ResearchPad - cystic-fibrosis https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Utility and validity of dynamic chest radiography in cystic fibrosis (dynamic CF): an observational, non-controlled, non-randomised, single-centre, prospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N38f0eef4-d97a-405b-af90-946f1ce825e7 Dynamic chest radiography (DCR) uses novel, low-dose radiographic technology to capture images of the thoracic cavity while in motion. Pulmonary function testing is important in cystic fibrosis (CF). The tolerability, rapid acquisition and lower radiation and cost compared with CT imaging may make DCR a useful adjunct to current standards of care.Methods and analysisThis is an observational, non-controlled, non-randomised, single-centre, prospective study. This study is conducted at the Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital (LHCH) adult CF unit. Participants are adults with CF. This study reviews DCR taken during routine CF Annual Review (n=150), validates DCR-derived lung volumes against whole body plethysmography (n=20) and examines DCR at the start and end of pulmonary exacerbations of CF (n=20). The primary objectives of this study are to examine if DCR provides lung function information that correlates with PFT, and lung volumes that correlate whole body plethysmography.Ethics and disseminationThis study has received the following approvals: HRA REC (11 December 2019) and LHCH R&I (11 October 2019). Results are made available to people with CF, the funders and other researchers. Processed, anonymised data are available from the research team on request.Trial registration numberISRCTN 64994816. ]]> <![CDATA[Blood co-expression modules identify potential modifier genes of diabetes and lung function in cystic fibrosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N07a3560c-fa96-4eb5-821e-9292b7a2bef0

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a rare genetic disease that affects the respiratory and digestive systems. Lung disease is variable among CF patients and associated with the development of comorbidities and chronic infections. The rate of lung function deterioration depends not only on the type of mutations in CFTR, the disease-causing gene, but also on modifier genes. In the present study, we aimed to identify genes and pathways that (i) contribute to the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis and (ii) modulate the associated comorbidities. We profiled blood samples in CF patients and healthy controls and analyzed RNA-seq data with Weighted Gene Correlation Network Analysis (WGCNA). Interestingly, lung function, body mass index, the presence of diabetes, and chronic P. aeruginosa infections correlated with four modules of co-expressed genes. Detailed inspection of networks and hub genes pointed to cell adhesion, leukocyte trafficking and production of reactive oxygen species as central mechanisms in lung function decline and cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. Of note, we showed that blood is an informative surrogate tissue to study the contribution of inflammation to lung disease and diabetes in CF patients. Finally, we provided evidence that WGCNA is useful to analyze–omic datasets in rare genetic diseases as patient cohorts are inevitably small.

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<![CDATA[Disease-relevant mutations alter amino acid co-evolution networks in the second nucleotide binding domain of CFTR]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N211c75a7-eaac-4644-b655-cac4e239c2e4

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) ion channel. Mutations in CFTR cause impaired chloride ion transport in the epithelial tissues of patients leading to cardiopulmonary decline and pancreatic insufficiency in the most severely affected patients. CFTR is composed of twelve membrane-spanning domains, two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs), and a regulatory domain. The most common mutation in CFTR is a deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 (ΔF508) in NBD1. Previous research has primarily concentrated on the structure and dynamics of the NBD1 domain; However numerous pathological mutations have also been found in the lesser-studied NBD2 domain. We have investigated the amino acid co-evolved network of interactions in NBD2, and the changes that occur in that network upon the introduction of CF and CF-related mutations (S1251N(T), S1235R, D1270N, N1303K(T)). Extensive coupling between the α- and β-subdomains were identified with residues in, or near Walker A, Walker B, H-loop and C-loop motifs. Alterations in the predicted residue network varied from moderate for the S1251T perturbation to more severe for N1303T. The S1235R and D1270N networks varied greatly compared to the wildtype, but these CF mutations only affect ion transport preference and do not severely disrupt CFTR function, suggesting dynamic flexibility in the network of interactions in NBD2. Our results also suggest that inappropriate interactions between the β-subdomain and Q-loop could be detrimental. We also identified mutations predicted to stabilize the NBD2 residue network upon introduction of the CF and CF-related mutations, and these predicted mutations are scored as benign by the MUTPRED2 algorithm. Our results suggest the level of disruption of the co-evolution predictions of the amino acid networks in NBD2 does not have a straightforward correlation with the severity of the CF phenotypes observed.

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<![CDATA[Volatile organic compound breath signatures of children with cystic fibrosis by real-time SESI-HRMS]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N76f6291e-53bb-47da-a925-4930c7917500

Early pulmonary infection and inflammation result in irreversible lung damage and are major contributors to cystic fibrosis (CF)-related morbidity. An easy to apply and noninvasive assessment for the timely detection of disease-associated complications would be of high value. We aimed to detect volatile organic compound (VOC) breath signatures of children with CF by real-time secondary electrospray ionisation high-resolution mass spectrometry (SESI-HRMS).

A total of 101 children, aged 4–18 years (CF=52; healthy controls=49) and comparable for sex, body mass index and lung function were included in this prospective cross-sectional study. Exhaled air was analysed by a SESI-source linked to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Mass spectra ranging from m/z 50 to 500 were recorded.

Out of 3468 m/z features, 171 were significantly different in children with CF (false discovery rate adjusted p-value of 0.05). The predictive ability (CF versus healthy) was assessed by using a support-vector machine classifier and showed an average accuracy (repeated cross-validation) of 72.1% (sensitivity of 77.2% and specificity of 67.7%).

This is the first study to assess entire breath profiles of children with SESI-HRMS and to extract sets of VOCs that are associated with CF. We have detected a large set of exhaled molecules that are potentially related to CF, indicating that the molecular breath of children with CF is diverse and informative.

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<![CDATA[Controlled evaluation of a transition clinic for Dutch young people with cystic fibrosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N00f69c71-ca48-4182-882d-3bc09fbdfb64

Abstract

Background

Transition clinics (TCs) are advocated as best practice to support young people with cystic fibrosis (CF) during transition to adulthood and adult care. We aimed to research the functioning of a TC for young people with CF compared with direct hand‐over care and to evaluate whether those treated at the TC have better transfer experiences and outcomes compared with the control group.

Methods

Mixed‐methods retrospective controlled design, including interviews with professionals, observations of clinics, chart reviews (at four measurement moments), and patient surveys. Qualitative data analysis focused on organization and daily routines, and barriers and facilitators experienced. Young people's transfer experiences, self‐management, health care use, and clinical outcomes were assessed quantitatively.

Results

The most notable feature distinguishing the TC and direct hand‐over care comprised joint consultations between pediatric and adult care professionals in the former. A transition coordinator was considered essential for the success of the TC. The main barriers were lack of time, planning, and reimbursement issues. Young people treated at the TC tended to have better transfer experiences and were more satisfied. They reported significantly more trust in their adult care professionals. Their self‐management‐related outcomes were less favorable.

Conclusions

The TC had several perceived benefits and showed positive trends in transfer experiences and satisfaction, but no differences in health‐related outcomes. Structured preparation of young people, joint consultations with pediatric and adult care professionals, and better coordination were perceived as facilitating elements. Further improvement demands solutions for organizational and financial barriers, and better embedding of self‐management interventions in CF care.

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<![CDATA[Genetic association and transcriptome integration identify contributing genes and tissues at cystic fibrosis modifier loci]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c7ee7c7d5eed0c4848f4db2

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) exhibits morbidity in several organs, including progressive lung disease in all patients and intestinal obstruction at birth (meconium ileus) in ~15%. Individuals with the same causal CFTR mutations show variable disease presentation which is partly attributed to modifier genes. With >6,500 participants from the International CF Gene Modifier Consortium, genome-wide association investigation identified a new modifier locus for meconium ileus encompassing ATP12A on chromosome 13 (min p = 3.83x10-10); replicated loci encompassing SLC6A14 on chromosome X and SLC26A9 on chromosome 1, (min p<2.2x10-16, 2.81x10−11, respectively); and replicated a suggestive locus on chromosome 7 near PRSS1 (min p = 2.55x10-7). PRSS1 is exclusively expressed in the exocrine pancreas and was previously associated with non-CF pancreatitis with functional characterization demonstrating impact on PRSS1 gene expression. We thus asked whether the other meconium ileus modifier loci impact gene expression and in which organ. We developed and applied a colocalization framework called the Simple Sum (SS) that integrates regulatory and genetic association information, and also contrasts colocalization evidence across tissues or genes. The associated modifier loci colocalized with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for ATP12A (p = 3.35x10-8), SLC6A14 (p = 1.12x10-10) and SLC26A9 (p = 4.48x10-5) in the pancreas, even though meconium ileus manifests in the intestine. The meconium ileus susceptibility locus on chromosome X appeared shifted in location from a previously identified locus for CF lung disease severity. Using the SS we integrated the lung disease association locus with eQTLs from nasal epithelia of 63 CF participants and demonstrated evidence of colocalization with airway-specific regulation of SLC6A14 (p = 2.3x10-4). Cystic Fibrosis is realizing the promise of personalized medicine, and identification of the contributing organ and understanding of tissue specificity for a gene modifier is essential for the next phase of personalizing therapeutic strategies.

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<![CDATA[Mycobacterium chimaera Pulmonary Disease in Cystic Fibrosis Patients, France, 2010–2017]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c94e822d5eed0c4846555b8

We report Mycobacterium chimaera pulmonary disease in 4 patients given a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in a university hospital in Montpellier, France. All patients had M. chimaera–positive expectorated sputum specimens, clinical symptoms of pulmonary exacerbation, or a decrease in spirometry test results that improved after specific treatment.

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<![CDATA[Cardiopulmonary responses to maximal aerobic exercise in patients with cystic fibrosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dca0ed5eed0c48452a718

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a debilitating chronic condition, which requires complex and expensive disease management. Exercise has now been recognised as a critical factor in improving health and quality of life in patients with CF. Hence, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is used to determine aerobic fitness of young patients as part of the clinical management of CF. However, at present there is a lack of conclusive evidence for one limiting system of aerobic fitness for CF patients at individual patient level. Here, we perform detailed data analysis that allows us to identify important systems-level factors that affect aerobic fitness. We use patients’ data and principal component analysis to confirm the dependence of CPET performance on variables associated with ventilation and metabolic rates of oxygen consumption. We find that the time at which participants cross the gas exchange threshold (GET) is well correlated with their overall performance. Furthermore, we propose a predictive modelling framework that captures the relationship between ventilatory dynamics, lung capacity and function and performance in CPET within a group of children and adolescents with CF. Specifically, we show that using Gaussian processes (GP) we can predict GET at the individual patient level with reasonable accuracy given the small sample size of the available group of patients. We conclude by presenting an example and future perspectives for improving and extending the proposed framework. The modelling and analysis have the potential to pave the way to designing personalised exercise programmes that are tailored to specific individual needs relative to patient’s treatment therapies.

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<![CDATA[Clinical and microbiological characteristics of cystic fibrosis adults never colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Analysis of the French CF registry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e5023d5eed0c484d7de0a

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the main cause of chronic airway infection in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, for unclear reasons some patients are never colonized by P. aeruginosa. The objectives of this study were to better define the clinical, genetic, and microbiological characteristics of such a subpopulation and to identify predictive factors of non-colonization with P. aeruginosa. The French CF patient registry 2013–2014 was used to identify CF patients aged ≥ 20 years. The clinical outcomes, CF Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) genotypes, and microbiological data of patients reported positive at least once for P. aeruginosa (“Pyo” group, n = 1,827) were compared to those of patients with no history of P. aeruginosa isolation (“Never” group, n = 303). Predictive factors of non-colonization by P. aeruginosa were identified by multivariate logistic regression model with backward selection. Absence of aspergillosis (odds ratio (OR) [95% CI] = 1.64 [1.01–2.66]), absence of diabetes (2.25 [1.21–4.18]), pancreatic sufficiency (1.81 [1.30–2.52]), forced expiratory volume 1 (FEV1) ≥ 80% (3.03 [2.28–4.03]), older age at CF diagnosis (1.03 [1.02–1.04]), and absence of F508del/F508del genotype (2.17 [1.48–3.19]) were predictive clinical factors associated with absence of infection (“Never” group). Microbiologically, this same group was associated with more frequent detection of Haemophilus influenzae and lower rates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Aspergillus spp. (all p<0.01) in sputum. This study strongly suggests that the absence of pulmonary colonization by P. aeruginosa in a minority of CF adults (14.2%) is associated with a milder form of the disease. Recent progress in the development of drugs to correct CFTR deficiency thus may be decisive in the control of P. aeruginosa lung infection.

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<![CDATA[Gut microbiota signatures in cystic fibrosis: Loss of host CFTR function drives the microbiota enterophenotype]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c12cf22d5eed0c484913fae

Background

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disorder affecting the respiratory, digestive, reproductive systems and sweat glands. This lethal hereditary disease has known or suspected links to the dysbiosis gut microbiota. High-throughput meta-omics-based approaches may assist in unveiling this complex network of symbiosis modifications.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to provide a predictive and functional model of the gut microbiota enterophenotype of pediatric patients affected by CF under clinical stability.

Methods

Thirty-one fecal samples were collected from CF patients and healthy children (HC) (age range, 1–6 years) and analysed using targeted-metagenomics and metabolomics to characterize the ecology and metabolism of CF-linked gut microbiota. The multidimensional data were low fused and processed by chemometric classification analysis.

Results

The fused metagenomics and metabolomics based gut microbiota profile was characterized by a high abundance of Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus and Clostridiaceae, including Clostridium difficile, and a low abundance of Eggerthella, Eubacterium, Ruminococcus, Dorea, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Lachnospiraceae, associated with overexpression of 4-aminobutyrate (GABA), choline, ethanol, propylbutyrate, and pyridine and low levels of sarcosine, 4-methylphenol, uracil, glucose, acetate, phenol, benzaldehyde, and methylacetate. The CF gut microbiota pattern revealed an enterophenotype intrinsically linked to disease, regardless of age, and with dysbiosis uninduced by reduced pancreatic function and only partially related to oral antibiotic administration or lung colonization/infection.

Conclusions

All together, the results obtained suggest that the gut microbiota enterophenotypes of CF, together with endogenous and bacterial CF biomarkers, are direct expression of functional alterations at the intestinal level. Hence, it’s possible to infer that CFTR impairment causes the gut ecosystem imbalance.This new understanding of CF host-gut microbiota interactions may be helpful to rationalize novel clinical interventions to improve the affected children’s nutritional status and intestinal function.

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<![CDATA[Capitalizing on the heterogeneous effects of CFTR nonsense and frameshift variants to inform therapeutic strategy for cystic fibrosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bf86f89d5eed0c48405ac4d

CFTR modulators have revolutionized the treatment of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) by improving the function of existing protein. Unfortunately, almost half of the disease-causing variants in CFTR are predicted to introduce premature termination codons (PTC) thereby causing absence of full-length CFTR protein. We hypothesized that a subset of nonsense and frameshift variants in CFTR allow expression of truncated protein that might respond to FDA-approved CFTR modulators. To address this concept, we selected 26 PTC-generating variants from four regions of CFTR and determined their consequences on CFTR mRNA, protein and function using intron-containing minigenes expressed in 3 cell lines (HEK293, MDCK and CFBE41o-) and patient-derived conditionally reprogrammed primary nasal epithelial cells. The PTC-generating variants fell into five groups based on RNA and protein effects. Group A (reduced mRNA, immature (core glycosylated) protein, function <1% (n = 5)) and Group B (normal mRNA, immature protein, function <1% (n = 10)) variants were unresponsive to modulator treatment. However, Group C (normal mRNA, mature (fully glycosylated) protein, function >1% (n = 5)), Group D (reduced mRNA, mature protein, function >1% (n = 5)) and Group E (aberrant RNA splicing, mature protein, function > 1% (n = 1)) variants responded to modulators. Increasing mRNA level by inhibition of NMD led to a significant amplification of modulator effect upon a Group D variant while response of a Group A variant was unaltered. Our work shows that PTC-generating variants should not be generalized as genetic ‘nulls’ as some may allow generation of protein that can be targeted to achieve clinical benefit.

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<![CDATA[Adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the chronic phenotype by mutations in the algTmucABD operon in isolates from Brazilian cystic fibrosis patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0993d5d5eed0c4842ada44

Chronic lung infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This is associated with the conversion of the non-mucoid to the mucoid phenotype. However, there is little information about the occurrence of alginate-producing P. aeruginosa in CF patients outside Europe and North America. The aim of the present study was to investigate mutations in the algTmucABD operon in mucoid and non-mucoid isolates from Brazilian CF patients. Twenty-seven mucoid and 37 non-mucoid isolates from 40 CF patients chronically infected by P. aeruginosa attending a CF reference center in Brazil were evaluated by sequence analysis. Mutations in mucA were observed in 93% of the mucoid isolates and 54% of the non-mucoid isolates. Among these non-mucoid isolates, 55% were considered revertants, since they also had mutations in algT (algU). Most isolates associated with moderate alginate production presented point mutations in mucB and/or mucD. We identified 30 mutations not previously described in the operon. In conclusion, mutations in mucA were the main mechanism of conversion to mucoidy, and most of the non-mucoid isolates were revertants, but the mechanism of revertance is not fully explained by changes in algT.

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<![CDATA[Mechanisms of CFTR Functional Variants That Impair Regulated Bicarbonate Permeation and Increase Risk for Pancreatitis but Not for Cystic Fibrosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da19ab0ee8fa60b7c35a

CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev) cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF), a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize that those CFTR mutations that disrupt the WNK1-SPAK activation mechanisms cause a selective, bicarbonate defect in channel function (CFTRBD) affecting organs that utilize CFTR for bicarbonate secretion (e.g. the pancreas, nasal sinus, vas deferens) but do not cause typical CF. To understand the structural and functional requirements of the CFTR bicarbonate-preferring channel, we (a) screened 984 well-phenotyped pancreatitis cases for candidate CFTRBD mutations from among 81 previously described CFTR variants; (b) conducted electrophysiology studies on clones of variants found in pancreatitis but not CF; (c) computationally constructed a new, complete structural model of CFTR for molecular dynamics simulation of wild-type and mutant variants; and (d) tested the newly defined CFTRBD variants for disease in non-pancreas organs utilizing CFTR for bicarbonate secretion. Nine variants (CFTR R74Q, R75Q, R117H, R170H, L967S, L997F, D1152H, S1235R, and D1270N) not associated with typical CF were associated with pancreatitis (OR 1.5, p = 0.002). Clones expressed in HEK 293T cells had normal chloride but not bicarbonate permeability and conductance with WNK1-SPAK activation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest physical restriction of the CFTR channel and altered dynamic channel regulation. Comparing pancreatitis patients and controls, CFTRBD increased risk for rhinosinusitis (OR 2.3, p<0.005) and male infertility (OR 395, p<<0.0001). WNK1-SPAK pathway-activated increases in CFTR bicarbonate permeability are altered by CFTRBD variants through multiple mechanisms. CFTRBD variants are associated with clinically significant disorders of the pancreas, sinuses, and male reproductive system.

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<![CDATA[Utility and validity of dynamic chest radiography in cystic fibrosis (dynamic CF): an observational, non-controlled, non-randomised, single-centre, prospective study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N046af2a4-5fb2-486f-93f4-489db0010b88

Introduction

Dynamic chest radiography (DCR) uses novel, low-dose radiographic technology to capture images of the thoracic cavity while in motion. Pulmonary function testing is important in cystic fibrosis (CF). The tolerability, rapid acquisition and lower radiation and cost compared with CT imaging may make DCR a useful adjunct to current standards of care.

Methods and analysis

This is an observational, non-controlled, non-randomised, single-centre, prospective study. This study is conducted at the Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital (LHCH) adult CF unit. Participants are adults with CF. This study reviews DCR taken during routine CF Annual Review (n=150), validates DCR-derived lung volumes against whole body plethysmography (n=20) and examines DCR at the start and end of pulmonary exacerbations of CF (n=20). The primary objectives of this study are to examine if DCR provides lung function information that correlates with PFT, and lung volumes that correlate whole body plethysmography.

Ethics and dissemination

This study has received the following approvals: HRA REC (11 December 2019) and LHCH R&I (11 October 2019). Results are made available to people with CF, the funders and other researchers. Processed, anonymised data are available from the research team on request.

Trial registration number

ISRCTN 64994816.

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<![CDATA[Towards Increasing the Clinical Relevance of In Silico Methods to Predict Pathogenic Missense Variants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac8ab0ee8fa60bb32e1 ]]> <![CDATA[Correlation of Apical Fluid-Regulating Channel Proteins with Lung Function in Human COPD Lungs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da9bab0ee8fa60ba3dc9

Links between epithelial ion channels and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are emerging through animal model and in vitro studies. However, clinical correlations between fluid-regulating channel proteins and lung function in COPD remain to be elucidated. To quantitatively measure epithelial sodium channels (ENaC), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and aquaporin 5 (AQP5) proteins in human COPD lungs and to analyze the correlation with declining lung function, quantitative western blots were used. Spearman tests were performed to identify correlations between channel proteins and lung function. The expression of α and β ENaC subunits was augmented and inversely associated with lung function. In contrast, both total and alveolar type I (ATI) and II (ATII)-specific CFTR proteins were reduced. The expression level of CFTR proteins was associated with FEV1 positively. Abundance of AQP5 proteins and extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) was decreased and correlated with spirometry test results and gas exchange positively. Furthermore, these channel proteins were significantly associated with severity of disease. Our study demonstrates that expression of ENaC, AQP5, and CFTR proteins in human COPD lungs is quantitatively associated with lung function and severity of COPD. These apically located fluid-regulating channels may thereby serve as biomarkers and potent druggable targets of COPD.

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<![CDATA[A commensal streptococcus hijacks a Pseudomonas aeruginosa exopolysaccharide to promote biofilm formation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf2be

Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes devastating chronic pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Although the CF airway is inhabited by diverse species of microorganisms interlaced within a biofilm, many studies focus on the sole contribution of P. aeruginosa pathogenesis in CF morbidity. More recently, oral commensal streptococci have been identified as cohabitants of the CF lung, but few studies have explored the role these bacteria play within the CF biofilm. We examined the interaction between P. aeruginosa and oral commensal streptococci within a dual species biofilm. Here we report that the CF P. aeruginosa isolate, FRD1, enhances biofilm formation and colonization of Drosophila melanogaster by the oral commensal Streptococcus parasanguinis. Moreover, production of the P. aeruginosa exopolysaccharide, alginate, is required for the promotion of S. parasanguinis biofilm formation and colonization. However, P. aeruginosa is not promoted in the dual species biofilm. Furthermore, we show that the streptococcal adhesin, BapA1, mediates alginate-dependent enhancement of the S. parasanguinis biofilm in vitro, and BapA1 along with another adhesin, Fap1, are required for the in vivo colonization of S. parasanguinis in the presence of FRD1. Taken together, our study highlights a new association between streptococcal adhesins and P. aeruginosa alginate, and reveals a mechanism by which S. parasanguinis potentially colonizes the CF lung and interferes with the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa.

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<![CDATA[Early childhood lung function is a stronger predictor of adolescent lung function in cystic fibrosis than early Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf7b1

Objective

Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been suggested as a major determinant of poor pulmonary outcomes in cystic fibrosis (CF), although other factors play a role. Our objective was to investigate the association of early childhood Pseudomonas infection on differences in lung function in adolescence with CF.

Methods

Two populations of subjects with CF were studied: from the Gene Modifier Study (GMS), 346 F508del homozygotes with severe vs. mild adolescent lung disease, and from the Colorado Newborn Screen Study (NBS) 172 subjects diagnosed with CF by newborn screening. Associations of Pseudomonas infection and lung function in early childhood with lung function in adolescence were investigated using multivariate linear regression analyses.

Results

Among GMS subjects, those with severe adolescent lung disease had worse lung function in childhood (FEV1 25 percentage points lower) compared to subjects with mild adolescent lung disease, regardless of early childhood Pseudomonas status. Among NBS subjects, those with lowest adolescent lung function had significantly lower early childhood lung function and faster rate of decline in FEV1 than subjects with highest adolescent lung function; early Pseudomonas infection was not associated with rate of FEV1 decline. The strongest predictor of adolescent lung function was early childhood lung function. Subjects with a higher percentage of cultures positive for Pseudomonas before age 6 or a lower BMI at 2–4 years old also had lower adolescent lung function, though these associations were not as strong as with early childhood lung function.

Conclusions

In separate analyses of two distinct populations of subjects with CF, we found a strong correlation between lower lung function in early childhood and adolescence, regardless of early childhood Pseudomonas status. Factors in addition to early Pseudomonas infection have a strong impact on lung function in early childhood in CF. Further exploration may identify novel underlying genetic or environmental factors that predispose children with CF to early loss of lung function.

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<![CDATA[Contribution by Polymorphonucleate Granulocytes to Elevated Gamma-Glutamyltransferase in Cystic Fibrosis Sputum]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da02ab0ee8fa60b74a57

Background

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a chronic neutrophilic airways inflammation, increasing levels of oxidative stress and reduced levels of antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH). Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), an enzyme induced by oxidative stress and involved in the catabolism of GSH and its derivatives, is increased in the airways of CF patients with inflammation, but the possible implications of its increase have not yet been investigated in detail.

Principal Findings

The present study was aimed to evaluate the origin and the biochemical characteristics of the GGT detectable in CF sputum. We found GGT activity both in neutrophils and in the fluid, the latter significantly correlating with myeloperoxidase expression. In neutrophils, GGT was associated with intracellular granules. In the fluid, gel-filtration chromatography showed the presence of two distinct GGT fractions, the first corresponding to the human plasma b-GGT fraction, the other to the free enzyme. The same fractions were also observed in the supernatant of ionomycin and fMLP-activated neutrophils. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of a single band of GGT immunoreactive peptide in the CF sputum samples and in isolated neutrophils.

Conclusions

In conclusion, our data indicate that neutrophils are able to transport and release GGT, thus increasing GGT activity in CF sputum. The prompt release of GGT may have consequences on all GGT substrates, including major inflammatory mediators such as S-nitrosoglutathione and leukotrienes, and could participate in early modulation of inflammatory response.

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<![CDATA[TGF-Beta Downregulation of Distinct Chloride Channels in Cystic Fibrosis-Affected Epithelia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f4ab0ee8fa60b6f826

Rationale

The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Calcium-activated Chloride Conductance (CaCC) each play critical roles in maintaining normal hydration of epithelial surfaces including the airways and colon. TGF-beta is a genetic modifier of cystic fibrosis (CF), but how it influences the CF phenotype is not understood.

Objectives

We tested the hypothesis that TGF-beta potently downregulates chloride-channel function and expression in two CF-affected epithelia (T84 colonocytes and primary human airway epithelia) compared with proteins known to be regulated by TGF-beta.

Measurements and Main Results

TGF-beta reduced CaCC and CFTR-dependent chloride currents in both epithelia accompanied by reduced levels of TMEM16A and CFTR protein and transcripts. TGF-beta treatment disrupted normal regulation of airway-surface liquid volume in polarized primary human airway epithelia, and reversed F508del CFTR correction produced by VX-809. TGF-beta effects on the expression and activity of TMEM16A, wtCFTR and corrected F508del CFTR were seen at 10-fold lower concentrations relative to TGF-beta effects on e-cadherin (epithelial marker) and vimentin (mesenchymal marker) expression. TGF-beta downregulation of TMEM16A and CFTR expression were partially reversed by Smad3 and p38 MAPK inhibition, respectively.

Conclusions

TGF-beta is sufficient to downregulate two critical chloride transporters in two CF-affected tissues that precedes expression changes of two distinct TGF-beta regulated proteins. Our results provide a plausible mechanism for CF-disease modification by TGF-beta through effects on CaCC.

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