ResearchPad - database-searching https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Meta-analysis of the correlation between dietary copper supply and broiler performance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15740 To conduct a meta-analysis assessing the correlation between dietary copper supply and broiler performanceMethodsStudies that were published prior to January 2019 and reported the dietary copper supply and broiler growth performance were identified using search functions in the Web of Science, Springer, Elsevier, Science Direct, and Taylor & Francis Online databases; the Journal of Dairy Research; and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We performed stratified analyses on the possible sources of bias, including differences in the study locations and years of publication. The publication bias was assessed with Egger’s test method.ResultsA total of 12 randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies were eligible for inclusion. The pooled WMDs of the ADG, ADFI and FCR were -0.166 (95% CI: -1.587 to 1.254), -0.844 (95% CI: -1.536 to -0.152) and -0.029 (95% CI: -0.057 to 0.000), respectively. In the Israeli and Indian studies, the ADG and ADFI data in the experimental group were higher than those in the control group; however, in America, a relatively high FCR value was found in the experimental group compared to that in the control group. The analysis of the study period showed that for the 1980s and 2010s, the ADG and ADFI of the experimental group were lower than those of the control group, while, in the 1990s and 2010s, the FCR of the experimental group were lower than those of the control group. The observed values were adjusted for study effects, and a model was used to obtain the copper supplementation under the optimal production performance. The results showed that the adjusted average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed to gain ratio (FCR) presented a quadratic relationship with Cu supplementation (P<0.05). The maximum value of ADG (31.84 g/d) is reached when Cu is added at amount of 158 mg/kg, and the minimum value of FCR (1.53) is reached when Cu is added at amount of 217 mg/kg. No significant publication bias existed in the studies (Egger's test: P value were 0.81, 0.71 and 0.14).ConclusionFrom this study, it can be concluded that the traditional copper addition is no longer suitable for modern broiler breeding; the higher copper content may be beneficial for the production performance of broilers. ]]> <![CDATA[Effects of exercise, cognitive, and dual-task interventions on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14549 Previous evidence has shown significant effects of exercise, cognitive and dual-task training for improving cognition in healthy cohorts. The effects of these types of interventions in type 2 diabetes mellitus is unclear. The aim of this research was to systematically review evidence, and estimate the effect, of exercise, cognitive, and dual-task interventions on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus.MethodElectronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and MEDLINE were searched for ongoing and completed interventional trials investigating the effect of either an exercise, cognitive or dual-task intervention on cognition in type 2 diabetes mellitus.ResultsNine trials met the inclusion criteria–one dual-task, two cognitive, and six exercise. Meta-analyses of exercise trials showed no significant effects of exercise on measures of executive function (Stroop task, SMD = -0.31, 95% CI -0.71–0.09, P = 0.13, trail making test part A SMD = 0.28, 95% CI -0.20–0.77 P = 0.25, trail making test part B SMD = -0.15, 95% CI -0.64–0.34 P = 0.54, digit symbol SMD = 0.09, 95% CI -0.39–0.57 P = 0.72), and memory (immediate memory SMD = 0.20, 95% CI -0.28–0.69, P = 0.41 and delayed memory SMD = -0.06, 95% CI -0.55–0.42, P = 0.80). A meta-analysis could not be conducted using cognitive or dual-task data, but individual trials did report a favourable effect of interventions on cognition. Risk of bias was considered moderate to high for the majority of included trials.ConclusionsMeta-analyses of exercise trials identified a small effect size (0.31), which whilst not significant warrants further investigation. Larger and more robust trials are needed that report evidence using appropriate reporting guidelines (e.g. CONSORT) to increase confidence in the validity of results.Trial registrationProtocol was registered (CRD42017058526) on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO). ]]> <![CDATA[Barriers and facilitating factors in the prevention of diabetes type 2 and gestational diabetes in vulnerable groups: A scoping review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13859 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gestational diabetes (GDM) are globally on the rise, accompanied by comorbidities and associated health costs. Increased physical activity, healthy nutrition, and weight loss have shown the potential to prevent T2DM/GDM. Despite this, reaching vulnerable groups remains a key challenge. The aim of this scoping review was to identify barriers and facilitating factors in the prevention of T2DM/GDM in vulnerable groups.MethodsWe conducted a systematic literature search in May 2018, updated in September 2019, in several databases (e.g. PubMed, Embase) to identify barriers and facilitating factors in the prevention of T2DM/GDM in vulnerable groups. Two reviewers independently screened the results. Extracted data was charted, categorized, and summarized.ResultsWe included 125 articles. Ninety-eight studies were extracted, and eight categories of barriers and facilitating factors were formed. The most common categories of barriers were limited knowledge, family/friends, and economic factors, and the most common categories of facilitating factors were family/friends, social support, and knowledge.ConclusionThis scoping review identified various barriers and facilitating factors in vulnerable groups. Preventive interventions should consider these barriers and facilitating factors in developing preventive interventions or in adapting existing ones. ]]> <![CDATA[Drug induced pancreatitis: A systematic review of case reports to determine potential drug associations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8c4889da-2d62-467b-8b66-b271dff2cf8d

Objective

A current assessment of case reports of possible drug-induced pancreatitis is needed. We systematically reviewed the case report literature to identify drugs with potential associations with acute pancreatitis and the burden of evidence supporting these associations.

Methods

A protocol was developed a priori (PROSPERO CRD42017060473). We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and additional sources to identify cases of drug-induced pancreatitis that met accepted diagnostic criteria of acute pancreatitis. Cases caused by multiple drugs or combination therapy were excluded. Established systematic review methods were used for screening and data extraction. A classification system for associated drugs was developed a priori based upon the number of cases, re-challenge, exclusion of non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis, and consistency of latency.

Results

Seven-hundred and thirteen cases of potential drug-induced pancreatitis were identified, implicating 213 unique drugs. The evidence base was poor: exclusion of non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis was incomplete or poorly reported in all cases, 47% had at least one underlying condition predisposing to acute pancreatitis, and causality assessment was not conducted in 81%. Forty-five drugs (21%) were classified as having the highest level of evidence regarding their association with acute pancreatitis; causality was deemed to be probable or definite for 19 of these drugs (42%). Fifty-seven drugs (27%) had the lowest level of evidence regarding an association with acute pancreatitis, being implicated in single case reports, without exclusion of other causes of acute pancreatitis.

Discussion

Much of the case report evidence upon which drug-induced pancreatitis associations are based is tenuous. A greater emphasis on exclusion of all non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis and on quality reporting would improve the evidence base. It should be recognized that reviews of case reports, are valuable scoping tools but have limited strength to establish drug-induced pancreatitis associations.

Registration

CRD42017060473.

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<![CDATA[Association between boarding in the emergency department and in-hospital mortality: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N48ef4c13-827b-4694-911d-7d7581473712

Importance

Boarding in the emergency department (ED) is a critical indicator of quality of care for hospitals. It is defined as the time between the admission decision and departure from the ED. As a result of boarding, patients stay in the ED until inpatient beds are available; moreover, boarding is associated with various adverse events.

Study objective

The objective of our systematic review was to determine whether ED boarding (EDB) time is associated with in-hospital mortality (IHM).

Methods

A systematic search was conducted in academic databases to identify relevant studies. Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL and PsychInfo were searched. We included all peer-reviewed published studies from all previous years until November 2018. Studies performed in the ED and focused on the association between EDB and IHM as the primary objective were included. Extracted data included study characteristics, prognostic factors, outcomes, and IHM. A search update in PubMed was performed in May 2019 to ensure the inclusion of recent studies before publishing.

Results

From the initial 4,321 references found through the systematic search, the manual screening of reference lists and the updated search in PubMed, a total of 12 studies were identified as eligible for a descriptive analysis. Overall, six studies found an association between EDB and IHM, while five studies showed no association. The last remaining study included both ICU and non-ICU subgroups and showed conflicting results, with a positive association for non-ICU patients but no association for ICU patients. Overall, a tendency toward an association between EDB and IHM using the pool random effect was observed.

Conclusion

Our systematic review did not find a strong evidence for the association between ED boarding and IHM but there is a tendency toward this association. Further well-controlled, international multicenter studies are needed to demonstrate whether this association exists and whether there is a specific EDB time cut-off that results in increased IHM.

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<![CDATA[Neonatal sepsis in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis on national prevalence and causative pathogens]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc80eb6d8-6c1e-4acb-a5fa-a329abafdd28

Background

Neonatal sepsis is accounted for 30–50% of annual neonatal deaths in developing countries. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis study to evaluate the national prevalence and identification of the etiological pathogens of neonatal sepsis in Iran.

Methods

A comprehensive literature search was done on the national and international databases for studies published between 2000 and 2019. The DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model was used to calculate pooled prevalence estimates, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses and meta-regressions regarding the gender, type of sepsis and time during were also performed. Data were extracted, analyzed, and presented according to PRISMA guideline.

Results

Of 944 publications identified, 22 studies containing 14,683 neonates met the eligibility criteria. The pooled national prevalence of sepsis in Iran was 15.98% (95%CI, 11.96–20.46%; 1,367/14,683). Prevalence rate in boys (20.42%; 95%CI, 9.03–34.8%) was slightly higher than girls (18.5%; 95%CI, 7.4–32.8). A decreasing trend in prevalence of neonatal sepsis was found in recent years, although not statistically significant (c = -0.005; P value = 0.4). The most prevalent causative bacterial pathogens were Enterobacter spp. (23.04%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.54%), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (14.06%), Escherichia coli (13.92%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.67%), and Staphylococcus aureus (11.48%).

Conclusion

Our findings showed a high prevalence of neonatal sepsis in suspected neonates, suggesting the need to implement preventive measures, routine assessment, and close monitoring of neonates. Also, Enterobacter spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae were identified as the principal bacterial pathogens responsible for neonatal septicemia in Iran.

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<![CDATA[All of gene expression (AOE): An integrated index for public gene expression databases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N65b3f432-723a-4d59-a70d-2c0d696b62b7

Gene expression data have been archived as microarray and RNA-seq datasets in two public databases, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and ArrayExpress (AE). In 2018, the DNA DataBank of Japan started a similar repository called the Genomic Expression Archive (GEA). These databases are useful resources for the functional interpretation of genes, but have been separately maintained and may lack RNA-seq data, while the original sequence data are available in the Sequence Read Archive (SRA). We constructed an index for those gene expression data repositories, called All Of gene Expression (AOE), to integrate publicly available gene expression data. The web interface of AOE can graphically query data in addition to the application programming interface. By collecting gene expression data from RNA-seq in the SRA, AOE also includes data not included in GEO and AE. AOE is accessible as a search tool from the GEA website and is freely available at https://aoe.dbcls.jp/.

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<![CDATA[Withdrawn medicines included in the essential medicines lists of 136 countries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfc60a8e8-cffd-4562-8a11-e8128980c61b

Background

Essential medicines lists and related policies are intended to meet the priority health needs of populations and their implementation is associated with more appropriate use of medicines. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries carefully select the medicines to be included in their national essential medicines lists. Lists that are used to prioritize access to important treatments should not include medicines that have been withdrawn elsewhere because of an unfavourable benefit-to-harm balance; however, countries still list and use medicines that have been withdrawn worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine whether the national essential medicines lists of 137 countries include medicines that have been withdrawn in other countries.

Methods and findings

We performed an audit of national essential medicines lists for medicines that had been withdrawn. Medicines withdrawn from worldwide markets between 1953 and 2014 were identified using a systematic review of published literature and regulatory documents. The reviewers used sources including the WHO’s database of drugs, PubMed, and the websites of regulatory agencies to obtain information regarding adverse effects associated with the medicines, the year of first withdrawal, markets of withdrawal, and the level of evidence supporting each withdrawal. We recorded the number of countries with a withdrawn medicine included in their national medicines list, the number of withdrawn medicines included in each nation’s list, and the number of national essential medicines including each withdrawn medicine. 97 medicines were withdrawn in at least one country but still included in one more national essential medicines list. Of 137 countries with a national essential medicines list, 136 lists included at least one withdrawn medicine, with 54% of the lists containing 5 or fewer withdrawn medicines, and 27% including 10 or more withdrawn medicines. 11 medicines were withdrawn worldwide but still included on at least one national essential medicines list. Countries with longer essential medicines lists had more withdrawn medicines included in their lists.

Conclusions

This study found that withdrawn medicines are included in all but one national essential medicines list, representing a need for more stringent processes for selecting and removing medicines on these lists. Countries may wish to apply special scrutiny to medicines withdrawn in other nations when selecting medicines to include on their lists.

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<![CDATA[Just how miserable is work? A meta-analysis comparing work and non-work affect]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8823b0d5eed0c484638e4a

Although we spend much of our waking hours working, the emotional experience of work, versus non-work, remains unclear. While the large literature on work stress suggests that work generally is aversive, some seminal theory and findings portray working as salubrious and perhaps as an escape from home life. Here, we examine the subjective experience of work (versus non-work) by conducting a quantitative review of 59 primary studies that assessed affect on working days. Meta-analyses of within-day studies indicated that there was no difference in positive affect (PA) between work versus non-work domains. Negative affect (NA) was higher for work than non-work, although the magnitude of difference was small (i.e., .22 SD, an effect size comparable to that of the difference in NA between different leisure activities like watching TV versus playing board games). Moderator analyses revealed that PA was relatively higher at work and NA relatively lower when affect was measured using “real-time” measurement (e.g., Experience Sampling Methodology) versus measured using the Day Reconstruction Method (i.e., real-time reports reveal a more favorable view of work as compared to recall/DRM reports). Additional findings from moderator analyses included significant differences in main effect sizes as a function of the specific affect, and, for PA, as a function of the age of the sample and the time of day when the non-work measurements were taken. Results for the other possible moderators including job complexity and affect intensity were not statistically significant.

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<![CDATA[How is women’s demand for caesarean section measured? A systematic literature review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c89779cd5eed0c4847d317e

Background

Caesarean section rates are increasing worldwide, and since the 2000s, several researchers have investigated women’s demand for caesarean sections.

Question

The aim of this article was to review and summarise published studies investigating caesarean section demand and to describe the methodologies, outcomes, country characteristics and country income levels in these studies.

Methods

This is a systematic review of studies published between 2000 and 2017 in French and English that quantitatively measured women’s demand for caesarean sections. We carried out a systematic search using the Medline database in PubMed.

Findings

The search strategy identified 390 studies, 41 of which met the final inclusion criteria, representing a total sample of 3 774 458 women. We identified two different study designs, i.e., cross-sectional studies and prospective cohort studies, that are commonly used to measure social demand for caesarean sections. Two different types of outcomes were reported, i.e., the preferences of pregnant or non-pregnant women regarding the method of childbirth in the future and caesarean delivery following maternal request. No study measured demand for caesarean section during the childbirth process. All included studies were conducted in middle- (n = 24) and high-income countries (n = 17), and no study performed in a low-income country was found.

Discussion

Measuring caesarean section demand is challenging, and the structural violence leading to demand for caesarean section during childbirth while in the labour ward remains invisible. In addition, the caesarean section demand in low-income countries remains unclear due to the lack of studies conducted in these countries.

Conclusion

We recommend conducting prospective cohort studies to describe the social construction of caesarean section demand. We also recommend conducting studies in low-income countries because demand for caesarean sections in these countries is rarely investigated.

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<![CDATA[The efficacy of stress reappraisal interventions on stress responsivity: A meta-analysis and systematic review of existing evidence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c803c54d5eed0c484ad86da

Background

The beliefs we hold about stress play an important role in coping with stressors. Various theoretical frameworks of stress point to the efficacy of reframing stress-related information through brief reappraisal interventions in order to promote adaptive coping.

Purpose

The goal of the current meta-analysis and systematic review is to substantiate the efficacy of reappraisal interventions on stress responsivity compared to control conditions. Differences in experimental methodologies (e.g., type of stressor used, timing of reappraisal intervention, and content of intervention instructions) will be examined to further delineate their effects on intervention outcomes.

Methods

The literature searches were conducted on May 16, 2018 using PsycINFO, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, and PILOTS databases with no date restriction. The search terms included stress, reframing, reappraisal, mindset and reconceptualising. A total of 14 articles with 36 independent samples were included in the meta-analysis, while 22 articles with 46 independent samples were included in the systematic review. Random-effects model was used to test the null hypothesis using two-tailed significance testing. Fisher’s Z value was reported for each corresponding test. Heterogeneity tests are reported via Cochran’s Q-statistics.

Results

Findings from both the meta-analysis and systematic review revealed that overall, reappraisal interventions are effective in attenuating subjective responsivity to stress. Standard differences in means across groups are 0.429 (SE = 0.185, 95% CI = 0.067 to 0.791; z = 2.320, p = .020). However, reappraisal intervention groups did not outperform control groups on measures of physiological stress, with standard differences of -0.084 (SE = 0.135, 95% CI = -0.349 to 0.180; z = -0.627, p = .531). Moderator analysis revealed heterogeneous effects suggesting large variability in findings.

Conclusions

On one hand, findings may suggest a promising avenue for the effective management of self-reported stress and optimization of stress responses. However, more research is needed to better elucidate the effects, if any, of reappraisal interventions on stress physiology. Implications for the use of reappraisal interventions on stress optimization are discussed in the context of theoretical frameworks and considerations for future studies.

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<![CDATA[Effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines against invasive pneumococcal disease among children under five years of age in Africa: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c75ac73d5eed0c484d087d7

Background

Despite the widespread implementation of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the leading cause of severe pneumonia associated with mortality among children less than 5 years of age worldwide, with the highest mortality rates recorded in Africa and Asia. However, information on the effectiveness and prevalence of vaccine serotypes post-roll out remains scarce in most African countries. Hence, this systematic review aimed to describe what is known about the decline of childhood invasive pneumococcal disease post-introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Africa.

Methods

This systematic review included articles published between 2009 and 2018 on the implementation of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Africa. We searched PubMed, Scopus and African Index Medicus for articles in English. Studies on implementation programmes of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 10/13, with before and after data from different African countries, were considered eligible. The review followed the procedures published in PROSPERO (ID = CRD42016049192).

Results

In total, 2,280 studies were identified through electronic database research, and only 8 studies were eligible for inclusion in the final analysis. Approximately half (n = 3) of these studies were from South Africa. The overall decline in invasive pneumococcal disease ranged from 31.7 to 80.1%. Invasive pneumococcal diseases caused by vaccine serotypes declined significantly, the decline ranged from 35.0 to 92.0%. A much higher decline (55.0–89.0%) was found in children below 24 months of age. Of all vaccine serotypes, the relative proportions of serotypes 1, 5 and 19A doubled following vaccine roll out.

Interpretation

Following the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, a significant decline was observed in invasive pneumococcal disease caused by vaccine serotypes. However, data on the effectiveness in this region remain scarce, meriting continued surveillance to assess the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination to improve protection against invasive pneumococcal disease.

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<![CDATA[Growing evidence of Plasmodium vivax across malaria-endemic Africa]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c5ca2d6d5eed0c48441eb93

Effective malaria control strategies require an accurate understanding of the epidemiology of locally transmitted Plasmodium species. Compared to Plasmodium falciparum infection, Plasmodium vivax has a lower asexual parasitaemia, forms dormant liver-stages (hypnozoites), and is more transmissible. Hence, treatment and diagnostic policies aimed exclusively at P. falciparum are far less efficient against endemic P. vivax. Within sub-Saharan Africa, malaria control programmes justly focus on reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with P. falciparum. However, the recent emphasis on malaria elimination and increased accessibility of more sensitive diagnostic tools have revealed greater intricacies in malaria epidemiology across the continent. Since 2010, the number of studies identifying P. vivax endemic to Africa has expanded considerably, with 88 new scientific reports published since a review of evidence in 2015, approximately doubling the available data. There is evidence of P. vivax in all regions of Africa, apparent from infected vectors, clinical cases, serological indicators, parasite prevalence, exported infections, and P. vivax-infected Duffy-negative individuals. Where the prevalence of microscopic parasitaemia is low, a greater proportion of P. vivax infections were observed relative to P. falciparum. This evidence highlights an underlying widespread presence of P. vivax across all malaria-endemic regions of Africa, further complicating the current practical understanding of malaria epidemiology in this region. Thus, ultimate elimination of malaria in Africa will require national malaria control programmes to adopt policy and practice aimed at all human species of malaria.

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<![CDATA[Description of network meta-analysis geometry: A metrics design study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe29d5eed0c484e5b60f

Background

The conduction and report of network meta-analysis (NMA), including the presentation of the network-plot, should be transparent. We aimed to propose metrics adapted from graph theory and social network-analysis literature to numerically describe NMA geometry.

Methods

A previous systematic review of NMAs of pharmacological interventions was performed. Data on the graph’s presentation were collected. Network-plots were reproduced using Gephi 0.9.1. Eleven geometric metrics were tested. The Spearman test for non-parametric correlation analyses and the Bland-Altman and Lin’s Concordance tests were performed (IBM SPSS Statistics 24.0).

Results

From the 477 identified NMAs only 167 graphs could be reproduced because they provided enough information on the plot characteristics. The median nodes and edges were 8 (IQR 6–11) and 10 (IQR 6–16), respectively, with 22 included studies (IQR 13–35). Metrics such as density (median 0.39, ranged 0.07–1.00), median thickness (2.0, IQR 1.0–3.0), percentages of common comparators (median 68%), and strong edges (median 53%) were found to contribute to the description of NMA geometry. Mean thickness, average weighted degree and average path length produced similar results than other metrics, but they can lead to misleading conclusions.

Conclusions

We suggest the incorporation of seven simple metrics to report NMA geometry. Editors and peer-reviews should ensure that guidelines for NMA report are strictly followed before publication.

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<![CDATA[The effectiveness of using entertainment education narratives to promote safer sexual behaviors of youth: A meta-analysis, 1985-2017]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c758ed5eed0c4843cfe95

Background

Risky sexual behaviors are associated with the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, both major health concerns for youth worldwide. This review studies the effectiveness of narrated mass media programs in promoting safer sexual practices among youth in developed and developing countries.

Methods

Electronic and manual searches were conducted to identify experimental and quasi-experimental studies with robust counterfactual designs published between 1985 and the first quarter of 2017. Effect sizes were meta-analyzed using mixed-effects models.

Results

Eight experimental and two quasi-experimental studies met our inclusion criteria. The aggregated sample size was 23,476 participants, with a median of 902 participants per study. Entertainment education narratives had small but significant effects for three sexual behaviors. It reduced the number of sexual partners [standardized mean difference, (SMD) = 0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.02–0.33, three effect sizes], reduced unprotected sex (SMD = 0.08, 95% CI = 0.03–0.12, nine effect sizes), and increased testing and management for STIs (SMD = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.11–0.46, two effect sizes). The interventions were not effective in reducing inter-generational sex, measured through the age-gap with sexual partners (SMD = 0.06, 95% CI = -0.06–0.19, four effect sizes). Entertainment education had medium-size effects on knowledge outcomes (SMD = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.32–1.02, seven effect sizes), where a time-decay relationship is observed. No effects were found on attitudes.

Conclusion

Although mass media entertainment had small effects in promoting safer sexual practices, its economies of scales over face-to-face interventions suggest its potential to be a cost-effective tool above an audience threshold. The use of study participants from the general youth population and the use of mostly effectiveness trials mitigate concerns regarding its scalability. The overall paucity of high-quality studies affirms the need for strengthening the evidence base of entertainment education. Future research should be undertaken to understand the moderator effects for different subgroups and intervention characteristics.

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<![CDATA[A combined computational strategy of sequence and structural analysis predicts the existence of a functional eicosanoid pathway in Drosophila melanogaster]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6c7583d5eed0c4843cfe40

This study reports on a putative eicosanoid biosynthesis pathway in Drosophila melanogaster and challenges the currently held view that mechanistic routes to synthesize eicosanoid or eicosanoid-like biolipids do not exist in insects, since to date, putative fly homologs of most mammalian enzymes have not been identified. Here we use systematic and comprehensive bioinformatics approaches to identify most of the mammalian eicosanoid synthesis enzymes. Sensitive sequence analysis techniques identified candidate Drosophila enzymes that share low global sequence identities with their human counterparts. Twenty Drosophila candidates were selected based upon (a) sequence identity with human enzymes of the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase branches, (b) similar domain architecture and structural conservation of the catalytic domain, and (c) presence of potentially equivalent functional residues. Evaluation of full-length structural models for these 20 top-scoring Drosophila candidates revealed a surprising degree of conservation in their overall folds and potential analogs for functional residues in all 20 enzymes. Although we were unable to identify any suitable candidate for lipoxygenase enzymes, we report structural homology models of three fly cyclooxygenases. Our findings predict that the D. melanogaster genome likely codes for one or more pathways for eicosanoid or eicosanoid-like biolipid synthesis. Our study suggests that classical and/or novel eicosanoids mediators must regulate biological functions in insects–predictions that can be tested with the power of Drosophila genetics. Such experimental analysis of eicosanoid biology in a simple model organism will have high relevance to human development and health.

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<![CDATA[Cost of illness and program of dengue: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe4bd5eed0c484e5b846

Background

Studies on dengue related to the cost of illness and cost of the program are factors to describe the economic burden of dengue, a neglected disease that has global importance in public health. These studies are often used by health managers in optimizing financial resources. A systematic review of studies estimating the cost of dengue was carried out, comparing the costs between the studies and examining the cost drivers regarding the methodological choices.

Methods

This study was done according to the guidelines of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD). Several databases were searched: Medline, Virtual Health Library and CRD. Two researchers, working independently, selected the studies and extracted the data. The quality of the methodology of the individual studies was achieved by a checklist of 29 items based on protocols proposed by the British Medical Journal and Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards. A qualitative and quantitative narrative synthesis was performed.

Results

A literature search yielded 665 publications. Of these, 22 studies are in accordance with previously established inclusion criteria. The cost estimates were compared amongst the studies, highlighting the study design, included population and comparators used (study methodology). The component costs included in the economic evaluation were based on direct and indirect costs, wherein twelve studies included both costs, twelve studies adopted the societal perspective and ten studies used the perspective of the public health service provider, or of a private budget holder.

Conclusion

This study showed that the cost of dengue in 18 countries generated approximately US$ 3.3 billion Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) in 2015. This confirms that the burden of dengue has a great economic impact on countries with common socioeconomic characteristics and similarities in health systems, particularly developing countries, indicating a need for further studies in these countries.

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<![CDATA[Effects of angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism on hypertension in Africa: A meta-analysis and systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6f1488d5eed0c48467a24c

Background

Hypertension is dramatically increasing in Africa with evidence of increased severity and resistance to treatment. Although angiotensin converting enzyme gene polymorphism is associated with higher prevalence of hypertension, the evidence is inconclusive on its influence on the emerging pattern in Africa. This meta-analysis is conducted to pool the available evidence to inform future research and interventions.

Methods

Articles published through May 2018 were systematically searched in PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE databases. Studies were assessed for inclusion by two independent researchers. Six models were used to assess the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme deletion-insertion gene polymorphism. Heterogeneity and publication bias were tested and sensitivity analysis was carried out. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were measured for pooled effect. Both random effect and fixed effect models were used, whilst the frequency of DD, II and DI genotypes were computed and compared.

Result

Patients with D allele were 1.49 times more likely to develop essential hypertension compared with patients who carry the I allele (OR:1.49; CI:1.07, 2.07). Similarly, patients who had homozygous co-dominance genotype DD (i.e., DD vs II) were at a 2.17 times higher risk of essential hypertension compared to the co-dominant genotype II (OR:2.17, CI:1.79, 3.18), dominant model (I.e., DD+ID vs II) (OR:1.48; CI:1.03, 2.12), and recessive model (OR:1.64; CI:1.03, 2.61). On subgroup analysis, participants from Sub-Saharan Africa were more genetically susceptible to hypertension compared to their North Africa counterparts. There was no publication bias found, but there was high to moderate heterogeneity.

Conclusion

ACE I/D polymorphism is associated with essential hypertension in Africa in the allele contrast model, as well as the dominant, recessive and homozygous codominance model. On subgroup analysis, ACE I/D was associated with essential hypertension in patients from Sub-Saharan Africa but not in North Africa. A future large scale study, which includes different ethnic groups, is recommended.

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<![CDATA[Evolution of the modular, disordered stress proteins known as dehydrins]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648d51d5eed0c484c8254c

Dehydrins, plant proteins that are upregulated during dehydration stress conditions, have modular sequences that can contain three conserved motifs (the Y-, S-, and K-segments). The presence and order of these motifs are used to classify dehydrins into one of five architectures: Kn, SKn, KnS, YnKn, and YnSKn, where the subscript n describes the number of copies of that motif. In this study, an architectural and phylogenetic analysis was performed on 426 dehydrin sequences that were identified in 53 angiosperm and 3 gymnosperm genomes. It was found that angiosperms contained all five architectures, while gymnosperms only contained Kn and SKn dehydrins. This suggests that the ancestral dehydrin in spermatophytes was either Kn or SKn, and the Y-segment containing dehydrins first arose in angiosperms. A high-level split between the YnSKn dehydrins from either the Kn or SKn dehydrins could not be confidently identified, however, two lower level architectural divisions appear to have occurred after different duplication events. The first likely occurred after a whole genome duplication, resulting in the duplication of a Y3SK2 dehydrin; the duplicate subsequently lost an S- and K- segment to become a Y3K1 dehydrin. The second split occurred after a tandem duplication of a Y1SK2 dehydrin, where the duplicate lost both the Y- and S- segment and gained four K-segments, resulting in a K6 dehydrin. We suggest that the newly arisen Y3K1 dehydrin is possibly on its way to pseudogenization, while the newly arisen K6 dehydrin developed a novel function in cold protection.

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<![CDATA[TIM family gene polymorphism and susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis: Systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c65dcedd5eed0c484dec596

Background

TIM-family proteins are expressed on different immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, type 1 and 2 T helper (Th) cells. Therefore, they have the ability to contribute to the various intracellular signals and immune responses, importantly the regulation of Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation, which plays a remarked role in fight against inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Association of TIM family gene polymorphisms with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been frequently investigated. The findings however are not entirely consistent. Therefore, we carried out the present meta-analysis to examine the association between RA and the following TIM family gene polymorphisms: rs41297579, rs1036199, rs10515746, and rs7700944.

Methods

A systematic search of Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science databases was conducted through December 2018. Combined odds ratios (OR) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated under different possible genetic models.

Results

A total of eight case-control studies were included in the present meta-analysis. The results demonstrated significant association of RA with TIM-3 rs1036199 polymorphism under dominant (OR, 1.93, 95% CI, 1.43–2.61) and allelic models (OR, 1.74, 95% CI, 1.31–2.30). None of the other examined polymorphisms indicated significant association with RA.

Conclusions

The present meta-analysis revealed that the TIM-3 rs1036199 polymorphism might confer susceptibility to RA. Further studies are required to reassert our findings.

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