ResearchPad - dentistry https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Association of Oxidative Stress and Production of Inflammatory Mediators Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Interleukin 6: Systemic Events in Radicular Cysts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10535 Background

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and antioxidants are associated with the pathogenesis of cysts and may initiate and sustain the formation of new capillaries.

Objective

The objective of this study was to determine the association of oxidative stress and the production of inflammatory mediators MMP-9 and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in systemic events in radicular cyst growth.

Materials and methods

Fifty patients (34 men, 16 women) with periapical granulomas and radicular cysts were included in this cross-sectional study. Twenty subjects (12 men, eight women) with no signs of periodontal diseases were recruited as controls. Blood serum levels of MMP-9, IL-6, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were recorded. We also recorded body mass index (BMI) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels.

Results

The mean age of the test group patients and control patients was 45.9 and 48.8 years, respectively. The BMI of test group patients (23.77± 3.88 kg/m2) was higher than that of the controls (27.98 ± 3.88 kg/m2; p ≤ 0.000). Levels of serum MDA (p ≤ 0.033), IL-6 (p ≤ 0.041), TNF-alpha (p ≤ 0.004), and MMP-9 (p ≤ 0.033) were significantly increased in patients as compared with control values. SOD (p ≤ 0.003) and GPx (p ≤ 0.033) levels were significantly reduced in patients as compared with controls.

Conclusion

Oxidative imbalance and the increased production of inflammatory mediators may be associated with systemic events in radicular cysts. Bone-resorbing mediators and proinflammatory cytokines that were evaluated in the study (MMP-9, IL-6, C-reactive protein, TNF-alpha) were also elevated in the serum of the ailing group, thus documenting a well-established role for these circulating biochemical variables in the course of the progression and pathogenesis of radicular cyst development.

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<![CDATA[Management of Gunshot Injuries of Mandible with Open Reduction and Internal Fixation versus Closed Reduction and Maxillo-mandibular Fixation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10534 Background/objectives

Gunshot injuries are known to cause severe morbidity and mortality when facial regions are involved. Management of the gunshot wounds of the face comprises of securing an airway, controlling hemorrhage, identifying other injuries and definite repair of the traumatic facial deformities. The objective of the present study was to compare the clinical outcome (infection and nonunion) of open reduction and internal fixation versus closed reduction and maxillo-mandibular fixation (CR-MMF) in the treatment of gunshot injuries of the mandible.

Materials & methods

This study was conducted at Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University/Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences Islamabad, Pakistan. Ninety gunshot mandibular fractures were randomly allocated in two equal groups. In group-A, 45 patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation while in group-B, 45 patients were also managed by closed reduction and maxillo-mandibular fixation. Post-operative complications (infection, non-union) were evaluated clinically and radiographically in both groups.

Results

Patients treated by open reduction and internal fixation were having more complications in terms of infection (17.8%) as compared to closed reduction (4.4%) with a p-value 0.044. Whereas non-union was more in closed reduction (15.6%) as compared to open reduction and internal fixation group (2.2%) with a significant p-value 0.026.

Conclusion

Both the treatment modalities can be used in the management of gunshot injuries of mandible and there is need for further studies to have clear guideline in this regard in best interest of patients, community and health care providers.

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<![CDATA[Influence of Different Types of Root Canal Irrigation Regimen on Resin-based Sealer Penetration and Pushout Bond Strength]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10528 Introduction

The main objective of root canal treatment is to eliminate the micro-organism from the root canal system and three-dimensional obturation. The proper cleaning and shaping can be accomplished only by using appropriate instruments and effective irrigants during the root canal treatment.

Aim

To evaluate the influence of three different final irrigation regimen on depth of penetration of root canal sealers and push-out bond strength of obturation material.

Materials and methods

Thirty-six extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar human teeth with straight canals were decoronated and instrumented according to groups. Group I: Root canals were irrigated with 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), then irradiated with 980 nm diode laser (n = 12), Group II: Root canals were irrigated with 3% NaOCl, followed by 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (n = 12), Group III: Root canals were irrigated with 3% NaOCl, followed by 10% citric acid (n = 12). In each sample, single cone obturation was done with gutta-percha using AH plus sealer incorporated with rhodamine B dye. After seven days coronal, middle and apical thin cross sections were made for evaluation of dentinal tubule sealer penetration depth and pushout bond strength using confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and universal testing machine, respectively. Statistical analysis among the three groups was done by using Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc test.

Results

Mean tubular penetration depth between diode laser (136.57 ± 48 µm), EDTA (130.56 ± 53 µm) and citric acid (113.37 ± 34 µm; P < 0.05) showed statistically highly significant results. Pushout bond strength did not differ significantly between diode laser (1.21 ± 0.48 Mpa), EDTA (1.05 ± 0.45 Mpa) and citric acid (0.93 ± 0.44 Mpa; P > 0.05).

Conclusion

Mean tubular penetration depth of AH plus sealer was better in diode laser than in EDTA and citric acid. Average push-out bond strength of obturation material did not differ significantly between diode laser, EDTA and citric acid.

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<![CDATA[The Association Between Coffee Consumption and Local Anesthesia Failure: Social Beliefs and Scientific Evidence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10526 Introduction

In our clinical practice, we have encountered patients who reported the failure of local anesthesia due to excessive coffee consumption and required higher-than-normal doses of local anesthesia. Therefore, our study aimed to assess the awareness and knowledge of coffee consumption, its effect on local anesthesia, and the available scientific evidence among the public, patients, and clinicians in dental practice. 

Material and Methods

A cross-sectional survey with two sets of questionnaires was designed based on the Likert scale. A 5-point scale was used to assess agreement and frequency. Yes/no and open-ended questions were used for the assessment. Questionnaires were distributed among the clinicians, patients, and the public. Data were analyzed with descriptive linear statistics.

Results

Of the 430 responses provided by patients and the general public, more than 40% believed that the local anesthetic failure was caused by excessive coffee consumption. Among the 235 responses provided by the clinicians, 65% of the clinicians reported encountering patients with local anesthesia failure and believed it could be due to excessive coffee consumption. However, only 9% of the clinicians were aware of scientific evidence regarding the effect of coffee consumption on local anesthesia failure. 

Conclusion

Surprisingly, the majority of clinicians believed that caffeine had an effect on the reduction of local anesthesia; however, only a few of them had scientific knowledge. The available scientific evidence relates that caffeine can influence cognitive performance by increasing alertness, as well as sleep deprivation causing stress and anxiety, which partially explains the local anesthetic failure among coffee consumers. Therefore, a stress reduction protocol should be a routine daily practice for a dentist to reduce the failure rate of local anesthesia. 

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<![CDATA[Data regarding active psychosis and functional outcome, among other clinical variables, during early phases of the illness in first-episode psychosis in the PAFIP 10-year follow-up program]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne34fccd1-65b5-4b00-b8f2-c98d8b6c94ea This article describes data related to the research study entitled “Duration of active psychosis during early phases of the illness and functional outcome: The PAFIP 10-year follow-up study.” [1]. We present data concerning the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of a sample of drug-naïve patients with a first episode of non-affective psychosis. The dataset was obtained from a 3-year longitudinal intervention program as part of an ongoing 10-year epidemiological study. The tables and figure shown present the data from the analysis between the active psychosis (presence of positive psychotic symptoms), among other sociodemographic and clinical predictor variables, recorded during the 3-year longitudinal intervention program and the evaluation of the functional outcome (social functioning and functional recovery) present at the 10-year mark. The data explores how those early parameters could influence long-term outcome.

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<![CDATA[Effect of aerobic exercise on cortical thickness in patients with schizophrenia—A dataset]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf36ebb01-0a9d-4bdc-8df3-0076dc575cb9 This is a data article from the original publication “Effect of aerobic exercise combined with cognitive remediation on cortical thickness and prediction of social adaptation in patients with schizophrenia” [1]. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and 23 healthy controls underwent aerobic exercise. Another 21 patients with schizophrenia played table soccer instead. The 12-week exercise intervention was combined with computer-assisted cognitive remediation training from week 6 to week 12. Clinical assessments were conducted at baseline and after the 12-week intervention. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired at baseline then in weeks 6, 12, and 24. The thickness of the entorhinal, parahippocampal, and lateral and medial prefrontal cortices was assessed with FreeSurfer 6.0. Data are publicy available via https://osf.io/sfgxk/.

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<![CDATA[Microtensile Bond Strength Evaluation of Composite Resin to Discolored Dentin After Amalgam Removal]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndfded58c-9374-499b-8b8a-d2588dbfea41 Background

To obtain prolonged clinical success with composite restorations, better bonding of resin to the tooth substrate is crucial.

Aim

The study was aimed to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of bulk-fill composite resin restorations when bonded to a cavity previously restored with amalgam, comparing with that of freshly prepared dentin.

Materials and method

Mesio-occlusal cavity preparations were done on 80 extracted human mandibular molars with a buccolingual width of 4 mm and a 1.5 mm axial depth by placing the gingival seat 0.5 mm coronal to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and were restored with fine-grain amalgam alloy. After thermocycling, the amalgam restorations were removed. Disto-occlusal cavities with similar dimensions of mesial cavities were prepared, and both the proximal surfaces were filled with bulk-fill composite using either etch-and-rinse or self-etch adhesives. Following thermomechanical cyclic loading, all the teeth were sectioned for µTBS testing. Bond strength data expressed in megapascals (MPa) were subjected to statistical analyses using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s multiple post-hoc tests.

Results

The total-etch adhesive exhibited statistically higher bond strength values to both dentin substrates compared to self-etch adhesives (p<0.05). Failure mode analysis reported more of adhesive failures.

Conclusion

The µTBS of bulk-fill composite resin restorations bonded to a cavity previously restored with amalgam was significantly lower than that of freshly prepared dentin. Total-etch adhesives bond strength was higher than self-etch adhesives to both the substrates tested.

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<![CDATA[Risk Factors for Early Childhood Caries in Toddlers: An Institution-based Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfa1e43c8-5c60-43e8-97ac-2914c42d0205 Background

Tooth decay experience among toddlers and preschoolers is of epidemic proportions worldwide and dental caries still remains an important childhood disease affecting a considerable part of this population. Though the prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is associated with several risk factors such as feeding and oral hygiene practices, Streptococcus mutans levels, socioeconomic status (SES), etc., it is suggested that these factors should be studied adequately to aid in the early prevention and management of ECC.

Objective

The objectives of the study were to: a) evaluate the distribution of ECC, b) study the role of SES in the occurrence of ECC, c) record the variations in feeding and dietary practices along with oral hygiene practices and d) Correlate the sweet score with ECC.

Materials and Methods

This cross-sectional observational study was conducted over a period of 6 months among 100 toddlers (12-36 months) attending the Pediatric outpatient department of a single medical institution in Chennai, India. The study consisted of an intra-oral examination followed by a face to face interview of the mothers of the children using a validated structured oral health questionnaire.

Results

SES and ECC were negatively correlated with statistically significant association. Majority of the subjects did not follow any oral hygiene practices before teeth erupted; few subjects used tooth brush and tooth paste after teeth erupted and followed oral hygiene practices once a day. Statistically significant positive correlation with ICDAS scores was noted in relation to the sweet score and the frequency of intake of sweet foods, candy, etc. Cavitated lesions were more common than non-cavitated lesions and majority of the posterior teeth had ICDAS score 4.

Conclusion

Healthcare providers for children must be well informed on the etiology and risk factors of ECC and guide children for their first dental visit within one year of age.

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<![CDATA[Survey data of COVID-19-related Knowledge, Risk Perceptions and Precautionary Behavior among Nigerians]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8706934f-65ff-4ca8-8f92-9bbb44d2c172 In response to the global call for strategic information to understand the novel coronavirus, the dataset presented in this paper is an examination of COVID-19-related knowledge, risk perceptions and precautionary health behavior among Nigerians. The data were generated during the COVID-19 lockdown in the country through a survey distributed via an online questionnaire, assessing socio-demographic information (7 items), knowledge (5 items), information sources (1 item), risk perception (9 items), expected end of lockdown (1 item), and COVID-19 precautionary health behavior (10 items), from 28th March to 4th April, 2020, gathering a total of 1,357 responses. A combination of purposive and snowball techniques helped to select the respondents via Whatsapp and Facebook from 180 cities/towns in the 6 geopolitical zones of Nigeria. The survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The entire dataset is stored in a Microsoft Excel Worksheet (xls) and the questionnaire is attached as a supplementary file. The data will assist in curbing the Coronavirus pandemic by offering evidence for strategic and targeted interventions as well as health policy formulations and implementation.

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<![CDATA[Dataset on patients with Recurrent Borderline Ovarian Tumors and Table with Review of Literature on Fertility and Oncologic Outcomes of patients with Borderline Ovarian Tumors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N337ae150-7b24-41fd-ad5e-81f7a086e546 The data presented here is related to the research article entitled “FERTILITY-SPARING SURGERY AND REPRODUCTIVE-OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS WITH BORDERLINE OVARIAN TUMORS” by Plett et al. in Journal of Gynecologic Oncology [1] and is analysed and discussed in detail. 18 Patients with Recurrent Borderline Ovarian Tumors (BOT) were identified and listed in Table 1. All patients underwent treatment for primary BOT either per radical surgery (RS) or fertility sparing surgery (FSS) by the same team in Horst Schmidt Klinik (HSK) in Wiesbaden and the Department of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology at Kliniken Essen-Mitte between January 2000 and December 2018 and were followed up closely. Details on patients` and surgical characteristics are given as well as management of character of recurrent disease. In Table 2 important publications from the last 20 years are listed in order to visualize better the oncologic outcomes (invasive and non-invasive relapses) and calculated risks of recurrence with the purpose to understand better the important findings of the related article cited above.

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<![CDATA[<i>In vivo</i> data: treatment with the F11R/JAM-A peptide 4D decreases mortality and reduces the generation of atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE-deficient mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb1b62c62-9ed4-45c4-8188-315ddbfae9b7 The data in this article focus on the F11 Receptor (F11R/JAM-A; Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A; JAM-A, F11R), a cell adhesion protein constitutively expressed on the membrane surface of circulating platelets and localized within the tight junctions of healthy endothelial cells (ECs). Previous reports have shown that F11R/JAM-A plays a critical role in the adhesion of platelets to an inflamed endothelium due to its’ pathological expression on the luminal surface of the cytokine-inflamed endothelium. Since platelet adhesion to an inflamed endothelium is an early step in the development of atherosclerotic plaque formation, and with time, resulting in heart attacks and stroke, we conducted a long-term, study utilizing the atherosclerosis-prone ApoE-/- mice to attempt a blockade of the formation of atherosclerotic plaques by preventing the adhesion of platelets to the inflamed vasculature in vivo. Utilizing a nonhydrolyzable peptide derived from an amino acid sequence of F11R/JAM-A, peptide 4D, we have shown in culture that the adhesion of platelets to the inflamed endothelial cells could be blocked by peptide 4D. The present data demonstrate the positive health benefits of chronic peptide 4D administration to the atherosclerosis-prone ApoE-/- mice, and provides new information for potential use of this F11R derived peptide in the prevention of atherosclerosis. The data presented in this article provide further experimental support for the study presented in Babinska et al., Atherosclerosis 284 (2019) 92-101.

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<![CDATA[Five Years Follow-up of a Spontaneous Eruption of an Impacted Mandibular Premolar Associated with a Dentigerous Cyst Treated by Marsupialization]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd06e358d-7958-407a-9828-9bb312abbc15

Dentigerous cysts (DC) are developmental odontogenic cysts associated with impacted or partially erupted teeth; they can occur at any location of the jaw. Being generally asymptomatic, they are fortuitously discovered when radiographs are taken to investigate a tooth eruption failure. In this report, we present a case of a 10-year-old girl presented with the absence of the right second mandibular premolar and retention of the right second primary molar. After clinical and radiological examinations a preliminary diagnosis of the DC was made and confirmed later histopathologically. The lesion was treated by marsupialization to allow eruption of the affected tooth and followed up for five years with no evidence of recurrence.

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<![CDATA[Cone Beam Computed Tomography-aided Endodontic Management of Second Maxillary Molar with Two Separate Palatal Roots: A Case Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N43f82a28-525d-4ee5-8825-313252e027da

An infected human root canal system harbors harmful microbiota that needs to be eliminated by root canal therapy. But the human root canal system is known to have a complex anatomy. Hence, the knowledge of a possibly aberrant anatomy is deemed necessary before carrying out a root canal therapy. Usually, the maxillary second molars have three roots and three or four root canals (a second mesiobuccal canal as the fourth canal). The presence of a second palatal root and a second palatal root canal is very rare (1.4% incidence). Failure to locate and treat such aberrant external and internal anatomy results in a compromised root canal therapy. With the introduction of advanced imaging and visualization techniques such as cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and dental operating microscopes, the variations in root anatomy have been successfully detected and treated. This case report describes the endodontic management of a second maxillary molar with two palatal roots and four separate canals, performed with the help of CBCT.

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<![CDATA[Malaria patients in Nigeria: Data exploration approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8b664609-fa9c-4dbd-9c3a-758874f42d10

Malaria is a life threatening disease which is usually transmitted to people through the bite of infected female anopheles mosquitoes. However, this article deals with the data exploration of malaria symptoms reported by 337 patients attended to at Federal Polytechnic Ilaro Medical centre, Ogun State Nigeria. The study covers a period of four (4) weeks monitoring of patients attendance, their consultation with physician and malaria test results as compared to their claims of malaria infection. Logistic regression was used for the basic analysis of the dataset and it was discovered that people in the age range 38–47 years are mostly affected with malaria and that females are the most infected gender species with headache being the most significant symptom based on its Wald statistic value. This study strongly recommends the introduction of a long lasting malaria prevention scheme that cut across all categories of ages and genders within the Nigerian community, and that self-medication should be seriously warned against as most claims of malaria were not actually found to be true upon verification.

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<![CDATA[Demystifying the Complexity: A Case Report on the Management of Mandibular Canine with Two Roots]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N18e73c87-f851-498a-ab03-1962342b4172

Mandibular canine often presents with only one root and one root canal in most of the cases. However, approximately 15% of the mandibular canines have two root canals and even less frequently two distinct roots. This article presents a case of root canal treatment in mandibular canine with two roots and two root canals. Meticulous cleaning and shaping followed by three-dimensional filling help in the successful treatment of such anatomical aberrations. Failure to do so may lead to post-treatment disease and further complications.

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<![CDATA[Dataset for country profile and mobility analysis in the assessment of COVID-19 pandemic]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N38fdcf00-b392-4068-ac00-ea6d1d5f0626

Understanding the COVID-19 pandemic is a multidisciplinary effort that requires a significant number of variables. This dataset comprises (i) sociodemographic characteristics, compiled from 35 datasets obtained at UN Data; (ii) mobility metrics that can assist the analysis of social distancing, from Google Community Mobility Reports and; (iii) daily counts of cases and deaths by COVID-19, from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and the Johns Hopkins University Center for Systems Science and Engineering. This unified dataset ranges from February 15, 2020 to May 7, 2020, a total of 83 days, and is provided as a collection of time series for 131 countries with 192 variables. The pipeline to preprocess and generate the dataset, along with the dataset itself, are versioned with the Data Version Control tool (DVC) and are thus easily reproducible.

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<![CDATA[Data of The Expression of Serotonin in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) Rat Model Under Treatment of Ethanolic Extract Ocimum sanctum Linn]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2e414f96-3d14-4bb7-a699-9245ab254a89

The article offers dataset on the expression of serotonergic nerve in the hippocampal area of Alzheimer's disease (AD) model. Since decreasing expression of serotonin linked to dementia, this data will help the neuroscientist, who work on neurodegeneration. This dataset demonstrates the potential of Ocimum sanctum Extract (OSE) as a neuroprotective and neurodegenerative agent against AD. The OSE mechanism focusing on the expression of serotonin as a therapeutic target. To acquire the dataset, we approached using two models, in vitro and in vivo. On the In vivo model, used two months old 27 male rats and divided into three groups, non-treated (Group A, n=9), AD rats model pre-treated with OSE followed induction for TMT on the days of seventh (group B, n=9) and AD rats model treated with OSE both on pre-TMT introduction for seven days and post-TMT induction for 21 days (group C, n=9). AD rats euthanised on day seventh; 14th; and 21st. The brain samples were analysed for neuronal density and serotonin immunoreactivity qualitatively. Besides, In Vitro's data were collected from HEK-293 cells which induce by TMT as of AD model. The data expression of serotonin on the in-vitro model analysed using ELISA method.

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<![CDATA[Data on expectations, perceived quality, satisfaction with hospital care and financial ability of patients who suffer from acute and chronic respiratory diseases, in Central Greece]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N420f0fb5-c906-42a8-9db4-14cca92d97ee

The research article presents the data collected from a questionnaire based survey that aimed to evaluate patients’ expectations, perceived quality, satisfaction with hospital care and financial ability of 202 hospitalized patients suffering from acute or chronic respiratory diseases. The anonymous and self-completed questionnaire was divided in two parts. The first part included questions to elicit information on social and demographic characteristics (gender, age group, education level, categorization of respiratory disease, evaluation of the current hospitalization, nationality and way of living with). The second part included the 26-items Elderly Patient Satisfaction Scale and the 12-items Financial Ability Scale, which are validated in the Greek language with a high internal consistency. Data were collected from February 2016 to December 2018.

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<![CDATA[Data on prior pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) treatment in recurrent ovarian cancer: Post-hoc data analysis from the phase 3 randomized, open-label study comparing trabectedin and PLD versus PLD alone in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb655af9f-bbaf-423a-9884-e98c8647435e

The data presented herein are supplementary to our published primary article “A phase 3 randomized, open-label, multicenter trial for safety and efficacy of combined trabectedin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin therapy for recurrent ovarian cancer”[1]. The exploratory analysis evaluated the impact of prior pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) therapy in patients who participated in a randomized, open-label study comparing combination therapy of trabectedin and PLD vs PLD alone in third-line recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC). These exploratory analyses showed that prior treatment with PLD in ROC does not impact the response and survival rates nor does it increase toxicities or negatively influence survival and response rates in both treatment groups.

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<![CDATA[COVID-19 in Italy: Dataset of the Italian Civil Protection Department]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb0972210-acd8-4fdc-ad7e-94239c220ba8

The database here described contains data of integrated surveillance for the “Coronavirus disease 2019” (abbreviated as COVID-19 by the World Health Organization) in Italy, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The database, included in a main folder called COVID-19, has been designed and created by the Italian Civil Protection Department, which currently manages it. The database consists of six folders called ‘aree’ (containing charts of geographical areas interested by containment measures), ‘dati-andamento-nazionale’ (containing data relating to the national trend of SARS-CoV-2 spread), ‘dati-json’ (containing data that summarize the national, provincial and regional trends of SARS-CoV-2 spread), ‘dati-province’ (containing data relating to the provincial trend of SARS-CoV-2 spread), ‘dati-regioni’ (containing data relating to the regional trend of SARS-CoV-2 spread) and ‘schede-riepilogative’ (containing summary sheets relating to the provincial and regional trends of SARS-CoV-2 spread). The Italian Civil Protection Department daily receives data by the Italian Ministry of Health, analyzes them and updates the database. Thus, the database is subject to daily updates and integrations. The database is freely accessible (CC-BY-4.0 license) at https://github.com/pcm-dpc/COVID-19. This database is useful to provide insight on the spread mechanism of SARS-CoV-2, to support organizations in the evaluation of the efficiency of current prevention and control measures, and to support governments in the future prevention decisions.

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