ResearchPad - cytoplasm https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Host interactors of effector proteins of the lettuce downy mildew <i>Bremia lactucae</i> obtained by yeast two-hybrid screening]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13834 Plant pathogenic bacteria, fungi and oomycetes secrete effector proteins to manipulate host cell processes to establish a successful infection. Over the last decade the genomes and transcriptomes of many agriculturally important plant pathogens have been sequenced and vast candidate effector repertoires were identified using bioinformatic analyses. Elucidating the contribution of individual effectors to pathogenicity is the next major hurdle. To advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying lettuce susceptibility to the downy mildew Bremia lactucae, we mapped physical interactions between B. lactucae effectors and lettuce candidate target proteins. Using a lettuce cDNA library-based yeast-two-hybrid system, 61 protein-protein interactions were identified, involving 21 B. lactucae effectors and 46 unique lettuce proteins. The top ten interactors based on the number of independent colonies identified in the Y2H and two interactors that belong to gene families involved in plant immunity, were further characterized. We determined the subcellular localization of the fluorescently tagged lettuce proteins and their interacting effectors. Importantly, relocalization of effectors or their interactors to the nucleus was observed for four protein-pairs upon their co-expression, supporting their interaction in planta.

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<![CDATA[Proteomic analysis of protein composition of rat hippocampus exposed to morphine for 10 days; comparison with animals after 20 days of morphine withdrawal]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2838fdc6-dc33-429a-ba0d-e2e831e6a950

Opioid addiction is recognized as a chronic relapsing brain disease resulting from repeated exposure to opioid drugs. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of organism to return back to the physiological norm after cessation of drug supply are not fully understood. The aim of this work was to extend our previous studies of morphine-induced alteration of rat forebrain cortex protein composition to the hippocampus. Rats were exposed to morphine for 10 days and sacrificed 24 h (groups +M10 and −M10) or 20 days after the last dose of morphine (groups +M10/−M20 and −M10/−M20). The six altered proteins (≥2-fold) were identified in group (+M10) when compared with group (−M10) by two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). The number of differentially expressed proteins was increased to thirteen after 20 days of the drug withdrawal. Noticeably, the altered level of α-synuclein, β-synuclein, α-enolase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was also determined in both (±M10) and (±M10/−M20) samples of hippocampus. Immunoblot analysis of 2D gels by specific antibodies oriented against α/β-synucleins and GAPDH confirmed the data obtained by 2D-DIGE analysis. Label-free quantification identified nineteen differentially expressed proteins in group (+M10) when compared with group (−M10). After 20 days of morphine withdrawal (±M10/−M20), the number of altered proteins was increased to twenty. We conclude that the morphine-induced alteration of protein composition in rat hippocampus after cessation of drug supply proceeds in a different manner when compared with the forebrain cortex. In forebrain cortex, the total number of altered proteins was decreased after 20 days without morphine, whilst in hippocampus, it was increased.

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<![CDATA[Early girl is a novel component of the Fat signaling pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5b52c2d5eed0c4842bcfaa

The Drosophila protocadherins Dachsous and Fat regulate growth and tissue polarity by modulating the levels, membrane localization and polarity of the atypical myosin Dachs. Localization to the apical junctional membrane is critical for Dachs function, and the adapter protein Vamana/Dlish and palmitoyl transferase Approximated are required for Dachs membrane localization. However, how Dachs levels are regulated is poorly understood. Here we identify the early girl gene as playing an essential role in Fat signaling by limiting the levels of Dachs protein. early girl mutants display overgrowth of the wings and reduced cross vein spacing, hallmark features of mutations affecting Fat signaling. Genetic experiments reveal that it functions in parallel with Fat to regulate Dachs. early girl encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase, physically interacts with Dachs, and regulates its protein stability. Concomitant loss of early girl and approximated results in accumulation of Dachs and Vamana in cytoplasmic punctae, suggesting that it also regulates their trafficking to the apical membrane. Our findings establish a crucial role for early girl in Fat signaling, involving regulation of Dachs and Vamana, two key downstream effectors of this pathway.

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<![CDATA[Characterizing changes in glucocorticoid receptor internalization in the fear circuit in an animal model of post traumatic stress disorder]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141f18d5eed0c484d299ef

Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) shuttle from the cytoplasm (cy) to the nucleus (nu) when bound with glucocorticoids (i.e. GR internalization) and alter transcriptional activity. GR activation within the fear circuit has been implicated in fear memory and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, no study to date has characterized GR internalization within the fear circuit during fear memory formation or examined how traumatic stress impacts this process. To address this, we assayed cy and nu GR levels at baseline and after auditory fear conditioning (FC) in the single prolonged stress (SPS) model of PTSD. Cy and nu GRs within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dorsal hippocampus (dHipp), ventral hippocampus (vHipp), and amygdala (AMY) were assayed using western blot. The distribution of GR in the cy and nu (at baseline and after FC) was varied across individual nodes of the fear circuit. At baseline, SPS enhanced cyGRs in the dHipp, but decreased cyGRs in the AMY. FC only enhanced GR internalization in the AMY and this effect was attenuated by SPS exposure. SPS also decreased cyGRs in the dHipp after FC. The results of this study suggests that GR internalization is varied across the fear circuit, which in turn suggests GR activation is selectively regulated within individual nodes of the fear circuit. The findings also suggest that changes in GR dynamics in the dHipp and AMY modulate the enhancing effect SPS has on fear memory persistence.

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<![CDATA[An aromatic amino acid and associated helix in the C-terminus of the potato leafroll virus minor capsid protein regulate systemic infection and symptom expression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bf71fd9d5eed0c484dcbe61

The C-terminal region of the minor structural protein of potato leafroll virus (PLRV), known as the readthrough protein (RTP), is involved in efficient virus movement, tissue tropism and symptom development. Analysis of numerous C-terminal deletions identified a five-amino acid motif that is required for RTP function. A PLRV mutant expressing RTP with these five amino acids deleted (Δ5aa-RTP) was compromised in systemic infection and symptom expression. Although the Δ5aa-RTP mutant was able to move long distance, limited infection foci were observed in systemically infected leaves suggesting that these five amino acids regulate virus phloem loading in the inoculated leaves and/or unloading into the systemically infected tissues. The 5aa deletion did not alter the efficiency of RTP translation, nor impair RTP self-interaction or its interaction with P17, the virus movement protein. However, the deletion did alter the subcellular localization of RTP. When co-expressed with a PLRV infectious clone, a GFP tagged wild-type RTP was localized to discontinuous punctate spots along the cell periphery and was associated with plasmodesmata, although localization was dependent upon the developmental stage of the plant tissue. In contrast, the Δ5aa-RTP-GFP aggregated in the cytoplasm. Structural modeling indicated that the 5aa deletion would be expected to perturb an α-helix motif. Two of 30 plants infected with Δ5aa-RTP developed a wild-type virus infection phenotype ten weeks post-inoculation. Analysis of the virus population in these plants by deep sequencing identified a duplication of sequences adjacent to the deletion that were predicted to restore the α-helix motif. The subcellular distribution of the RTP is regulated by the 5-aa motif which is under strong selection pressure and in turn contributes to the efficient long distance movement of the virus and the induction of systemic symptoms.

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<![CDATA[Cytoplasmic flows in starfish oocytes are fully determined by cortical contractions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2401a2d5eed0c48409d816

Cytoplasmic flows are an ubiquitous feature of biological systems, in particular in large cells, such as oocytes and eggs in early animal development. Here we show that cytoplasmic flows in starfish oocytes, which can be imaged well with transmission light microscopy, are fully determined by the cortical dynamics during surface contraction waves. We first show that the dynamics of the oocyte surface is highly symmetric around the animal-vegetal axis. We then mathematically solve the Stokes equation for flows inside a deforming sphere using the measured surface displacements as boundary conditions. Our theoretical predictions agree very well with the intracellular flows quantified by particle image velocimetry, proving that during this stage the starfish cytoplasm behaves as a simple Newtonian fluid on the micrometer scale. We calculate the pressure field inside the oocyte and find that its gradient is too small as to explain polar body extrusion, in contrast to earlier suggestions. Myosin II inhibition by blebbistatin confirms this conclusion, because it diminishes cell shape changes and hydrodynamic flow, but does not abolish polar body formation.

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<![CDATA[Homologous Transcription Factors DUX4 and DUX4c Associate with Cytoplasmic Proteins during Muscle Differentiation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db44ab0ee8fa60bd801c

Hundreds of double homeobox (DUX) genes map within 3.3-kb repeated elements dispersed in the human genome and encode DNA-binding proteins. Among these, we identified DUX4, a potent transcription factor that causes facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). In the present study, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens and protein co-purifications with HaloTag-DUX fusions or GST-DUX4 pull-down to identify protein partners of DUX4, DUX4c (which is identical to DUX4 except for the end of the carboxyl terminal domain) and DUX1 (which is limited to the double homeodomain). Unexpectedly, we identified and validated (by co-immunoprecipitation, GST pull-down, co-immunofluorescence and in situ Proximal Ligation Assay) the interaction of DUX4, DUX4c and DUX1 with type III intermediate filament protein desmin in the cytoplasm and at the nuclear periphery. Desmin filaments link adjacent sarcomere at the Z-discs, connect them to sarcolemma proteins and interact with mitochondria. These intermediate filament also contact the nuclear lamina and contribute to positioning of the nuclei. Another Z-disc protein, LMCD1 that contains a LIM domain was also validated as a DUX4 partner. The functionality of DUX4 or DUX4c interactions with cytoplasmic proteins is underscored by the cytoplasmic detection of DUX4/DUX4c upon myoblast fusion. In addition, we identified and validated (by co-immunoprecipitation, co-immunofluorescence and in situ Proximal Ligation Assay) as DUX4/4c partners several RNA-binding proteins such as C1QBP, SRSF9, RBM3, FUS/TLS and SFPQ that are involved in mRNA splicing and translation. FUS and SFPQ are nuclear proteins, however their cytoplasmic translocation was reported in neuronal cells where they associated with ribonucleoparticles (RNPs). Several other validated or identified DUX4/DUX4c partners are also contained in mRNP granules, and the co-localizations with cytoplasmic DAPI-positive spots is in keeping with such an association. Large muscle RNPs were recently shown to exit the nucleus via a novel mechanism of nuclear envelope budding. Following DUX4 or DUX4c overexpression in muscle cell cultures, we observed their association with similar nuclear buds. In conclusion, our study demonstrated unexpected interactions of DUX4/4c with cytoplasmic proteins playing major roles during muscle differentiation. Further investigations are on-going to evaluate whether these interactions play roles during muscle regeneration as previously suggested for DUX4c.

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<![CDATA[The Integrated Role of Wnt/β-Catenin, N-Glycosylation, and E-Cadherin-Mediated Adhesion in Network Dynamics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9f6ab0ee8fa60b7047f

The cellular network composed of the evolutionarily conserved metabolic pathways of protein N-glycosylation, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion plays pivotal roles in determining the balance between cell proliferation and intercellular adhesion during development and in maintaining homeostasis in differentiated tissues. These pathways share a highly conserved regulatory molecule, β-catenin, which functions as both a structural component of E-cadherin junctions and as a co-transcriptional activator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, whose target is the N-glycosylation-regulating gene, DPAGT1. Whereas these pathways have been studied independently, little is known about the dynamics of their interaction. Here we present the first numerical model of this network in MDCK cells. Since the network comprises a large number of molecules with varying cell context and time-dependent levels of expression, it can give rise to a wide range of plausible cellular states that are difficult to track. Using known kinetic parameters for individual reactions in the component pathways, we have developed a theoretical framework and gained new insights into cellular regulation of the network. Specifically, we developed a mathematical model to quantify the fold-change in concentration of any molecule included in the mathematical representation of the network in response to a simulated activation of the Wnt/ β-catenin pathway with Wnt3a under different conditions. We quantified the importance of protein N-glycosylation and synthesis of the DPAGT1 encoded enzyme, GPT, in determining the abundance of cytoplasmic β-catenin. We confirmed the role of axin in β-catenin degradation. Finally, our data suggest that cell-cell adhesion is insensitive to E-cadherin recycling in the cell. We validate the model by inhibiting β-catenin-mediated activation of DPAGT1 expression and predicting changes in cytoplasmic β-catenin concentration and stability of E-cadherin junctions in response to DPAGT1 inhibition. We show the impact of pathway dysregulation through measurements of cell migration in scratch-wound assays. Collectively, our results highlight the importance of numerical analyses of cellular networks dynamics to gain insights into physiological processes and potential design of therapeutic strategies to prevent epithelial cell invasion in cancer.

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<![CDATA[Exo70 Subunit of the Exocyst Complex Is Involved in Adhesion-Dependent Trafficking of Caveolin-1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db15ab0ee8fa60bcce97

Caveolae are specialized domains of the plasma membrane, which play key roles in signaling, endocytosis and mechanosensing. Using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRF-M), we observe that the exocyst subunit Exo70 forms punctuate structures at the plasma membrane and partially localizes with caveolin-1, the main component of caveolae. Upon cell detachment, we found that Exo70 accumulates with caveolin-1-positive vesicular structures. Upon cell re-adhesion, caveolin-1 traffics back to the plasma membrane in a multistep process involving microtubules and actin cytoskeleton. In addition, silencing of Exo70 redirects caveolin-1 to focal adhesions identified by markers such as α5 integrin or vinculin. Based on these findings, we conclude that Exo70 is involved in caveolin-1 recycling to the plasma membrane during re-adhesion of the cells to the substratum.

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<![CDATA[HIV-1 and M-PMV RNA Nuclear Export Elements Program Viral Genomes for Distinct Cytoplasmic Trafficking Behaviors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db08ab0ee8fa60bc9117

Retroviruses encode cis-acting RNA nuclear export elements that override nuclear retention of intron-containing viral mRNAs including the full-length, unspliced genomic RNAs (gRNAs) packaged into assembling virions. The HIV-1 Rev-response element (RRE) recruits the cellular nuclear export receptor CRM1 (also known as exportin-1/XPO1) using the viral protein Rev, while simple retroviruses encode constitutive transport elements (CTEs) that directly recruit components of the NXF1(Tap)/NXT1(p15) mRNA nuclear export machinery. How gRNA nuclear export is linked to trafficking machineries in the cytoplasm upstream of virus particle assembly is unknown. Here we used long-term (>24 h), multicolor live cell imaging to directly visualize HIV-1 gRNA nuclear export, translation, cytoplasmic trafficking, and virus particle production in single cells. We show that the HIV-1 RRE regulates unique, en masse, Rev- and CRM1-dependent “burst-like” transitions of mRNAs from the nucleus to flood the cytoplasm in a non-localized fashion. By contrast, the CTE derived from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) links gRNAs to microtubules in the cytoplasm, driving them to cluster markedly to the centrosome that forms the pericentriolar core of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). Adding each export element to selected heterologous mRNAs was sufficient to confer each distinct export behavior, as was directing Rev/CRM1 or NXF1/NXT1 transport modules to mRNAs using a site-specific RNA tethering strategy. Moreover, multiple CTEs per transcript enhanced MTOC targeting, suggesting that a cooperative mechanism links NXF1/NXT1 to microtubules. Combined, these results reveal striking, unexpected features of retroviral gRNA nucleocytoplasmic transport and demonstrate roles for mRNA export elements that extend beyond nuclear pores to impact gRNA distribution in the cytoplasm.

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<![CDATA[Depletion of Nuclear Poly(A) Binding Protein PABPN1 Produces a Compensatory Response by Cytoplasmic PABP4 and PABP5 in Cultured Human Cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da06ab0ee8fa60b75d6f

Background

In vertebrates, poly(A) binding protein (PABP) is known to exist in five different isoforms. PABPs are primarily cytosolic with the exception of the nuclear PABP (PABPN1), which is located in the nucleus. Within the nucleus, PABPN1 is believed to bind to the poly(A) tail of nascent mRNA and along with cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) define the length of the newly synthesized poly(A) tail.

Methodology/Principal Findings

The cellular role of PABP1 has been extensively studied over the years; however, the function of other PABPs remains poorly defined. In order to understand the role of PABPN1 in cellular mRNA metabolism and it’s interrelation with other PABPs, we depleted PABPN1 using RNAi in HeLa and HEK293 cells. Our results show that PABPN1 depletion did not have any effect on the poly(A) tail length, nuclear export of mRNA, mRNA translation, and transcription. Rather, PABPN1 depletion resulted in a compensatory response as observed by increased level of PABP5 and nuclear accumulation of PABP4. In addition, PABP4 was associated with the poly(A) tract of pre-mRNA and CPSF in PABPN1 depleted cells. Nevertheless, PABPN1 depletion significantly affected cell survival as evidenced by an increase in apoptosis markers: phosphorylated p53 and PUMA and as judged by the expression of ER stress marker GRP78.

Conclusion

Our results suggest that although function of PABPN1 may be compensated by nuclear translocation of PABP4 and perhaps by increase in the cytoplasmic abundance of PABP5, these were not sufficient to prevent apoptosis of cells. Thus PABPN1 may have a novel anti apoptotic role in mammalian cells.

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<![CDATA[Interstitial Perfusion Culture with Specific Soluble Factors Inhibits Type I Collagen Production from Human Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes in Clinical-Grade Collagen Sponges]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9ecab0ee8fa60b6cf0c

Articular cartilage has poor healing ability and cartilage injuries often evolve to osteoarthritis. Cell-based strategies aiming to engineer cartilaginous tissue through the combination of biocompatible scaffolds and articular chondrocytes represent an alternative to standard surgical techniques. In this context, perfusion bioreactors have been introduced to enhance cellular access to oxygen and nutrients, hence overcoming the limitations of static culture and improving matrix deposition. Here, we combined an optimized cocktail of soluble factors, the BIT (BMP-2, Insulin, Thyroxin), and clinical-grade collagen sponges with a bidirectional perfusion bioreactor, namely the oscillating perfusion bioreactor (OPB), to engineer in vitro articular cartilage by human articular chondrocytes (HACs) obtained from osteoarthritic patients. After amplification, HACs were seeded and cultivated in collagen sponges either in static or dynamic conditions. Chondrocyte phenotype and the nature of the matrix synthesized by HACs were assessed using western blotting and immunohistochemistry analyses. Finally, the stability of the cartilaginous tissue produced by HACs was evaluated in vivo by subcutaneous implantation in nude mice. Our results showed that perfusion improved the distribution and quality of cartilaginous matrix deposited within the sponges, compared to static conditions. Specifically, dynamic culture in the OPB, in combination with the BIT cocktail, resulted in the homogeneous production of extracellular matrix rich in type II collagen. Remarkably, the production of type I collagen, a marker of fibrous tissues, was also inhibited, indicating that the association of the OPB with the BIT cocktail limits fibrocartilage formation, favoring the reconstruction of hyaline cartilage.

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<![CDATA[Identification of Eight Different Isoforms of the Glucocorticoid Receptor in Guinea Pig Placenta: Relationship to Preterm Delivery, Sex and Betamethasone Exposure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db42ab0ee8fa60bd71ec

The placental glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is central to glucocorticoid signalling and for mediating steroid effects on pathways associated with fetal growth and lung maturation but the GR has not been examined in the guinea pig placenta even though this animal is regularly used as a model of preterm birth and excess glucocorticoid exposure. Guinea pig dams received subcutaneous injections of either vehicle or betamethasone at 24 and 12 hours prior to preterm or term caesarean-section delivery. At delivery pup and organ weights were recorded. Placentae were dissected, weighed and analysed using Western blot to examine GR isoform expression in nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts. A comparative examination of the guinea pig GR gene identified it is capable of producing seven of the eight translational GR isoforms which include GRα-A, C1, C2, C3, D1, D2, and D3. GRα-B is not produced in the Guinea Pig. Total GR antibody identified 10 specific bands from term (n = 29) and preterm pregnancies (n = 27). Known isoforms included GRγ, GRα A, GRβ, GRP, GRA and GRα D1-3. There were sex and gestational age differences in placental GR isoform expression. Placental GRα A was detected in the cytoplasm of all groups but was significantly increased in the cytoplasm and nucleus of preterm males and females exposed to betamethasone and untreated term males (KW-ANOVA, P = 0.0001, P = 0.001). Cytoplasmic expression of GRβ was increased in female preterm placentae and preterm and term male placentae exposed to betamethasone (P = 0.01). Nuclear expression of GRβ was increased in all placentae exposed to betamethasone (P = 0.0001). GRα D2 and GRα D3 were increased in male preterm placentae when exposed to betamethasone (P = 0.01, P = 0.02). The current data suggests the sex-specific placental response to maternal betamethasone may be dependent on the expression of a combination of GR isoforms.

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<![CDATA[A Balance between Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Volumes Controls Spindle Length]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa1ab0ee8fa60ba5d97

Proper assembly of the spindle apparatus is crucially important for faithful chromosome segregation during anaphase. Thanks to the effort over the last decades, we have very detailed information about many events leading to spindle assembly and chromosome segregation, however we still do not understand certain aspects, including, for example, spindle length control. When tight regulation of spindle size is lost, chromosome segregation errors emerge. Currently, there are several hypotheses trying to explain the molecular mechanism of spindle length control. The number of kinetochores, activity of molecular rulers, intracellular gradients, cell size, limiting spindle components, and the balance of the spindle forces seem to contribute to spindle size regulation, however some of these mechanisms are likely specific to a particular cell type. In search for a general regulatory mechanism, in our study we focused on the role of cell size and nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio in this process. To this end, we used relatively large cells isolated from 2-cell mouse embryos. Our results showed that the spindle size upper limit is not reached in these cells and suggest that accurate control of spindle length requires balanced ratio between nuclear and cytoplasmic volumes.

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<![CDATA[Zinc Stabilizes Shank3 at the Postsynaptic Density of Hippocampal Synapses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da3cab0ee8fa60b88443

Shank3 is a postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold protein of the Shank family. Here we use pre-embedding immunogold electron microscopy to investigate factors influencing the distribution of Shank3 at the PSD. In dissociated rat hippocampal cultures under basal conditions, label for Shank3 was concentrated in a broad layer of the PSD, ~20–80 nm from the postsynaptic membrane. Upon depolarization with high K+ (90 mM, 2 min), or application of NMDA (50 μM, 2 min), both the labeling intensity at the PSD and the median distance of label from the postsynaptic membrane increased significantly, indicating that Shank3 molecules are preferentially recruited to the distal layer of the PSD. Incubation in medium supplemented with zinc (50 μM ZnCl2, 1 hr) also significantly increased labeling intensity for Shank3 at the PSD, but this addition of Shank3 was not preferential to the distal layer. When cells were incubated with zinc and then treated with NMDA, labeling intensity of Shank3 became higher than with either treatment alone and manifested a preference for the distal layer of the PSD. Without zinc supplementation, NMDA-induced accumulation of Shank3 at the PSD was transient, reversing within 30 min after return to control medium. However, when zinc was included in culture media throughout the experiment, the NMDA-induced accumulation of Shank3 was largely retained, including Shank3 molecules recruited to the distal layer of the PSD. These results demonstrate that activity induces accumulation of Shank3 at the PSD and that zinc stabilizes PSD-associated Shank3, possibly through strengthening of Shank-Shank association.

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<![CDATA[Structural and Ultrastructural Alterations in Human Olfactory Pathways and Possible Associations with Herpesvirus 6 Infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dac3ab0ee8fa60bb16ff

Structural and ultrastructural alterations in human olfactory pathways and putative associations with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection were studied. The olfactory bulb/tract samples from 20 subjects with an unspecified encephalopathy determined by pathomorphological examination of the brain autopsy, 17 healthy age-matched and 16 younger controls were used. HHV-6 DNA was detected in 60, 29, and 19% of cases in these groups, respectively. In the whole encephalopathy group, significantly more HHV-6 positive neurons and oligodendrocytes were found in the gray matter, whereas, significantly more HHV-6 positive astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia/macrophages and endothelial cells were found in the white matter. Additionally, significantly more HHV-6 positive astrocytes and, in particular, oligodendrocytes were found in the white matter when compared to the gray matter. Furthermore, when only HHV-6 PCR+ encephalopathy cases were studied, we observed similar but stronger associations between HHV-6 positive oligodendrocytes and CD68 positive cells in the white matter. Cellular alterations were additionally evidenced by anti-S100 immunostaining, demonstrating a significantly higher number of S100 positive cells in the gray matter of the whole encephalopathy group when compared to the young controls, and in the white matter when compared to both control groups. In spite the decreased S100 expression in the PCR+ encephalopathy group when compared to PCR- cases and controls, groups demonstrated significantly higher number of S100 positive cells in the white compared to the gray matter. Ultrastructural changes confirming the damage of myelin included irregularity of membranes and ballooning of paranodal loops. This study shows that among the cellular targets of the nervous system, HHV-6 most severely affects oligodendrocytes and the myelin made by them.

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<![CDATA[Segregation and Heritability of Male Sterility in Populations Derived from Progeny of Satsuma Mandarin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db44ab0ee8fa60bd7b35

Male sterility derived from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu) has been used in Japanese citrus breeding programs to obtain seedless cultivars, which is a desirable trait for consumers. Male sterility has often been evaluated by anther development or pollen fertility; however, the inheritance and heritability of male sterility derived from Satsuma is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the mode of inheritance and broad-sense heritability of male sterility derived from Satsuma. Initially, we evaluated the total number of pollen grains per anther and apparent pollen fertility, as indicated by lactophenol blue staining, in 15 citrus cultivars and selections to understand the male sterility of Satsuma. The results indicated that male sterility was primarily caused by decreased number of pollen grains per anther in progeny of Satsuma. We also evaluated these traits in three F1 populations (hyuganatsu × ‘Okitsu No. 56’, ‘Okitsu No. 46’ × ‘Okitsu No. 56’ and ‘Okitsu No. 46’ × ‘Kara’), of which the parents are derived from Satsuma. Individuals in these populations showed strong segregation for number of pollen grains per anther. The apparent fertility of pollen also showed segregation but was almost constant at 70%–90%. The estimated broad-sense heritability for the number of pollen grains per anther was as high as 0.898 in the ‘Okitsu No. 46’ × ‘Okitsu No. 56’ and ‘Okitsu No. 46’ × ‘Kara’ populations. These results indicated that the number of pollen grains per anther primarily determined male sterility among progeny of Satsuma, and this trait was inherited by the progeny. Development of DNA markers closely linked to male sterility using the F1 populations of ‘Okitsu No. 46’ × ‘Okitsu No. 56’ and ‘Okitsu No. 46’ × ‘Kara’ is expected to contribute to the breeding of novel seedless citrus cultivars.

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<![CDATA[Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Ac34 Protein Retains Cellular Actin-Related Protein 2/3 Complex in the Nucleus by Subversion of CRM1-Dependent Nuclear Export]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da59ab0ee8fa60b8f760

Actin, nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs), and the actin-related protein 2/3 complex (Arp2/3) are key elements of the cellular actin polymerization machinery. With nuclear actin polymerization implicated in ever-expanding biological processes and the discovery of the nuclear import mechanisms of actin and NPFs, determining Arp2/3 nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling mechanism is important for understanding the function of nuclear actin. A unique feature of alphabaculovirus infection of insect cells is the robust nuclear accumulation of Arp2/3, which induces actin polymerization in the nucleus to assist in virus replication. We found that Ac34, a viral late gene product encoded by the alphabaculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), is involved in Arp2/3 nuclear accumulation during virus infection. Further assays revealed that the subcellular distribution of Arp2/3 under steady-state conditions is controlled by chromosomal maintenance 1 (CRM1)-dependent nuclear export. Upon AcMNPV infection, Ac34 inhibits CRM1 pathway and leads to Arp2/3 retention in the nucleus.

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<![CDATA[Lethality of mice bearing a knockout of the Ngly1-gene is partially rescued by the additional deletion of the Engase gene]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf25e

The cytoplasmic peptide:N-glycanase (Ngly1 in mammals) is a de-N-glycosylating enzyme that is highly conserved among eukaryotes. It was recently reported that subjects harboring mutations in the NGLY1 gene exhibited severe systemic symptoms (NGLY1-deficiency). While the enzyme obviously has a critical role in mammals, its precise function remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed Ngly1-deficient mice and found that they are embryonic lethal in C57BL/6 background. Surprisingly, the additional deletion of the gene encoding endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Engase), which is another de-N-glycosylating enzyme but leaves a single GlcNAc at glycosylated Asn residues, resulted in the partial rescue of the lethality of the Ngly1-deficient mice. Additionally, we also found that a change in the genetic background of C57BL/6 mice, produced by crossing the mice with an outbred mouse strain (ICR) could partially rescue the embryonic lethality of Ngly1-deficient mice. Viable Ngly1-deficient mice in a C57BL/6 and ICR mixed background, however, showed a very severe phenotype reminiscent of the symptoms of NGLY1-deficiency subjects. Again, many of those defects were strongly suppressed by the additional deletion of Engase in the C57BL/6 and ICR mixed background. The defects observed in Ngly1/Engase-deficient mice (C57BL/6 background) and Ngly1-deficient mice (C57BL/6 and ICR mixed background) closely resembled some of the symptoms of patients with an NGLY1-deficiency. These observations strongly suggest that the Ngly1- or Ngly1/Engase-deficient mice could serve as a valuable animal model for studies related to the pathogenesis of the NGLY1-deficiency, and that cytoplasmic ENGase represents one of the potential therapeutic targets for this genetic disorder.

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<![CDATA[Two Nuclear Localization Signals in USP1 Mediate Nuclear Import of the USP1/UAF1 Complex]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9daab0ee8fa60b67666

The human deubiquitinase USP1 plays important roles in cancer-related processes, such as the DNA damage response, and the maintenance of the undifferentiated state of osteosarcoma cells. USP1 deubiquitinase activity is critically regulated by its interaction with the WD40 repeat-containing protein UAF1. Inhibiting the function of the USP1/UAF1 complex sensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapy, suggesting that this complex is a relevant anticancer target. Intriguingly, whereas UAF1 has been reported to locate in the cytoplasm, USP1 is a nuclear protein, although the sequence motifs that mediate its nuclear import have not been functionally characterized. Here, we identify two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in USP1 and show that these NLSs mediate the nuclear import of the USP1/UAF1 complex. Using a cellular relocation assay based on these results, we map the UAF1-binding site to a highly conserved 100 amino acid motif in USP1. Our data support a model in which USP1 and UAF1 form a complex in the cytoplasm that subsequently translocates to the nucleus through import mediated by USP1 NLSs. Importantly, our findings have practical implications for the development of USP1-directed therapies. First, the UAF1-interacting region of USP1 identified here might be targeted to disrupt the USP1/UAF1 interaction with therapeutic purposes. On the other hand, we describe a cellular relocation assay that can be easily implemented in a high throughput setting to search for drugs that may dissociate the USP1/UAF1 complex.

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