ResearchPad - data-resources-and-analyses https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A GoldenBraid cloning system for synthetic biology in social amoebae]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncce59dea-a6d8-4706-b66d-8586f5d28a63 GoldenBraid is a rapid, modular, and robust cloning system used to assemble and combine genetic elements. Dictyostelium amoebae represent an intriguing synthetic biological chassis with tractable applications in development, chemotaxis, bacteria–host interactions, and allorecognition. We present GoldenBraid as a synthetic biological framework for Dictyostelium, including a library of 250 DNA parts and assemblies and a proof-of-concept strain that illustrates cAMP-chemotaxis with four fluorescent reporters coded by one plasmid.

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<![CDATA[Multi-omic analysis of gametogenesis reveals a novel signature at the promoters and distal enhancers of active genes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N75efa8e7-95dd-4c39-b2cd-36b25226ef1c Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is tightly controlled by the dynamic modification of histones by chemical groups, the diversity of which has largely expanded over the past decade with the discovery of lysine acylations, catalyzed from acyl-coenzymes A. We investigated the dynamics of lysine acetylation and crotonylation on histones H3 and H4 during mouse spermatogenesis. Lysine crotonylation appeared to be of significant abundance compared to acetylation, particularly on Lys27 of histone H3 (H3K27cr) that accumulates in sperm in a cleaved form of H3. We identified the genomic localization of H3K27cr and studied its effects on transcription compared to the classical active mark H3K27ac at promoters and distal enhancers. The presence of both marks was strongly associated with highest gene expression. Assessment of their co-localization with transcription regulators (SLY, SOX30) and chromatin-binding proteins (BRD4, BRDT, BORIS and CTCF) indicated systematic highest binding when both active marks were present and different selective binding when present alone at chromatin. H3K27cr and H3K27ac finally mark the building of some sperm super-enhancers. This integrated analysis of omics data provides an unprecedented level of understanding of gene expression regulation by H3K27cr in comparison to H3K27ac, and reveals both synergistic and specific actions of each histone modification.

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<![CDATA[Quantitative global studies reveal differential translational control by start codon context across the fungal kingdom]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2e9e11aa-a4a2-46b4-bd39-7407f5fb191f

Abstract

Eukaryotic protein synthesis generally initiates at a start codon defined by an AUG and its surrounding Kozak sequence context, but the quantitative importance of this context in different species is unclear. We tested this concept in two pathogenic Cryptococcus yeast species by genome-wide mapping of translation and of mRNA 5′ and 3′ ends. We observed thousands of AUG-initiated upstream open reading frames (uORFs) that are a major contributor to translation repression. uORF use depends on the Kozak sequence context of its start codon, and uORFs with strong contexts promote nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Transcript leaders in Cryptococcus and other fungi are substantially longer and more AUG-dense than in Saccharomyces. Numerous Cryptococcus mRNAs encode predicted dual-localized proteins, including many aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, in which a leaky AUG start codon is followed by a strong Kozak context in-frame AUG, separated by mitochondrial-targeting sequence. Analysis of other fungal species shows that such dual-localization is also predicted to be common in the ascomycete mould, Neurospora crassa. Kozak-controlled regulation is correlated with insertions in translational initiation factors in fidelity-determining regions that contact the initiator tRNA. Thus, start codon context is a signal that quantitatively programs both the expression and the structures of proteins in diverse fungi.

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<![CDATA[The landscape of chimeric RNAs in non-diseased tissues and cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc25219c2-eb13-4797-92fa-a9f871ca35f0

Abstract

Chimeric RNAs and their encoded proteins have been traditionally viewed as unique features of neoplasia, and have been used as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for multiple cancers. Recent studies have demonstrated that chimeric RNAs also exist in non-cancerous cells and tissues, although large-scale, genome-wide studies of chimeric RNAs in non-diseased tissues have been scarce. Here, we explored the landscape of chimeric RNAs in 9495 non-diseased human tissue samples of 53 different tissues from the GTEx project. Further, we established means for classifying chimeric RNAs, and observed enrichment for particular classifications as more stringent filters are applied. We experimentally validated a subset of chimeric RNAs from each classification and demonstrated functional relevance of two chimeric RNAs in non-cancerous cells. Importantly, our list of chimeric RNAs in non-diseased tissues overlaps with some entries in several cancer fusion databases, raising concerns for some annotations. The data from this study provides a large repository of chimeric RNAs present in non-diseased tissues, which can be used as a control dataset to facilitate the identification of true cancer-specific chimeras.

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<![CDATA[Deciphering human ribonucleoprotein regulatory networks]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5f1b98d5eed0c48469b7a4

Abstract

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) control and coordinate each stage in the life cycle of RNAs. Although in vivo binding sites of RBPs can now be determined genome-wide, most studies typically focused on individual RBPs. Here, we examined a large compendium of 114 high-quality transcriptome-wide in vivo RBP–RNA cross-linking interaction datasets generated by the same protocol in the same cell line and representing 64 distinct RBPs. Comparative analysis of categories of target RNA binding preference, sequence preference, and transcript region specificity was performed, and identified potential posttranscriptional regulatory modules, i.e. specific combinations of RBPs that bind to specific sets of RNAs and targeted regions. These regulatory modules represented functionally related proteins and exhibited distinct differences in RNA metabolism, expression variance, as well as subcellular localization. This integrative investigation of experimental RBP–RNA interaction evidence and RBP regulatory function in a human cell line will be a valuable resource for understanding the complexity of post-transcriptional regulation.

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<![CDATA[An expanded landscape of human long noncoding RNA]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N40a6daa5-e7ee-4d0e-8cdc-5082133208c5 Abstract
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key regulators of multiple essential biological processes involved in physiology and pathology. By analyzing the largest compendium of 14,166 samples from normal and tumor tissues, we significantly expand the landscape of human long noncoding RNA with a high-quality atlas: RefLnc (
erence catalog of
RNA). Powered by comprehensive annotation across multiple sources, RefLnc helps to pinpoint 275 novel intergenic lncRNAs correlated with sex, age or race as well as 369 novel ones associated with patient survival, clinical stage, tumor metastasis or recurrence. Integrated in a user-friendly online portal, the expanded catalog of human lncRNAs provides a valuable resource for investigating lncRNA function in both human biology and cancer development.
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<![CDATA[Significant expansion of the REST/NRSF cistrome in human versus mouse embryonic stem cells: potential implications for neural development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bc22ec640307c139d6c5d63

Recent studies have employed cross-species comparisons of transcription factor binding, reporting significant regulatory network ‘rewiring’ between species. Here, we address how a transcriptional repressor targets and regulates neural genes differentially between human and mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We find that the transcription factor, Repressor Element 1 Silencing Transcription factor (REST; also called neuron restrictive silencer factor) binds to a core group of ∼1200 syntenic genomic regions in both species, with these conserved sites highly enriched with co-factors, selective histone modifications and DNA hypomethylation. Genes with conserved REST binding are enriched with neural functions and more likely to be upregulated upon REST depletion. Interestingly, we identified twice as many REST peaks in human ESCs compared to mouse ESCs. Human REST cistrome expansion involves additional peaks in genes targeted by REST in both species and human-specific gene targets. Genes with expanded REST occupancy in humans are enriched for learning or memory functions. Analysis of neurological disorder associated genes reveals that Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and oxidative stress genes are particularly enriched with human-specific REST binding. Overall, our results demonstrate that there is substantial rewiring of human and mouse REST cistromes, and that REST may have human-specific roles in brain development and functions.

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<![CDATA[Elucidation of transcriptome-wide microRNA binding sites in human cardiac tissues by Ago2 HITS-CLIP]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b0277e9463d7e58d83aa8d2

MicroRNAs (miRs) have emerged as key biological effectors in human health and disease. These small noncoding RNAs are incorporated into Argonaute (Ago) proteins, where they direct post-transcriptional gene silencing via base-pairing with target transcripts. Although miRs have become intriguing biological entities and attractive therapeutic targets, the translational impacts of miR research remain limited by a paucity of empirical miR targeting data, particularly in human primary tissues. Here, to improve our understanding of the diverse roles miRs play in cardiovascular function and disease, we applied high-throughput methods to globally profile miR:target interactions in human heart tissues. We deciphered Ago2:RNA interactions using crosslinking immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (HITS-CLIP) to generate the first transcriptome-wide map of miR targeting events in human myocardium, detecting 4000 cardiac Ago2 binding sites across >2200 target transcripts. Our initial exploration of this interactome revealed an abundance of miR target sites in gene coding regions, including several sites pointing to new miR-29 functions in regulating cardiomyocyte calcium, growth and metabolism. Also, we uncovered several clinically-relevant interactions involving common genetic variants that alter miR targeting events in cardiomyopathy-associated genes. Overall, these data provide a critical resource for bolstering translational miR research in heart, and likely beyond.

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