for non-trauma patients. Extended community outreach, health promotion and support to community health workers could improve emergency care in humanitarian settings.

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<![CDATA[A season for all things: Phenological imprints in Wikipedia usage and their relevance to conservation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c882408d5eed0c4846395ce

Phenology plays an important role in many human–nature interactions, but these seasonal patterns are often overlooked in conservation. Here, we provide the first broad exploration of seasonal patterns of interest in nature across many species and cultures. Using data from Wikipedia, a large online encyclopedia, we analyzed 2.33 billion pageviews to articles for 31,751 species across 245 languages. We show that seasonality plays an important role in how and when people interact with plants and animals online. In total, over 25% of species in our data set exhibited a seasonal pattern in at least one of their language-edition pages, and seasonality is significantly more prevalent in pages for plants and animals than it is in a random selection of Wikipedia articles. Pageview seasonality varies across taxonomic clades in ways that reflect observable patterns in phenology, with groups such as insects and flowering plants having higher seasonality than mammals. Differences between Wikipedia language editions are significant; pages in languages spoken at higher latitudes exhibit greater seasonality overall, and species seldom show the same pattern across multiple language editions. These results have relevance to conservation policy formulation and to improving our understanding of what drives human interest in biodiversity.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm membrane vesicles supports multiple mechanisms of biogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f151dd5eed0c48467ade7

Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) are ubiquitous in bacterial environments and enable interactions within and between species. OMVs are observed in lab-grown and environmental biofilms, but our understanding of their function comes primarily from planktonic studies. Planktonic OMVs assist in toxin delivery, cell-cell communication, horizontal gene transfer, small RNA trafficking, and immune system evasion. Previous studies reported differences in size and proteomic cargo between planktonic and agar plate biofilm OMVs, suggesting possible differences in function between OMV types. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa interstitial biofilms, extracellular vesicles were reported to arise through cell lysis, in contrast to planktonic OMV biogenesis that involves the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS) without appreciable autolysis. Differences in biogenesis mechanism could provide a rationale for observed differences in OMV characteristics between systems. Using nanoparticle tracking, we found that P. aeruginosa PAO1 planktonic and biofilm OMVs had similar characteristics. However, P. aeruginosa PA14 OMVs were smaller, with planktonic OMVs also being smaller than their biofilm counterparts. Large differences in Staphylococcus killing ability were measured between OMVs from different strains, and a smaller within-strain difference was recorded between PA14 planktonic and biofilm OMVs. Across all conditions, the predatory ability of OMVs negatively correlated with their size. To address biogenesis mechanism, we analyzed vesicles from wild type and pqsA mutant biofilms. This showed that PQS is required for physiological-scale production of biofilm OMVs, and time-course analysis confirmed that PQS production precedes OMV production as it does in planktonic cultures. However, a small sub-population of vesicles was detected in pqsA mutant biofilms whose size distribution more resembled sonicated cell debris than wild type OMVs. These results support the idea that, while a small and unique population of vesicles in P. aeruginosa biofilms may result from cell lysis, the PQS-induced mechanism is required to generate the majority of OMVs produced by wild type communities.

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<![CDATA[RedCom: A strategy for reduced metabolic modeling of complex microbial communities and its application for analyzing experimental datasets from anaerobic digestion]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5df347d5eed0c48458108e

Constraint-based modeling (CBM) is increasingly used to analyze the metabolism of complex microbial communities involved in ecology, biomedicine, and various biotechnological processes. While CBM is an established framework for studying the metabolism of single species with linear stoichiometric models, CBM of communities with balanced growth is more complicated, not only due to the larger size of the multi-species metabolic network but also because of the bilinear nature of the resulting community models. Moreover, the solution space of these community models often contains biologically unrealistic solutions, which, even with model linearization and under application of certain objective functions, cannot easily be excluded. Here we present RedCom, a new approach to build reduced community models in which the metabolisms of the participating organisms are represented by net conversions computed from the respective single-species networks. By discarding (single-species) net conversions that violate a minimality criterion in the exchange fluxes, it is ensured that unrealistic solutions in the community model are excluded where a species altruistically synthesizes large amounts of byproducts (instead of biomass) to fulfill the requirements of other species. We employed the RedCom approach for modeling communities of up to nine organisms involved in typical degradation steps of anaerobic digestion in biogas plants. Compared to full (bilinear and linearized) community models, we found that the reduced community models obtained with RedCom are not only much smaller but allow, also in the largest model with nine species, extensive calculations required to fully characterize the solution space and to reveal key properties of communities with maximum methane yield and production rates. Furthermore, the predictive power of the reduced community models is significantly larger because they predict much smaller ranges of feasible community compositions and exchange fluxes still being consistent with measurements obtained from enrichment cultures. For an enrichment culture for growth on ethanol, we also used metaproteomic data to further constrain the solution space of the community models. Both model and proteomic data indicated a dominance of acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosarcinales) and Desulfovibrionales being the least abundant group in this microbial community.

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<![CDATA[Utility of MALDI-TOF MS as a new tool for Streptococcus pneumoniae serotyping]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c759fd5eed0c4843cff31

Nowadays, more than 95 different Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes are known, being less than one third responsible for the majority of severe pneumococcal infections. After the introduction of conjugate vaccines, a change in the epidemiology of the serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease has been observed making the surveillance of circulating serotypes especially relevant. Some recent studies have used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology to identify the most frequent pneumococcal serotypes that cause invasive disease. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of previously described discriminatory peaks determined by MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of serotypes 6B, 19F, 19A and 35B using reference and clinical isolates and to try to identify other discriminatory peaks for serotypes 11A, 19F and 19A using transformed pneumococcal strains. Most of the proposed peaks defined in the literature for the identification of serotypes 6B, 19F, 19A, 35B were not found in the spectra of the 10 reference isolates nor in those of the 60 clinical isolates tested corresponding to these four serotypes. The analysis and comparison of the mass spectra of genetically modified pneumococci (transformed strains) did not allow the establishment of new discriminatory peaks for serotypes 11A, 19F, and 19A. MALDI-TOF MS in the usual range of 2,000 to 20,000 m/z did not prove to be a valid technique for direct S. pneumoniae serotyping.

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<![CDATA[The growing pains of physician-administration relationships in an academic medical center and the effects on physician engagement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9c0d5eed0c48452a138

Background

Physician engagement has become a key metric for healthcare leadership and is associated with better healthcare outcomes. However, engagement tends to be low and difficult to measure and improve. This study sought to efficiently characterize the professional cultural dynamics between physicians and administrators at an academic hospital and how those dynamics affect physician engagement.

Materials and methods

A qualitative mixed methods analysis was completed in 6 weeks, consisting of a preliminary analysis of the hospital system’s history that was used to purposefully recruit 20 physicians across specialties and 20 healthcare administrators across management levels for semi-structured interviews and observation. Participation rates of 77% (20/26) and 83% (20/24) were achieved for physicians and administrators, respectively. Cohorts consisted of equal numbers of men and women with experience ranging from 1 to 35 years within the organization. Field notes and transcripts were systematically analyzed using an iterative inductive-deductive approach. Emergent themes were presented and discussed with approximately 400 physicians and administrators within the organization to assess validity and which results were most meaningful.

Results & discussion

This investigation indicated a professional cultural disconnect was undermining efforts to improve physician engagement. This disconnect was further complicated by a minority (10%) not believing an issue existed and conflicting connotations not readily perceived by participants who often offered similar solutions. Physicians and administrators felt these results accurately reflected their realities and used this information as a common language to plan targeted interventions to improve physician engagement. Limitations of the study included its cross-sectional nature with a modest sample size at a single institution.

Conclusions

A qualitative mixed methods analysis efficiently identified professional cultural barriers within an academic hospital to serve as an institution-specific guide to improving physician engagement.

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<![CDATA[Expression optimization, purification, and functional characterization of cholesterol oxidase from Chromobacterium sp. DS1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9e1d5eed0c48452a3da

Cholesterol oxidase is a bifunctional bacterial flavoenzyme which catalyzes oxidation and isomerization of cholesterol. This valuable enzyme has attracted a great deal of attention because of its wide application in the clinical laboratory, synthesis of steroid derived drugs, food industries, and its potentially insecticidal activity. Therefore, development of an efficient protocol for overproduction of cholesterol oxidase could be valuable and beneficial in this regard. The present study examined the role of various parameters (host strain, culture media, induction time, isopropyl ß-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside concentration, as well as post-induction incubation time and temperature) on over-expression of cholesterol oxidase from Chromobacterium sp. DS1. Applying the optimized protocol, the yield of recombinant cholesterol oxidase significantly increased from 92 U/L to 2115 U/L. Under the optimized conditions, the enzyme was produced on a large-scale, and overexpressed cholesterol oxidase was purified from cell lysate by column nickel affinity chromatography. Km and Vmax values of the purified enzyme for cholesterol were estimated using Lineweaver-Burk plot. Further, the optimum pH and optimum temperature for the enzyme activity were determined. This study reports a straightforward protocol for cholesterol oxidase production which can be performed in any laboratory.

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<![CDATA[Gender and cultural bias in student evaluations: Why representation matters]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca10d5eed0c48452a728

Gendered and racial inequalities persist in even the most progressive of workplaces. There is increasing evidence to suggest that all aspects of employment, from hiring to performance evaluation to promotion, are affected by gender and cultural background. In higher education, bias in performance evaluation has been posited as one of the reasons why few women make it to the upper echelons of the academic hierarchy. With unprecedented access to institution-wide student survey data from a large public university in Australia, we investigated the role of conscious or unconscious bias in terms of gender and cultural background. We found potential bias against women and teachers with non-English speaking backgrounds. Our findings suggest that bias may decrease with better representation of minority groups in the university workforce. Our findings have implications for society beyond the academy, as over 40% of the Australian population now go to university, and graduates may carry these biases with them into the workforce.

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<![CDATA[Cultural transmission modes of music sampling traditions remain stable despite delocalization in the digital age]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c633933d5eed0c484ae6217

Music sampling is a common practice among hip-hop and electronic producers that has played a critical role in the development of particular subgenres. Artists preferentially sample drum breaks, and previous studies have suggested that these may be culturally transmitted. With the advent of digital sampling technologies and social media the modes of cultural transmission may have shifted, and music communities may have become decoupled from geography. The aim of the current study was to determine whether drum breaks are culturally transmitted through musical collaboration networks, and to identify the factors driving the evolution of these networks. Using network-based diffusion analysis we found strong evidence for the cultural transmission of drum breaks via collaboration between artists, and identified several demographic variables that bias transmission. Additionally, using network evolution methods we found evidence that the structure of the collaboration network is no longer biased by geographic proximity after the year 2000, and that gender disparity has relaxed over the same period. Despite the delocalization of communities by the internet, collaboration remains a key transmission mode of music sampling traditions. The results of this study provide valuable insight into how demographic biases shape cultural transmission in complex networks, and how the evolution of these networks has shifted in the digital age.

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<![CDATA[Copy-the-majority of instances or individuals? Two approaches to the majority and their consequences for conformist decision-making]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c57e654d5eed0c484ef2bca

Cultural evolution is the product of the psychological mechanisms that underlie individual decision making. One commonly studied learning mechanism is a disproportionate preference for majority opinions, known as conformist transmission. While most theoretical and experimental work approaches the majority in terms of the number of individuals that perform a behaviour or hold a belief, some recent experimental studies approach the majority in terms of the number of instances a behaviour is performed. Here, we use a mathematical model to show that disagreement between these two notions of the majority can arise when behavioural variants are performed at different rates, with different salience or in different contexts (variant overrepresentation) and when a subset of the population act as demonstrators to the whole population (model biases). We also show that because conformist transmission changes the distribution of behaviours in a population, how observers approach the majority can cause populations to diverge, and that this can happen even when the two approaches to the majority agree with regards to which behaviour is in the majority. We discuss these results in light of existing findings, ranging from political extremism on twitter to studies of animal foraging behaviour. We conclude that the factors we considered (variant overrepresentation and model biases) are plausibly widespread. As such, it is important to understand how individuals approach the majority in order to understand the effects of majority influence in cultural evolution.

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<![CDATA[Factors influencing sedentary behaviour: A system based analysis using Bayesian networks within DEDIPAC]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b525bd5eed0c4842bc6d7

Background

Decreasing sedentary behaviour (SB) has emerged as a public health priority since prolonged sitting increases the risk of non-communicable diseases. Mostly, the independent association of factors with SB has been investigated, although lifestyle behaviours are conditioned by interdependent factors. Within the DEDIPAC Knowledge Hub, a system of sedentary behaviours (SOS)-framework was created to take interdependency among multiple factors into account. The SOS framework is based on a system approach and was developed by combining evidence synthesis and expert consensus. The present study conducted a Bayesian network analysis to investigate and map the interdependencies between factors associated with SB through the life-course from large scale empirical data.

Methods

Data from the Eurobarometer survey (80.2, 2013) that included the International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) short as well as socio-demographic information and questions on perceived environment, health, and psychosocial information were enriched with macro-level data from the Eurostat database. Overall, 33 factors were identified aligned to the SOS-framework to represent six clusters on the individual or regional level: 1) physical health and wellbeing, 2) social and cultural context, 3) built and natural environment, 4) psychology and behaviour, 5) institutional and home settings, 6) policy and economics. A Bayesian network analysis was conducted to investigate conditional associations among all factors and to determine their importance within these networks. Bayesian networks were estimated for the complete (23,865 EU-citizens with complete data) sample and for sex- and four age-specific subgroups. Distance and centrality were calculated to determine importance of factors within each network around SB.

Results

In the young (15–25), adult (26–44), and middle-aged (45–64) groups occupational level was directly associated with SB for both, men and women. Consistently, social class and educational level were indirectly associated within male adult groups, while in women factors of the family context were indirectly associated with SB. Only in older adults, factors of the built environment were relevant with regard to SB, while factors of the home and institutional settings were less important compared to younger age groups.

Conclusion

Factors of the home and institutional settings as well as the social and cultural context were found to be important in the network of associations around SB supporting the priority for future research in these clusters. Particularly, occupational status was found to be the main driver of SB through the life-course. Investigating conditional associations by Bayesian networks gave a better understanding of the complex interplay of factors being associated with SB. This may provide detailed insights in the mechanisms behind the burden of SB to effectively inform policy makers for detailed intervention planning. However, considering the complexity of the issue, there is need for a more comprehensive system of data collection including objective measures of sedentary time.

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