ResearchPad - diabetes-metabolic-disorders https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Silencing of LncRNA PVT1 inhibits the proliferation, migration and fibrosis of high glucose-induced mouse mesangial cells via targeting microRNA-93-5p]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9222 Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the regulatory role of long non-coding RNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) on high glucose (HG)-induced mouse mesangial cells (MMCs).

Methods: PVT1 expression in diabetic nephropathy (DN) mice and HG-induced MMCs was detected by qRT-PCR. EdU and Colony formation, Annexin V-PI staining, Muse cell cycle, Scratch, and Transwell assays were performed to detect the cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, migration, and invasion, respectively. The contents of fibrosis factors in cell-culture supernatants were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot was performed to detect the expression of factors involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, migration and invasion, fibrosis, and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The targeting relation between miR-93-5p and PVT1 was predicted by StarBase3.0 (an online software for analyzing the targeting relationship) and identified by Dual-luciferase reporter (DLR) assay.

Results: PVT1 was overexpressed in DN kidney tissues and HG-induced MMCs. HG-induced MMCs exhibited significantly increased EdU-positive cells, cell colonies, S and G2/M phase cells, migration and invasion ability, and contents of fibrosis factors, as well as significantly decreased apoptosis rate compared with NG-induced MMCs. HG significantly up-regulated Bcl-2, CyclinD1, CDK4, N-cadherin, vimentin, Col. IV, FN, TGF-β1 and PAI-1, and down-regulated Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, and E-cadherin in MMCs. Silencing of PVT1 eliminated the effects of HG in MMCs and blocked PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. MiR-93-5p was a target of PVT1, which eliminated the effects of PVT1 on HG-induced MMCs.

Conclusions: PVT1 silencing inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion and fibrosis, promoted the apoptosis, and blocked PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in HG-induced MMCs via up-regulating miR-93-5p.

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<![CDATA[Hereditary hemochromatosis disrupts uric acid homeostasis and causes hyperuricemia via altered expression/activity of xanthine oxidase and ABCG2]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9170 Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is mostly caused by mutations in the iron-regulatory gene HFE. The disease is associated with iron overload, resulting in liver cirrhosis/cancer, cardiomegaly, kidney dysfunction, diabetes, and arthritis. Fe2+-induced oxidative damage is suspected in the etiology of these symptoms. Here we examined, using Hfe−/− mice, whether disruption of uric acid (UA) homeostasis plays any role in HH-associated arthritis. We detected elevated levels of UA in serum and intestine in Hfe−/− mice compared with controls. Though the expression of xanthine oxidase, which generates UA, was not different in liver and intestine between wild type and Hfe−/− mice, the enzymatic activity was higher in Hfe−/− mice. We then examined various transporters involved in UA absorption/excretion. Glut9 expression did not change; however, there was an increase in Mrp4 and a decrease in Abcg2 in Hfe−/− mice. As ABCG2 mediates intestinal excretion of UA and mutations in ABCG2 cause hyperuricemia, we examined the potential connection between iron and ABCG2. We found p53-responsive elements in hABCG2 promoter and confirmed with chromatin immunoprecipitation that p53 binds to this promoter. p53 protein was reduced in Hfe−/− mouse intestine. p53 is a heme-binding protein and p53-heme complex is subjected to proteasomal degradation. We conclude that iron/heme overload in HH increases xanthine oxidase activity and also promotes p53 degradation resulting in decreased ABCG2 expression. As a result, systemic UA production is increased and intestinal excretion of UA via ABCG2 is decreased, causing serum and tissue accumulation of UA, a potential factor in the etiology of HH-associated arthritis.

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<![CDATA[MiR-770-5p facilitates podocyte apoptosis and inflammation in diabetic nephropathy by targeting TIMP3]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf6861224-ba65-498a-8aad-78abbb68558a Objective: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most severe and frequent diabetic complications. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play a vital role in DN pathogenesis. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of miR-770-5p in DN.

Methods: Podocyte injury model was established by treating mouse podocytes with high glucose (HG, 33 mM) for 24 h. The levels of miR-770-5p and TIMP3 were examined in kidney tissues and podocytes using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Flow cytometry analysis was applied to detect apoptosis in podocytes. Western blot assay was used to measure the protein levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X (Bax) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted to measure the levels of inflammatory factors. The interaction between miR-770-5p and TIMP3 was determined by MicroT-CDS and luciferase reporter assay.

Results: MiR-770-5p was up-regulated and TIMP3 was down-regulated in DN kidney tissues and HG-stimulated podocytes. Depletion of miR-770-5p suppressed cell apoptosis and the release of pro-inflammatory factors in HG-treated podocytes. Additionally, TIMP3 was a target of miR-770-5p in HG-treated podocytes. TIMP3 inhibited cell apoptosis and inflammation in HG-treated podocytes. Moreover, TIMP3 knockdown alleviated the inhibitory effect of miR-770-5p silencing on podocyte apoptosis and inflammatory response.

Conclusion: Knockdown of miR-770-5p suppressed podocyte apoptosis and inflammatory response by targeting TIMP3 in HG-treated podocytes, indicating that miR-770-5p may be a potential therapeutic target for DN therapy.

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<![CDATA[Comprehensive analysis of PPARγ agonist activities of stereo-, regio-, and enantio-isomers of hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncba0b326-176f-4db2-bf87-2a3eba460f56 Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs) are produced by oxidation and reduction of linoleates. There are several regio- and stereo-isomers of HODE, and their concentrations in vivo are higher than those of other lipids. Although conformational isomers may have different biological activities, comparative analysis of intracellular function of HODE isomers has not yet been performed. We evaluated the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a therapeutic target for diabetes, and analyzed PPARγ agonist activity of HODE isomers. The lowest scores for docking poses of 12 types of HODE isomers (9-, 10-, 12-, and 13-HODEs) were almost similar in docking simulation of HODEs into PPARγ ligand-binding domain (LBD). Direct binding of HODE isomers to PPARγ LBD was determined by water-ligand observed via gradient spectroscopy (WaterLOGSY) NMR experiments. In contrast, there were differences in PPARγ agonist activities among 9- and 13-HODE stereo-isomers and 12- and 13-HODE enantio-isomers in a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Interestingly, the activity of 9-HODEs was less than that of other regio-isomers, and 9-(E,E)-HODE tended to decrease PPARγ-target gene expression during the maturation of 3T3-L1 cells. In addition, 10- and 12-(Z,E)-HODEs, which we previously proposed as biomarkers for early-stage diabetes, exerted PPARγ agonist activity. These results indicate that all HODE isomers have PPARγ-binding affinity; however, they have different PPARγ agonist activity. Our findings may help to understand the biological function of lipid peroxidation products.

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<![CDATA[Effects of emodin on inflammatory bowel disease-related osteoporosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ndf5dd2c6-1bd2-42f9-92d8-2a5c6fe403f5

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are related to bone loss. Emodin can influence the activity and differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. However, few studies have shown the effects of emodin on IBD-induced bone damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of emodin in IBD-induced osteoporosis in an animal model. An IBD model in Sprague Dawley male rats was established by administering 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water. Emodin was administered orally (30 mg/kg body weight) every other day starting in the third week for 9 weeks. Blood, colon and bone samples were obtained for biomarker assays and histological analysis. Bone biomechanical properties, microCT, metabolic biomarkers and bone histological changes were analyzed. The bone mass was significantly decreased, and the bone biomechanical properties and bone microstructure parameters of IBD rats were significantly worse than those of control rats (P<0.05). Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase staining also showed that the number of osteoclasts in bone in IBD rats were larger than that in bone in control rats. Emodin intervention abolished the changes in bone microstructure and biomechanical properties (P<0.05) induced by IBD. Osteoclast formation and serum C-terminal cross-linked peptide (CTX) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were also inhibited by emodin (P<0.05). Emodin significantly abolished IBD-enhanced Traf6, NFATC1 and c-fos expression. Our data demonstrated that emodin suppresses IBD-induced osteoporosis by inhibiting osteoclast formation.

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<![CDATA[Astragalus polysaccharide attenuates metabolic memory-triggered ER stress and apoptosis via regulation of miR-204/SIRT1 axis in retinal pigment epithelial cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb971e286-5132-48e1-a2b1-bf3c7361ba61

Abstract

Background:Metabolic memory’ of early hyperglycaemic environment has been frequently suggested in the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are crucial targets for DR initiation following hyperglycaemia. Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) has been long used as a traditional Chinese medicine in treating diabetes. In the present study, the preventive effects and mechanisms of APS on metabolic memory-induced RPE cell death were investigated.

Methods: The expressions of miR-204 and SIRT1 were determined by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Dual luciferase assay was applied to detect the potential targeting effects of miR-204 on SIRT1. SIRT1, ER stress and apoptosis related proteins were monitored using Western blotting. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay and Annexin V/PI staining followed by flow cytometry analysis. MiR-204 mimics and shSIRT1 were applied for miR-204 overexpression and SIRT1 knockdown, respectively.

Results: High glucose exposure induced metabolic memory, which was accompanied with sustained dysregulation of miR-204/SIRT1 axis, high level of ER stress and activation of apoptotic pathway even after replacement with normal glucose. Pre-treatment with APS concentration-dependently reversed miR-204 expression, leading to disinhibition of SIRT1 and alleviation of ER stress-induced apoptosis indicated by decreased levels of p-PERK, p-IRE-1, cleaved-ATF6, Bax, cleaved caspase-12, -9, -3, and increased levels of Bcl-2 and unleaved PARP. The effects of APS on RPE cells were reversed by either miR-204 overexpression or SIRT1 knockdown.

Conclusions: We concluded that APS inhibited ER stress and subsequent apoptosis via regulating miR-204/SIRT1 axis in metabolic memory model of RPE cells.

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<![CDATA[RCAN1.4 mediates high glucose-induced matrix production by stimulating mitochondrial fission in mesangial cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf1969b5b-fdb5-4108-bdef-6f37c3b5d961

Abstract

High glucose (HG)-induced mitochondrial dynamic changes and oxidative damage are closely related to the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Recent studies suggest that regulators of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial function in different cell types, so we investigate the role of RCAN1 in mitochondrial dynamics under HG ambience in rat glomerular mesangial cells (MCs). MCs subjected to HG exhibited an isoform-specific up-regulation of RCAN1.4 at both mRNA and protein levels. RCAN1.4 overexpression induced translocation of Dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1) to mitochondria, mitochondrial fragmentation and depolarization, accompanied by increased matrix production under normal glucose and HG ambience. In contrast, decreasing the expression of RCAN1.4 by siRNA inhibited HG-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and matrix protein up-regulation. Moreover, both mitochondrial fission inhibitor Mdivi-1 and Drp1 shRNA prevented RCAN1.4-induced fibronectin up-regulation, suggesting that RCAN1.4-induced matrix production is dependent on its modulation of mitochondrial fission. Although HG-induced RCAN1.4 up-regulation was achieved by activating calcineurin, RCAN1.4-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation and matrix production is independent of calcineurin activity. These results provide the first evidence for the HG-induced RCAN1.4 up-regulation involving increased mitochondrial fragmentation, leading to matrix protein up-regulation.

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