ResearchPad - deletion-mutation https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The degradation-promoting roles of deubiquitinases Ubp6 and Ubp3 in cytosolic and ER protein quality control]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14498 The quality control of intracellular proteins is achieved by degrading misfolded proteins which cannot be refolded by molecular chaperones. In eukaryotes, such degradation is handled primarily by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. However, it remained unclear whether and how protein quality control deploys various deubiquitinases. To address this question, we screened deletions or mutation of the 20 deubiquitinase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and discovered that almost half of the mutations slowed the removal of misfolded proteins whereas none of the remaining mutations accelerated this process significantly. Further characterization revealed that Ubp6 maintains the level of free ubiquitin to promote the elimination of misfolded cytosolic proteins, while Ubp3 supports the degradation of misfolded cytosolic and ER luminal proteins by different mechanisms.

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<![CDATA[Targeted next generation sequencing can serve as an alternative to conventional tests in myeloid neoplasms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c897760d5eed0c4847d2b67

The 2016 World Health Organization classification introduced a number of genes with somatic mutations and a category for germline predisposition syndromes in myeloid neoplasms. We have designed a comprehensive next-generation sequencing assay to detect somatic mutations, translocations, and germline mutations in a single assay and have evaluated its clinical utility in patients with myeloid neoplasms. Extensive and specified bioinformatics analyses were undertaken to detect single nucleotide variations, FLT3 internal tandem duplication, genic copy number variations, and chromosomal copy number variations. This enabled us to maximize the clinical utility of the assay, and we concluded that, as a single assay, it can be a good supplement for many conventional tests, including Sanger sequencing, RT-PCR, and cytogenetics. Of note, we found that 8.4–11.6% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia and 12.9% of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms had germline mutations, and most were heterozygous carriers for autosomal recessive marrow failure syndromes. These patients often did not respond to standard chemotherapy, suggesting that germline predisposition may have distinct and significant clinical implications.

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<![CDATA[Dominance reversals and the maintenance of genetic variation for fitness]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59feefd5eed0c4841357e1

Antagonistic selection between different fitness components (e.g., survival versus fertility) or different types of individuals in a population (e.g., females versus males) can potentially maintain genetic diversity and thereby account for the high levels of fitness variation observed in natural populations. However, the degree to which antagonistic selection can maintain genetic variation critically depends on the dominance relations between antagonistically selected alleles in diploid individuals. Conditions for stable polymorphism of antagonistically selected alleles are narrow, particularly when selection is weak, unless the alleles exhibit “dominance reversals”—in which each allele is partially or completely dominant in selective contexts in which it is favored and recessive in contexts in which it is harmful. Although theory predicts that dominance reversals should emerge under biologically plausible conditions, evidence for dominance reversals is sparse. In this primer, we review theoretical arguments and data supporting a role for dominance reversals in the maintenance of genetic variation. We then highlight an illuminating new study by Grieshop and Arnqvist, which reports a genome-wide signal of dominance reversals between male and female fitness in seed beetles.

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<![CDATA[The catabolism of 3,3’-thiodipropionic acid in Variovorax paradoxus strain TBEA6: A proteomic analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b26a2d5eed0c484289dc6

Variovorax paradoxus strain TBEA6 is one of the few organisms known to utilize 3,3’-thiodipropionate (TDP) as the only source of carbon and energy. It cleaves TDP to 3-mercaptopropionate (3MP), which is a direct precursor for polythioester synthesis. To establish this process in V. paradoxus TBEA6, it is crucial to unravel its TDP metabolism. Therefore, a proteomic approach with subsequent deletion of interesting genes in the bacterium was chosen. Cells were cultivated with D-gluconate, TDP or 3-sulfinopropionate as the only carbon sources. Proteins with high abundances in gels of cells cultivated with either of the organic sulfur compounds were analyzed further. Thereby, we did not only confirm parts of the already postulated TDP metabolism, but also eight new protein candidates for TDP degradation were detected. Deletions of the corresponding genes (two enoyl-CoA hydratases (Ech-20 and Ech-30), an FK506-binding protein, a putative acetolactate synthase, a carnitinyl-CoA dehydratase, and a putative crotonase family protein) were obtained. Only the deletions of both Ech-20 and Ech-30 led to a TDP negative phenotype. The deletion mutant of VPARA_05510, which encodes the putative crotonase family protein showed reduced growth with TDP. The three genes are located in one cluster with genes proven to be involved in TDP metabolism. Thermal shift assays showed an increased stability of Ech-20 with TDP-CoA but not with TDP. These results indicate that Ech-20 uses TDP-CoA as a substrate instead of TDP. Hence, we postulate a new putative pathway for TDP metabolism. Ech-30 interacts with neither TDP-CoA nor TDP but might interact with other CoA-activated intermediates of the proposed pathway. Further enzyme characterization is necessary to unravel the complete pathway from TDP to 3MP.

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<![CDATA[Homology and linkage in crossover for linear genomes of variable length]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c37b7bdd5eed0c484490b2f

The use of variable-length genomes in evolutionary computation has applications in optimisation when the size of the search space is unknown, and provides a unique environment to study the evolutionary dynamics of genome structure. Here, we revisit crossover for linear genomes of variable length, identifying two crucial attributes of successful recombination algorithms: the ability to retain homologous structure, and to reshuffle variant information. We introduce direct measures of these properties—homology score and linkage score—and use them to review existing crossover algorithms, as well as two novel ones. In addition, we measure the performance of these crossover methods on three different benchmark problems, and find that variable-length genomes out-perform fixed-length variants in all three cases. Our homology and linkage scores successfully explain the difference in performance between different crossover methods, providing a simple and insightful framework for crossover in a variable-length setting.

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<![CDATA[Efficacy, safety, and resistance profile of osimertinib in T790M mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer in real-world practice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3fa577d5eed0c484ca4b0e

The efficacy and safety of osimertinib were demonstrated in clinical trials; however, real-world clinical data, particularly the resistance profile, are limited. Here, we investigated the efficacy, safety, and resistance profile of osimertinib in real-world practice. We reviewed medical records of T790M mutation-positive lung cancer patients who started osimertinib between February 2016 and June 2017. Molecular pathologic data of biopsy samples obtained after acquisition of resistance to osimertinib were also analyzed. The study included 23 patients with a median age of 59 years. The median follow-up duration was 11.9 months (IQR, 4.7–15.8). Objective response was achieved in 17 (73.9%) patients, and the disease was controlled in 22 (95.7%) patients. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7.4 months (95% CI, 3.6–11.0). Adverse events were minimal except for one case of pneumonitis. Of 14 patients experiencing disease progression, 10 underwent re-biopsy. The T790M mutation disappeared in seven patients (70%), and one showed wild-type conversion. PFS was shorter in the T790M-loss group than in the T790M-persistent group (4.4 vs. 7.7 months). Two patients with small cell transformation responded well to subsequent chemotherapy. One patient developed a C797S mutation that became undetectable after two cycles of gemcitabine and cisplatin followed by six cycles of pembrolizumab, after which the patient responded well to osimertinib. In conclusion, osimertinib showed favorable efficacy and safety in real-world practice comparable to those observed in clinical trials. Repeat biopsy after the acquisition of resistance to osimertinib is helpful to direct further treatment strategies.

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<![CDATA[PremPDI estimates and interprets the effects of missense mutations on protein-DNA interactions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c19668dd5eed0c484b52351

Protein-DNA interactions play important roles in regulations of many vital cellular processes, including transcription, translation, DNA replication and recombination. Sequence variants occurring in these DNA binding proteins that alter protein-DNA interactions may cause significant perturbations or complete abolishment of function, potentially leading to diseases. Developing a mechanistic understanding of impacts of variants on protein-DNA interactions becomes a persistent need. To address this need we introduce a new computational method PremPDI that predicts the effect of single missense mutation in the protein on the protein-DNA interaction and calculates the quantitative binding affinity change. The PremPDI method is based on molecular mechanics force fields and fast side-chain optimization algorithms with parameters optimized on experimental sets of 219 mutations from 49 protein-DNA complexes. PremPDI yields a very good agreement between predicted and experimental values with Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.71 and root-mean-square error of 0.86 kcal mol-1. The PremPDI server could map mutations on a structural protein-DNA complex, calculate the associated changes in binding affinity, determine the deleterious effect of a mutation, and produce a mutant structural model for download. PremPDI can be applied to many tasks, such as determination of potential damaging mutations in cancer and other diseases. PremPDI is available at http://lilab.jysw.suda.edu.cn/research/PremPDI/.

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<![CDATA[Mechanisms of acquired resistance to afatinib clarified with liquid biopsy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1d5b8ed5eed0c4846ebefb

Although mechanisms of acquired resistance to 1st and 3rd generation EGFR-TKI continue to be elucidated, there have been few clinical investigations into the mechanisms of acquired resistance to the 2nd generation EGFR-TKI afatinib. We analyzed data from 20 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma who acquired resistance to afatinib, including resistance during EGFR-TKI re-challenge. We examined EGFR T790M and C797S mutations, BRAF V600E mutation, and MET amplification with the MBP-QP method and with droplet digital PCR using ctDNA and re-biopsy samples obtained before and after afatinib treatment. Just before afatinib treatment, 15 of the 20 patients were T790M negative and five were positive. Among the T790M negative patients, 40.0% (6/15) became positive at the time of PD under afatinib. In patients positive for T790M, changes in T790M allele frequency were correlated with afatinib treatment efficacy. C797S was not detected in any patients just before afatinib treatment, but it appeared after treatment in three patients, although with very low allele frequency. Two of these three patients, although positive for both C797S and T790M, achieved PR to osimertinib. However, PFS of these patients was somewhat shorter than that of patients positive for T790M only. BRAF V600E was detected in one patient at PD under afatinib. MET amplification was not detected in this study. T790M is associated with acquired resistance to afatinib, as with 1st generation EGFR-TKI, but with somewhat lower frequency. The influence of C797S on resistance to afatinib is less than that of T790M, but C797S might cause shorter PFS under osimertinib.

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<![CDATA[Deleterious mitochondrial DNA point mutations are overrepresented in Drosophila expressing a proofreading-defective DNA polymerase γ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfc6269d5eed0c484ec8fa8

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations cause severe maternally inherited syndromes and the accumulation of somatic mtDNA mutations is implicated in aging and common diseases. However, the mechanisms that influence the frequency and pathogenicity of mtDNA mutations are poorly understood. To address this matter, we created a Drosophila mtDNA mutator strain expressing a proofreading-deficient form of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase. Mutator flies have a dramatically increased somatic mtDNA mutation frequency that correlates with the dosage of the proofreading-deficient polymerase. Mutator flies also exhibit mitochondrial dysfunction, shortened lifespan, a progressive locomotor deficit, and loss of dopaminergic neurons. Surprisingly, the frequency of nonsynonymous, pathogenic, and conserved-site mutations in mutator flies exceeded predictions of a neutral mutational model, indicating the existence of a positive selection mechanism that favors deleterious mtDNA variants. We propose from these findings that deleterious mtDNA mutations are overrepresented because they selectively evade quality control surveillance or because they are amplified through compensatory mitochondrial biogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Interactions between the mRNA and Rps3/uS3 at the entry tunnel of the ribosomal small subunit are important for no-go decay]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c059de2d5eed0c4849c962d

No-go Decay (NGD) is a process that has evolved to deal with stalled ribosomes resulting from structural blocks or aberrant mRNAs. The process is distinguished by an endonucleolytic cleavage prior to degradation of the transcript. While many of the details of the pathway have been described, the identity of the endonuclease remains unknown. Here we identify residues of the small subunit ribosomal protein Rps3 that are important for NGD by affecting the cleavage reaction. Mutation of residues within the ribosomal entry tunnel that contact the incoming mRNA leads to significantly reduced accumulation of cleavage products, independent of the type of stall sequence, and renders cells sensitive to damaging agents thought to trigger NGD. These phenotypes are distinct from those seen in combination with other NGD factors, suggesting a separate role for Rps3 in NGD. Conversely, ribosomal proteins ubiquitination is not affected by rps3 mutations, indicating that upstream ribosome quality control (RQC) events are not dependent on these residues. Together, these results suggest that Rps3 is important for quality control on the ribosome and strongly supports the notion that the ribosome itself plays a central role in the endonucleolytic cleavage reaction during NGD.

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<![CDATA[Multiple configurations of EGFR exon 20 resistance mutations after first- and third-generation EGFR TKI treatment affect treatment options in NSCLC]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c06f036d5eed0c484c6d3c8

After sequential treatment with first- and third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancers frequently harbor multiple resistance mutations in exon 20 of EGFR including T790M, mediating resistance to first-generation TKIs, and at codons 792, 796, or 797 mediating resistance to third-generation TKIs. However, whether these resistance mutations are in cis or trans has therapeutic implications for patients. We analyzed a cohort of 29 patients with NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations at codons 792, 796, or 797 to establish the configuration of these mutations. We performed hybrid capture-based, next-generation sequencing on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy tissue or liquid biopsy. 27 samples had both a T790M mutation and a mutation at codons 792, 796, or 797. In all of these cases, the mutations were found in the cis configuration; the trans configuration was not observed. Two patients’ samples harbored a mutation at codon 797 but no T790M mutation. In these two cases, longitudinal analysis showed earlier biopsies harbored EGFR T790M, which was undetectable following osimertinib treatment. Treatment of one these patients with both first- and third-generation EGFR TKIs resulted in a mixed response. Here we describe multiple configurations of EGFR T790M and third-generation TKI resistance mutations at codons 792, 796, and 797. These mutations are most commonly found in cis, which confers resistance to all current EGFR TKIs. We also describe two patients that exhibited T790M loss with acquisition of a mutation at codon 797. In addition, one of these patients, with an EGFR C797S in a lung biopsy was subsequently found to have EGFR C797N in a later biopsy of pleural fluid, highlighting the dynamic multiclonal nature of advanced NSCLC.

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<![CDATA[Utilizing ExAC to assess the hidden contribution of variants of unknown significance to Sanfilippo Type B incidence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b4a2889463d7e4513b897ff

Given the large and expanding quantity of publicly available sequencing data, it should be possible to extract incidence information for monogenic diseases from allele frequencies, provided one knows which mutations are causal. We tested this idea on a rare, monogenic, lysosomal storage disorder, Sanfilippo Type B (Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB). Sanfilippo Type B is caused by mutations in the gene encoding α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU). There were 189 NAGLU missense variants found in the ExAC dataset that comprises roughly 60,000 individual exomes. Only 24 of the 189 missense variants were known to be pathogenic; the remaining 165 variants were of unknown significance (VUS), and their potential contribution to disease is unknown. To address this problem, we measured enzymatic activities of 164 NAGLU missense VUS in the ExAC dataset and developed a statistical framework for estimating disease incidence with associated confidence intervals. We found that 25% of VUS decreased the activity of NAGLU to levels consistent with Sanfilippo Type B pathogenic alleles. We found that a substantial fraction of Sanfilippo Type B incidence (67%) could be accounted for by novel mutations not previously identified in patients, illustrating the utility of combining functional activity data for VUS with population-wide allele frequency data in estimating disease incidence.

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<![CDATA[Mutation spectrum of RB1 mutations in retinoblastoma cases from Singapore with implications for genetic management and counselling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be02c9

Retinoblastoma (RB) is a rare childhood malignant disorder caused by the biallelic inactivation of RB1 gene. Early diagnosis and identification of carriers of heritable RB1 mutations can improve disease outcome and management. In this study, mutational analysis was conducted on fifty-nine matched tumor and peripheral blood samples from 18 bilateral and 41 unilateral unrelated RB cases by a combinatorial approach of Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) assay, deletion screening, direct sequencing, copy number gene dosage analysis and methylation assays. Screening of both blood and tumor samples yielded a mutation detection rate of 94.9% (56/59) while only 42.4% (25/59) of mutations were detected if blood samples alone were analyzed. Biallelic mutations were observed in 43/59 (72.9%) of tumors screened. There were 3 cases (5.1%) in which no mutations could be detected and germline mutations were detected in 19.5% (8/41) of unilateral cases. A total of 61 point mutations were identified, of which 10 were novel. There was a high incidence of previously reported recurrent mutations, occurring at 38.98% (23/59) of all cases. Of interest were three cases of mosaic RB1 mutations detected in the blood from patients with unilateral retinoblastoma. Additionally, two germline mutations previously reported to be associated with low-penetrance phenotypes: missense-c.1981C>T and splice variant-c.607+1G>T, were observed in a bilateral and a unilateral proband, respectively. These findings have implications for genetic counselling and risk prediction for the affected families. This is the first published report on the spectrum of mutations in RB patients from Singapore and shows that further improved mutation screening strategies are required in order to provide a definitive molecular diagnosis for every case of RB. Our findings also underscore the importance of genetic testing in supporting individualized disease management plans for patients and asymptomatic family members carrying low-penetrance, germline mosaicism or heritable unilateral mutational phenotypes.

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<![CDATA[Diagnostic Value of Measuring Platelet Von Willebrand Factor in Von Willebrand Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da54ab0ee8fa60b8e72a

Von Willebrand disease (VWD) may be caused by an impaired von Willebrand factor (VWF) synthesis, its increased clearance or abnormal function, or combinations of these factors. It may be difficult to recognize the different contributions of these anomalies. Here we demonstrate that VWD diagnostics gains from measuring platelet VWF, which can reveal a defective VWF synthesis. Measuring platelet VWF revealed that: severe type 1 VWD always coincided with significantly lower platelet and plasma VWF levels, whereas mild forms revealed low plasma VWF levels associated with low or normal platelet VWF levels, and the latter were associated with a slightly shorter VWF survival; type Vicenza (the archetype VWD caused by a reduced VWF survival) featured normal platelet VWF levels despite significantly reduced plasma VWF levels; type 2B patients could have either normal platelet VWF levels associated with abnormal multimer patterns, or reduced platelet VWF levels associated with normal multimer patterns; type 2A patients could have reduced or normal platelet VWF levels, the former associated mainly with type 2A-I, the latter with type 2A-II; plasma and platelet VWF levels were normal in type 2N, except when the defect was associated with a quantitative VWF mutation. Our findings show that measuring platelet VWF helps to characterize VWD, especially the ambiguous phenotypes, shedding light on the mechanisms underlying the disorder.

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<![CDATA[Genetic Manipulation of Glycogen Allocation Affects Replicative Lifespan in E. coli]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db18ab0ee8fa60bcd808

In bacteria, replicative aging manifests as a difference in growth or survival between the two cells emerging from division. One cell can be regarded as an aging mother with a decreased potential for future survival and division, the other as a rejuvenated daughter. Here, we aimed at investigating some of the processes involved in aging in the bacterium Escherichia coli, where the two types of cells can be distinguished by the age of their cell poles. We found that certain changes in the regulation of the carbohydrate metabolism can affect aging. A mutation in the carbon storage regulator gene, csrA, leads to a dramatically shorter replicative lifespan; csrA mutants stop dividing once their pole exceeds an age of about five divisions. These old-pole cells accumulate glycogen at their old cell poles; after their last division, they do not contain a chromosome, presumably because of spatial exclusion by the glycogen aggregates. The new-pole daughters produced by these aging mothers are born young; they only express the deleterious phenotype once their pole is old. These results demonstrate how manipulations of nutrient allocation can lead to the exclusion of the chromosome and limit replicative lifespan in E. coli, and illustrate how mutations can have phenotypic effects that are specific for cells with old poles. This raises the question how bacteria can avoid the accumulation of such mutations in their genomes over evolutionary times, and how they can achieve the long replicative lifespans that have recently been reported.

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<![CDATA[Alterations in the mir-15a/16-1 Loci Impairs Its Processing and Augments B-1 Expansion in De Novo Mouse Model of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da05ab0ee8fa60b75742

New Zealand Black (NZB) mice, a de novo model of CLL, share multiple characteristics with CLL patients, including decreased expression of miR-15a/16-1. We previously discovered a point mutation and deletion in the 3' flanking region of mir-16-1 of NZB and a similar mutation has been found in a small number of CLL patients. However, it was unknown whether the mutation is the cause for the reduced miR-15a/16-1 expression and CLL development. Using PCR and in vitro microRNA processing assays, we found that the NZB sequence alterations in the mir-15a/16-1 loci result in deficient processing of the precursor forms of miR-15a/16-1, in particular, we observe impaired conversion of pri-miR-15a/16-1 to pre-miR-15a/16-1. The in vitro data was further supported by derivation of congenic strains with replaced mir-15a/16-1 loci at one or both alleles: NZB congenic mice (NmiR+/-) and DBA congenic mice (DmiR-/-). The level of miR-15a/16-1 reflected the configuration of the mir-15a/16-1 loci with DBA congenic mice (DmiR-/-) showing reduced miR-15a levels compared to homozygous wild-type allele, while the NZB congenic mice (NmiR+/-) showed an increase in miR-15a levels relative to homozygous mutant allele. Similar to Monoclonal B-cell Lymphocytosis (MBL), the precursor stage of the human disease, an overall expansion of the B-1 population was observed in DBA congenic mice (DmiR-/-) relative to wild-type (DmiR+/+). These studies support our hypothesis that the mutations in the mir-15a/16-1 loci are responsible for decreased expression of this regulatory microRNA leading to B-1 expansion and CLL development.

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<![CDATA[A Comprehensive Analysis of Choroideremia: From Genetic Characterization to Clinical Practice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db12ab0ee8fa60bcc6f6

Choroideremia (CHM) is a rare X-linked disease leading to progressive retinal degeneration resulting in blindness. The disorder is caused by mutations in the CHM gene encoding REP-1 protein, an essential component of the Rab geranylgeranyltransferase (GGTase) complex. In the present study, we evaluated a multi-technique analysis algorithm to describe the mutational spectrum identified in a large cohort of cases and further correlate CHM variants with phenotypic characteristics and biochemical defects of choroideremia patients. Molecular genetic testing led to the characterization of 36 out of 45 unrelated CHM families (80%), allowing the clinical reclassification of four CHM families. Haplotype reconstruction showed independent origins for the recurrent p.Arg293* and p.Lys178Argfs*5 mutations, suggesting the presence of hotspots in CHM, as well as the identification of two different unrelated events involving exon 9 deletion. No certain genotype-phenotype correlation could be established. Furthermore, all the patients´ fibroblasts analyzed presented significantly increased levels of unprenylated Rabs proteins compared to control cells; however, this was not related to the genotype. This research demonstrates the major potential of the algorithm proposed for diagnosis. Our data enhance the importance of establish a differential diagnosis with other retinal dystrophies, supporting the idea of an underestimated prevalence of choroideremia. Moreover, they suggested that the severity of the disorder cannot be exclusively explained by the genotype.

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<![CDATA[FANCA Gene Mutations with 8 Novel Molecular Changes in Indian Fanconi Anemia Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da04ab0ee8fa60b75441

Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare heterogeneous genetic disorder, is known to be associated with 19 genes and a spectrum of clinical features. We studied FANCA molecular changes in 34 unrelated and 2 siblings of Indian patients with FA and have identified 26 different molecular changes of FANCA gene, of which 8 were novel mutations (a small deletion c.2500delC, 4 non-sense mutations c.2182C>T, c.2630C>G, c.3677C>G, c.3189G>A; and 3 missense mutations; c.1273G>C, c.3679 G>C, and c.3992 T>C). Among these only 16 patients could be assigned FA-A complementation group, because we could not confirm single exon deletions detected by MLPA or cDNA amplification by secondary confirmation method and due to presence of heterozygous non-pathogenic variations or heterozygous pathogenic mutations. An effective molecular screening strategy should be developed for confirmation of these mutations and determining the breakpoints for single exon deletions.

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<![CDATA[The not-so-infinite malleability of RNA viruses: Viral and cellular determinants of RNA virus mutation rates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf26a ]]> <![CDATA[Prevalence of pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 Gene Deletion in Plasmodium falciparum Population in Eight Highly Endemic States in India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0dab0ee8fa60b783e6

Background

Plasmodium falciparum encoded histidine rich protein (HRP2) based malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are used in India. Deletion of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes contributes to false negative test results, and large numbers of such deletions have been reported from South America, highlighting the importance of surveillance to detect such deletions.

Methods

This is the first prospective field study carried out at 16 sites located in eight endemic states of India to assess the performance of PfHRP2 based RDT kits used in the national malaria control programme. In this study, microscopically confirmed P. falciparum but RDT negative samples were assessed for presence of pfhrp2, pfhrp3, and their flanking genes using PCR.

Results

Among 1521 microscopically positive P. falciparum samples screened, 50 were negative by HRP2 based RDT test. Molecular testing was carried out using these 50 RDT negative samples by assuming that 1471 RDT positive samples carried pfhrp2 gene. It was found that 2.4% (36/1521) and 1.8% (27/1521) of samples were negative for pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes, respectively. However, the frequency of pfhrp2 deletions varied between the sites ranging from 0–25% (2.4, 95% CI; 1.6–3.3). The frequency of both pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletion varied from 0–8% (1.6, 95% CI; 1.0–2.4).

Conclusion

This study provides evidence for low level presence of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 deleted P. falciparum parasites in different endemic regions of India, and periodic surveillance is warranted for reliable use of PfHRP2 based RDTs.

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