ResearchPad - developmental-biology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Sublethal and transgenerational effects of sulfoxaflor on the demography and feeding behaviour of the mirid bug <i>Apolygus lucorum</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14540 Sulfoxaflor, the first commercially available sulfoximine insecticide, has been used for the control of sap-feeding insect pests such as plant bugs and aphids on a variety of crops. However, its sublethal effects on the mirid bug Apolygus lucorum, one of the key insect pests of Bt cotton and fruit trees in China, have not been fully examined. Here, we evaluated the demography and feeding behaviour of A. lucorum exposed to sulfoxaflor. The leaf-dipping bioassay showed that the LC10 and LC30 of sulfoxaflor against 3rd-instar nymphs of this insect were 1.23 and 8.37 mg L-1, respectively. The LC10 significantly extended the nymphal duration and decreased the oviposition period by 5.29 days and female fecundity by 56.99% in the parent generation (F0). The longer duration of egg, 5th-instar nymphs, preadult, and male adult longevity were observed in the F1 generation (F1) at LC10. At the LC30, the duration of egg and 1st-instar nymph, female adult longevity, and oviposition period of the F1 were significantly shorter, while the nymphal duration in the F0 and duration of 5th-instar nymphs, preadult survival rate, and male adult longevity in the F1 significantly increased. The net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r), and finite rate of increase (λ) in the F1 were not significantly affected by these two concentrations, whereas the mean generation time (T) was lower at the LC30. Additionally, the probe counts and cells mixture feeding time were markedly lengthened by the LC10 and LC30, respectively, when A. lucorum nymphs exposed to sulfoxaflor fed on Bt cotton plants without insecticides. These results clearly indicate that sulfoxaflor causes sublethal effects on A. lucorum and the transgenerational effects depend on the tested concentrations.

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<![CDATA[Senescence in Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Functional Alterations, Molecular Mechanisms, and Rejuvenation Strategies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14097 Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation. There is increasing evidence of the therapeutic value of MSCs in various clinical situations, however, these cells gradually lose their regenerative potential with age, with a concomitant increase in cellular dysfunction. Stem cell aging and replicative exhaustion are considered as hallmarks of aging and functional attrition in organisms. MSCs do not proliferate infinitely but undergo only a limited number of population doublings before becoming senescent. This greatly hinders their clinical application, given that cultures must be expanded to obtain a sufficient number of cells for cell-based therapy. Here, we review the current knowledge of the phenotypic and functional characteristics of senescent MSCs, molecular mechanisms underlying MSCs aging, and strategies to rejuvenate senescent MSCs, which can broaden their range of therapeutic applications.

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<![CDATA[Extracellular Vesicles Derived From Platelets, Red Blood Cells, and Monocyte-Like Cells Differ Regarding Their Ability to Induce Factor XII-Dependent Thrombin Generation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14054 As transmitters of biological information, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are crucial for the maintenance of physiological homeostasis, but also contribute to pathological conditions, such as thrombotic disorders. The ability of EVs to support thrombin generation has been linked to their exposure of phosphatidylserine, an anionic phospholipid that is normally restricted to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane but exposed on the outer leaflet during EV biogenesis. Here, we investigated whether EVs of different cellular origin and from different settings, namely platelets and red blood cells from blood bank units and a monocyte-like cell line (THP-1), differ regarding their potential to support factor XII-dependent thrombin generation. EVs were isolated from blood products or THP-1 cell culture supernatants using differential centrifugation and characterized by a combination of flow cytometry, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and Western blotting. Soluble factors co-enriched during the isolation of EVs were depleted from blood-cell derived EV fractions using size exclusion chromatography, while proteins bound to the surface of EVs were degraded by mild protease treatment. We found that platelet-derived and red blood cell-derived EVs supported factor XII-dependent thrombin generation to comparable extents, while monocytic EVs failed to support thrombin generation when added to EV-depleted human plasma. We excluded a major contribution of co-enriched soluble proteins or of proteins bound to the EV surface to the thrombogenicity of blood cell-derived EVs. Our data suggest that the enhanced potential of blood cell-derived EVs to support thrombin generation is rather due to enhanced exposure of phosphatidylserine on the surface of blood cell-derived EVs. Extending these investigations to EVs from other cell types, such as mesenchymal stromal cells, will be crucial for their future therapeutic applications.

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<![CDATA[Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 (IGFBP-3): Unraveling the Role in Mediating IGF-Independent Effects Within the Cell]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14021 Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), one of the six members of the IGFBP family, is a key protein in the IGF pathway. IGFBP-3 can function in an IGF-dependent as well as in an IGF-independent manner. The IGF-dependent roles of IGFBP-3 include its endocrine role in the delivery of IGFs from the site of synthesis to the target cells that possess IGF receptors and the activation of associated downstream signaling. IGF-independent role of IGFBP-3 include its interactions with the proteins of the extracellular matrix and the proteins of the plasma membrane, its translocation through the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm and into the nucleus. The C-terminal domain of IGFBP-3 has the ability to undergo cell penetration therefore, generating a short 8-22-mer C-terminal domain peptides that can be conjugated to drugs or genes for effective intracellular delivery. This has opened doors for biotechnological applications of the molecule in molecular medicine. The aim of this this review is to summarize the complex roles of IGFBP-3 within the cell, including its mechanisms of cellular uptake and its translocation into the nucleus, various molecules with which it is capable of interacting, and its ability to regulate IGF-independent cell growth, survival and apoptosis. This would pave way into understanding the modus operandi of IGFBP-3 in regulating IGF-independent processes and its pleiotropic ability to bind with potential partners thus regulating several cellular functions implicated in metabolic diseases, including cancer.

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<![CDATA[Newborn body composition after maternal bariatric surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13862 In pregnancy after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), there is increased risk of low birthweight in the offspring. The present study examined how offspring body composition was affected by RYGB.Material and methodsMother-newborn dyads, where the mothers had undergone RYGB were included. Main outcome measure was neonatal body composition. Neonatal body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning (DXA) within 48 hours after birth. In a statistical model offspring born after RYGB were compared with a reference material of offspring and analyses were made to estimate the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, parity, gestational age at birth and newborn sex on newborn body composition. Analyses were made to estimate the impact of maternal weight loss before pregnancy and of other effects of bariatric surgery respectively. The study was performed at a university hospital between October 2012 and December 2013.ResultsWe included 25 mother-newborn dyads where the mothers had undergone RYGB and compared them to a reference material of 311 mother-newborn dyads with comparable pre-pregnancy BMI. Offspring born by mothers after RYGB had lower birthweight (335g, p<0.001), fat-free mass (268g, p<0.001) and fat% (2.8%, p<0.001) compared with reference material. Only 2% of the average reduction in newborn fat free mass could be attributed to maternal pre-pregnancy weight loss whereas other effects of RYGB accounted for 98%. Regarding reduction in fat mass 52% was attributed to weight loss and 47% to other effects of surgery.ConclusionOffspring born after maternal bariatric surgery, had lower birthweight, fat-free mass and fat percentage when compared with a reference material. RYGB itself and not the pre-pregnancy weight loss seems to have had the greatest impact on fetal growth. ]]> <![CDATA[Betanin purification from red beetroots and evaluation of its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity on LPS-activated microglial cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13861 Microglial activation can release free radicals and various pro-inflammatory cytokines, which implicates the progress of a neurodegenerative disease. Therefore suppression of microglial activation can be an appropriate strategy for combating neurodegenerative diseases. Betanin is a red food dye that acts as free radical scavenger and can be a promising candidate for this purpose. In this study, purification of betanin from red beetroots was carried out by normal phase colum chromatography, yielding 500 mg of betanin from 100 g of red beetroot. The purified betanin was evaluated by TLC, UV-visible, HPLC, ESI-MASS, FT-IR spectroscopy. Investigation on the inhibitory effect of betanin on activated microglia was performed using primary microglial culture. The results showed that betanin significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide induced microglial function including the production of nitric oxide free radicals, reactive oxygen species, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Moreover, betanin modulated mitochondrial membrane potential, lysosomal membrane permeabilization and adenosine triphosphate. We further investigated the interaction of betanin with TNF-α, IL-6 and Nitric oxide synthase (iNOS or NOS2) using in silico molecular docking analysis. The docking results demonstrated that betanin have significant negative binding energy against active sites of TNF-α, IL-6 and iNOS.

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<![CDATA[Ultrasound prediction of Zika virus-associated congenital injury using the profile of fetal growth]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13878 Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, recently linked to microcephaly and central nervous system anomalies following infection in pregnancy. Striking findings of disproportionate growth with a smaller than expected head relative to body length have been observed more commonly among fetuses with exposure to ZIKV in utero compared to pregnancies without ZIKV infection regardless of other signs of congenital infection including microcephaly. This study’s objective was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of femur-sparing profile of intrauterine growth restriction for the identification of ZIKV-associated congenital injuries on postnatal testing. A retrospective cohort study of pregnant women with possible or confirmed ZIKV infection between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2017 were included. Subjects were excluded if no prenatal ultrasound was available. A femur-sparing profile of growth restriction determined using INTERGROWTH-21st sonographic standard for head circumference to femur length (HC: FL). Congenital injuries were determined postnatally by imaging, comprehensive eye exam and standard newborn hearing screen. A total of 111 pregnant women diagnosed with ZIKV infection underwent fetal ultrasound and 95 neonates had complete postnatal evaluation. Prenatal microcephaly was detected in 5% of fetuses (6/111). Postnatal testing detected ZIKV-associated congenital injuries in 25% of neonates (24/95). A HC: FL Z-score ≤ -1.3 had a 52% specificity (95% CI 41–63%), 82% negative predictive value (NPV, 95% CI 73–88%) for the detection of ZIKV-associated congenital injuries in the neonatal period. A more stringent threshold with a Z-score ≤ -2 was associated with a 90% specificity (95% CI 81–95%), 81% NPV (95% CI 77–85%). Excluding cases of fetal microcephaly, HC: FL (Z-score ≤ -2) demonstrated a similar specificity (89%, 95% CI 81–95%) with superior NPV (87%, 95% CI 84–90%). The sonographic recognition of a normally proportioned fetus may be useful prenatally to exclude a wider spectrum of ZIKV-associated congenital injuries detected postnatally.

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<![CDATA[Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the trail-making test in older adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13819 The trail-making test (TMT) is a popular neuropsychological test, which is used extensively to measure cognitive impairment associated with neurodegenerative disorders in older adults. Behavioural performance on the TMT has been investigated in older populations, but there is limited research on task-related brain activity in older adults. The current study administered a naturalistic version of the TMT to a healthy older-aged population in an MRI environment using a novel, MRI-compatible tablet. Functional MRI was conducted during task completion, allowing characterization of the brain activity associated with the TMT. Performance on the TMT was evaluated using number of errors and seconds per completion of each link. Results are reported for 36 cognitively healthy older adults between the ages of 52 and 85. Task-related activation was observed in extensive regions of the bilateral frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes as well as key motor areas. Increased age was associated with reduced brain activity and worse task performance. Specifically, older age was correlated with decreased task-related activity in the bilateral occipital, temporal and parietal lobes. These results suggest that healthy older aging significantly affects brain function during the TMT, which consequently may result in performance decrements. The current study reveals the brain activation patterns underlying TMT performance in a healthy older aging population, which functions as an important, clinically-relevant control to compare to pathological aging in future investigations.

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<![CDATA[The Warburg Effect and lactate signaling augment Fgf-MAPK to promote sensory-neural development in the otic vesicle]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13323 Recent studies indicate that many developing tissues modify glycolysis to favor lactate synthesis (Agathocleous et al., 2012; Bulusu et al., 2017; Gu et al., 2016; Oginuma et al., 2017; Sá et al., 2017; Wang et al., 2014; Zheng et al., 2016), but how this promotes development is unclear. Using forward and reverse genetics in zebrafish, we show that disrupting the glycolytic gene phosphoglycerate kinase-1 (pgk1) impairs Fgf-dependent development of hair cells and neurons in the otic vesicle and other neurons in the CNS/PNS. Fgf-MAPK signaling underperforms in pgk1- / - mutants even when Fgf is transiently overexpressed. Wild-type embryos treated with drugs that block synthesis or secretion of lactate mimic the pgk1- / - phenotype, whereas pgk1- / - mutants are rescued by treatment with exogenous lactate. Lactate treatment of wild-type embryos elevates expression of Etv5b/Erm even when Fgf signaling is blocked. However, lactate’s ability to stimulate neurogenesis is reversed by blocking MAPK. Thus, lactate raises basal levels of MAPK and Etv5b (a critical effector of the Fgf pathway), rendering cells more responsive to dynamic changes in Fgf signaling required by many developing tissues.

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<![CDATA[Nodal and planar cell polarity signaling cooperate to regulate zebrafish convergence and extension gastrulation movements]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12764 During vertebrate gastrulation, convergence and extension (C and E) of the primary anteroposterior (AP) embryonic axis is driven by polarized mediolateral (ML) cell intercalations and is influenced by AP axial patterning. Nodal signaling is essential for patterning of the AP axis while planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling polarizes cells with respect to this axis, but how these two signaling systems interact during C and E is unclear. We find that the neuroectoderm of Nodal-deficient zebrafish gastrulae exhibits reduced C and E cell behaviors, which require Nodal signaling in both cell- and non-autonomous fashions. PCP signaling is partially active in Nodal-deficient embryos and its inhibition exacerbates their C and E defects. Within otherwise naïve zebrafish blastoderm explants, however, Nodal induces C and E in a largely PCP-dependent manner, arguing that Nodal acts both upstream of and in parallel with PCP during gastrulation to regulate embryonic axis extension cooperatively.

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<![CDATA[Linker histone H1.2 and H1.4 affect the neutrophil lineage determination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12760 Neutrophils are important innate immune cells that tackle invading pathogens with different effector mechanisms. They acquire this antimicrobial potential during their maturation in the bone marrow, where they differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells in a process called granulopoiesis. Mature neutrophils are terminally differentiated and short-lived with a high turnover rate. Here, we show a critical role for linker histone H1 on the differentiation and function of neutrophils using a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screen in the human cell line PLB-985. We systematically disrupted expression of somatic H1 subtypes to show that individual H1 subtypes affect PLB-985 maturation in opposite ways. Loss of H1.2 and H1.4 induced an eosinophil-like transcriptional program, thereby negatively regulating the differentiation into the neutrophil lineage. Importantly, H1 subtypes also affect neutrophil differentiation and the eosinophil-directed bias of murine bone marrow stem cells, demonstrating an unexpected subtype-specific role for H1 in granulopoiesis.

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<![CDATA[Bacterial contribution to genesis of the novel germ line determinant <i>oskar</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12752 New cellular functions and developmental processes can evolve by modifying existing genes or creating novel genes. Novel genes can arise not only via duplication or mutation but also by acquiring foreign DNA, also called horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Here we show that HGT likely contributed to the creation of a novel gene indispensable for reproduction in some insects. Long considered a novel gene with unknown origin, oskar has evolved to fulfil a crucial role in insect germ cell formation. Our analysis of over 100 insect Oskar sequences suggests that oskar arose de novo via fusion of eukaryotic and prokaryotic sequences. This work shows that highly unusual gene origin processes can give rise to novel genes that may facilitate evolution of novel developmental mechanisms.

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<![CDATA[Chromatin accessibility dynamics and single cell RNA-Seq reveal new regulators of regeneration in neural progenitors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12735 Vertebrate appendage regeneration requires precisely coordinated remodeling of the transcriptional landscape to enable the growth and differentiation of new tissue, a process executed over multiple days and across dozens of cell types. The heterogeneity of tissues and temporally-sensitive fate decisions involved has made it difficult to articulate the gene regulatory programs enabling regeneration of individual cell types. To better understand how a regenerative program is fulfilled by neural progenitor cells (NPCs) of the spinal cord, we analyzed pax6-expressing NPCs isolated from regenerating Xenopus tropicalis tails. By intersecting chromatin accessibility data with single-cell transcriptomics, we find that NPCs place an early priority on neuronal differentiation. Late in regeneration, the priority returns to proliferation. Our analyses identify Pbx3 and Meis1 as critical regulators of tail regeneration and axon organization. Overall, we use transcriptional regulatory dynamics to present a new model for cell fate decisions and their regulators in NPCs during regeneration.

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<![CDATA[<i>Sox8</i> and <i>Sox9</i> act redundantly for ovarian-to-testicular fate reprogramming in the absence of <i>R-spondin1</i> in mouse sex reversals]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12732 In humans, mice and other mammals, genetic sex is determined by the combination of sex chromosomes that each individual inherits. Individuals with two X chromosomes (XX) are said to be chromosomally female, while individuals with one X and one Y chromosome (XY) are chromosomally males.

One of the major differences between XX and XY individuals is that they have different types of gonads (the organs that make egg cells or sperm). In mice, for example, before males are born, a gene called Sox9 triggers a cascade of events that result in the gonads developing into testes. In females, on the other hand, another gene called Rspo1 stimulates the gonads to develop into ovaries.

Loss of Sox9 in XY embryos, or Rspo1 in XX embryos, leads to mice developing physical characteristics that do not match their genetic sex, a phenomenon known as sex reversal. For example, in XX female mice lacking Rspo1, cells in the gonads reprogram into testis cells known as Sertoli cells just before birth and form male structures known as testis cords. The gonads of female mice missing both Sox9 and Rspo1 (referred to as “double mutants”) also develop Sertoli cells and testis cords, suggesting another gene may compensate for the loss of Sox9.

Previous studies suggest that a gene known as Sox8, which is closely related to Sox9, may be able to drive sex reversal in female mice. However, it was not clear whether Sox8 is able to stimulate testis to form in female mice in the absence of Sox9.

To address this question, Richardson et al. studied mutant female mice lacking Rspo1, Sox8 and Sox9, known as “triple mutants”. Just before birth, the gonads in the triple mutant mice showed some characteristics of sex reversal but lacked the Sertoli cells found in the double mutant mice. After the mice were born, the gonads of the triple mutant mice developed as rudimentary ovaries without testis cords, unlike the more testis-like gonads found in the double mutant mice.

The findings of Richardson et al. show that Sox8 is able to trigger sex reversal in female mice in the absence of Rspo1 and Sox9. Differences in sexual development in humans affect the appearance of individuals and often cause infertility. Identifying Sox8 and other similar genes in mice may one day help to diagnose people with such conditions and lead to the development of new therapies.

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<![CDATA[Yap-lin28a axis targets let7-Wnt pathway to restore progenitors for initiating regeneration]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12722 The sox2 expressing (sox2+) progenitors in adult mammalian inner ear lose the capacity to regenerate while progenitors in the zebrafish lateral line are able to proliferate and regenerate damaged HCs throughout lifetime. To mimic the HC damage in mammals, we have established a zebrafish severe injury model to eliminate both progenitors and HCs. The atoh1a expressing (atoh1a+) HC precursors were the main population that survived post severe injury, and gained sox2 expression to initiate progenitor regeneration. In response to severe injury, yap was activated to upregulate lin28a transcription. Severe-injury-induced progenitor regeneration was disabled in lin28a or yap mutants. In contrary, overexpression of lin28a initiated the recovery of sox2+ progenitors. Mechanistically, microRNA let7 acted downstream of lin28a to activate Wnt pathway for promoting regeneration. Our findings that lin28a is necessary and sufficient to regenerate the exhausted sox2+ progenitors shed light on restoration of progenitors to initiate HC regeneration in mammals.

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<![CDATA[Placental transfer of Letermovir &amp; Maribavir in the <i>ex vivo</i> human cotyledon perfusion model. New perspectives for <i>in utero</i> treatment of congenital cytomegalovirus infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11236 Congenital cytomegalovirus infection can lead to severe sequelae. When fetal infection is confirmed, we hypothesize that fetal treatment could improve the outcome. Maternal oral administration of an effective drug crossing the placenta could allow fetal treatment. Letermovir (LMV) and Maribavir (MBV) are new CMV antivirals, and potential candidates for fetal treatment.MethodsThe objective was to investigate the placental transfer of LMV and MBV in the ex vivo method of the human perfused cotyledon. Term placentas were perfused, in an open-circuit model, with LMV or MBV at concentrations in the range of clinical peak plasma concentrations. Concentrations were measured using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Mean fetal transfer rate (FTR) (fetal (FC) /maternal concentration), clearance index (CLI), accumulation index (AI) (retention of each drug in the cotyledon tissue) were measured. Mean FC were compared with half maximal effective concentrations of the drugs (EC50(LMV) and EC50(MBV)).ResultsFor LMV, the mean FC was (± standard deviation) 1.1 ± 0.2 mg/L, 1,000-fold above the EC50(LMV). Mean FTR, CLI and AI were 9 ± 1%, 35 ± 6% and 4 ± 2% respectively. For MBV, the mean FC was 1.4 ± 0.2 mg/L, 28-fold above the EC50(MBV). Mean FTR, CLI and AI were 10 ± 1%, 50 ± 7% and 2 ± 1% respectively.ConclusionsDrugs’ concentrations in the fetal side should be in the range for in utero treatment of fetuses infected with CMV as the mean FC was superior to the EC50 for both molecules. ]]> <![CDATA[Extending thermotolerance to tomato seedlings by inoculation with SA1 isolate of <i>Bacillus cereus</i> and comparison with exogenous humic acid application]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11229 Heat stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that impair plant growth and crop productivity. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria (PGPEB) and humic acid (HA) are used as bio-stimulants and ecofriendly approaches to improve agriculture crop production and counteract the negative effects of heat stress. Current study aimed to analyze the effect of thermotolerant SA1 an isolate of Bacillus cereus and HA on tomato seedlings. The results showed that combine application of SA1+HA significantly improved the biomass and chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato plants under normal and heat stress conditions. Heat stress increased abscisic acid (ABA) and reduced salicylic acid (SA) content; however, combined application of SA1+HA markedly reduced ABA and increased SA. Antioxidant enzymes activities revealed that SA1 and HA treated plants exhibited increased levels of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH). In addition, heat stress markedly reduced the amino acid contents; however, the amino acids were increased with co-application of SA1+HA. Similarly, inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry results showed that plants treated with SA1+HA exhibited significantly higher iron (Fe+), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K+) uptake during heat stress. Heat stress increased the relative expression of SlWRKY33b and autophagy-related (SlATG5) genes, whereas co-application of SA1+HA augmented the heat stress response and reduced SlWRKY33b and SlATG5 expression. The heat stress-responsive transcription factor (SlHsfA1a) and high-affinity potassium transporter (SlHKT1) were upregulated in SA1+HA-treated plants. In conclusion, current findings suggest that co-application with SA1+HA can be used for the mitigation of heat stress damage in tomato plants and can be commercialized as a biofertilizer.

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<![CDATA[Mechanical stimulation induced osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs through TWIST/E2A/p21 axis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9226 The relationship between mechanical force and alveolar bone remodeling is an important issue in orthodontics because tooth movement is dependent on the response of bone tissue to the mechanical force induced by the appliances used. Mechanical cyclical stretch plays an essential role in the cell osteogenic differentiation involved in bone remodeling. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear, particularly the molecular pathways regulated by mechanical stimulation. In the present study, we reported a dynamic change of p21 level in response to mechanical cyclical stretch, and shRNA-p21 in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) induced osteogenic differentiation. The mechanism was mediated through TWIST/E2A/p21 axis. These results supported the mechanical stimulation-induced osteogenic differentiation is negatively regulated by p21.

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<![CDATA[The role of SUMOylation during development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9182 During the development of multicellular organisms, transcriptional regulation plays an important role in the control of cell growth, differentiation and morphogenesis. SUMOylation is a reversible post-translational process involved in transcriptional regulation through the modification of transcription factors and through chromatin remodelling (either modifying chromatin remodelers or acting as a ‘molecular glue’ by promoting recruitment of chromatin regulators). SUMO modification results in changes in the activity, stability, interactions or localization of its substrates, which affects cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, DNA maintenance and repair or nucleocytoplasmic transport. This review focuses on the role of SUMO machinery and the modification of target proteins during embryonic development and organogenesis of animals, from invertebrates to mammals.

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<![CDATA[Active Notch signaling is required for arm regeneration in a brittle star]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7845 Cell signaling pathways play key roles in coordinating cellular events in development. The Notch signaling pathway is highly conserved across all multicellular animals and is known to coordinate a multitude of diverse cellular events, including proliferation, differentiation, fate specification, and cell death. Specific functions of the pathway are, however, highly context-dependent and are not well characterized in post-traumatic regeneration. Here, we use a small-molecule inhibitor of the pathway (DAPT) to demonstrate that Notch signaling is required for proper arm regeneration in the brittle star Ophioderma brevispina, a highly regenerative member of the phylum Echinodermata. We also employ a transcriptome-wide gene expression analysis (RNA-seq) to characterize the downstream genes controlled by the Notch pathway in the brittle star regeneration. We demonstrate that arm regeneration involves an extensive cross-talk between the Notch pathway and other cell signaling pathways. In the regrowing arm, Notch regulates the composition of the extracellular matrix, cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis, as well as components of the innate immune response. We also show for the first time that Notch signaling regulates the activity of several transposable elements. Our data also suggests that one of the possible mechanisms through which Notch sustains its activity in the regenerating tissues is via suppression of Neuralized1.

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