ResearchPad - diagnostics-biomarkers https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Identification of crucial aberrantly methylated and differentially expressed genes related to cervical cancer using an integrated bioinformatics analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_13844 Methylation functions in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. In the present study, we applied an integrated bioinformatics analysis to identify the aberrantly methylated and differentially expressed genes (DEGS), and their related pathways in cervical cancer. Data of gene expression microarrays (GSE9750) and gene methylation microarrays (GSE46306) were gained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases. Hub genes were identified by ‘limma’ packages and Venn diagram tool. Functional analysis was conducted by FunRich. Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes Database (STRING) was used to analyze protein–protein interaction (PPI) information. Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA), immunohistochemistry staining, and ROC curve analysis were conducted for validation. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was also performed to identify potential functions.We retrieved two upregulated-hypomethylated oncogenes and eight downregulated-hypermethylated tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) for functional analysis. Hypomethylated and highly expressed genes (Hypo-HGs) were significantly enriched in cell cycle and autophagy, and hypermethylated and lowly expressed genes (Hyper-LGs) in estrogen receptor pathway and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 like 3 (EPB41L3), Endothelin receptor B (EDNRB), Inhibitor of DNA binding 4 (ID4) and placenta-specific 8 (PLAC8) were hub genes. Kaplan–Meier method was used to evaluate survival data of each identified gene. Lower expression levels of ESR1 and EPB41L3 were correlated with a shorter survival time. GSEA results showed that ‘cell adhesion molecules’ was the most enriched item. This research inferred the candidate genes and pathways that might be used in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of cervical cancer.

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<![CDATA[Circular RNA hsa_circ_0072309 inhibits non-small cell lung cancer progression by sponging miR-580-3p]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9229 Objective: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) continues to top the list of cancer mortalities worldwide. Early diagnosis and therapeutic interventions targeting NSCLC is becoming the world’s significant challenge. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are emerging as a group of potential cancer biomarkers.

Materials and methods: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was employed to examine the expression of circ_0072309 in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8), wound healing and Transwell assays were used to analyze cell proliferation, migration and invasion in A549 and H1299 cells. The relationship between circ_0072309 and miR-580-3 was analyzed by Luciferase reporter and RNA pull down assays.

Results: We screened circ_0072309 from Gene Expression Omnibus and found that circ_0072309 was lowly expressed in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. The transfection of circ_0072309-overexpressing vector significantly suppressed the cell proliferation, migration and invasion in A549 and H1299 cells. We predicted that miR-580-3p is a target of circ_0072309 by using publicly available bioinformatic algorithms Circinteractome tool and confirmed that circ_0072309 directly bound to miR-580-3p. Furthermore, the addition of miR-580-3p mitigated the blockage of cell proliferation, migration and invasion induced by circ_0072309.

Conclusions: These data showed that circ_0072309 inhibits the progression of NSCLC progression via blocking the expression of miR-580-3p. These findings revealed the anti-tumor role of circ_0072309 during the development of NSCLC and provided a novel diagnostic biomarker and potential therapy for NSCLC.

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<![CDATA[Circular RNA expression profile of lung squamous cell carcinoma: identification of potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4d0388e9-7ab4-45f1-93ad-4d6fc64e5203 Emerging evidences indicated that exosomal circular RNAs (circRNAs) could serve as diagnostic biomarkers for cancers. However, the expression profiles and clinical significance of circRNAs in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) remain largely unknown. Herein, we analyzed circRNAs expression profile in six pairs of plasma exosome samples of LUSC patients using high-throughput sequencing. A total of 252 differentially expressed exosomal circRNAs were identified, including 133 up-regulated circRNAs and 119 down-regulated circRNAs. Subsequently, the circRNAs–miRNAs–mRNAs interaction network was built to investigate potential function of circRNAs. Three up-regulated circRNAs (hsa_circ_0014235, hsa_circ_0025580 and hsa_circ_0026403) were implied to participate in cancer-related pathways. QRT-PCR experiment confirmed the up-regulation of hsa_circ_0014235 and hsa_circ_0025580. Finally, clinical studies indicated that hsa_circ_0014235 and hsa_circ_0025580 could serve as novel diagnostic biomarkers for LUSC. Taken together, our study revealed exosomal circRNAs expression profile in LUSC for the first time and showed the important diagnostic potential for circRNAs in LUSC.

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<![CDATA[Early differential diagnosis model for acute radiation pneumonitis based on multiple parameters]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2270efba-2cb3-4c3f-a022-8776357447a4

Abstract

Objective: The present study aimed to construct a diagnosis model for the early differentiation of acute radiation pneumonitis (ARP) and infectious pneumonitis based on multiple parameters.

Methods: The present study included data of 152 patients admitted to the Department of Radiochemotherapy, Tangshan People’s Hospital, who developed ARP (91 patients) or infectious pneumonia (IP; 61 patients) after radiotherapy. The radiophysical parameters, imaging characteristics, serological indicators, and other data were collected as independent variables, and ARP was considered as a dependent variable. Logistics univariate analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were used for selecting independent variables. Logistics multivariate analysis was used to fit the variables into the regression model to predict ARP.

Results: The univariate analysis showed that the positional relation between lesions and V20 area (PRLV), procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), mean lung dose (MLD), and lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy (V20) correlated with ARP while the planning target volume (PTV) dose marginally correlated with ARP. The multivariate analysis showed that the PRLV, PCT, white blood cell (WBC), and MLD were independent diagnostic factors. The nomogram was drawn on the basis of the logistics regression model. The area under the curve (AUC) of the model was 0.849, which was significantly better than that of a single indicator and the sensitivity and specificity of the model were high (82.4 and 82.0%, respectively). These results predicted by the model were highly consistent with the actual diagnostic results. The decision curve analysis (DCA) demonstrated a satisfactory positive net benefit of the model.

Conclusion: The diagnosis model constructed in the present study is of certain value for the differential diagnosis of ARP and IP.

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<![CDATA[Circulating lncRNA DANCR as a potential auxillary biomarker for the diagnosis and prognostic prediction of colorectal cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na74d7a58-1127-4384-9b07-24c0fc3ade70

Abstract

Studies have shown that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play vital roles in the development of cancer, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Our purpose is to validate the diagnostic value of serum differentiation antagonizing non-protein coding RNA (DANCR) in CRC by focusing on its expression and clinical application. lncRNA expression profiles of CRC patients were obtained and analyzed by repurposing the publically available microarray data. Tissue or serum specimens were obtained from 40 patients with primary CRC, 10 patients with recurrent CRC, 40 patients with colorectal polyps, and 40 healthy controls. It was found that DANCR level in the CRC tissue and serum was significantly increased, and serum DANCR expression was decreased in post-operative patients as compared with that in pre-treatment patients and recurrent patients. In addition, serum DANCR expression was significantly correlated with different TNM stages. Correlation analysis of DANCR and other diagnostic indicators showed that the serum DANCR expression level was significantly correlated with CA199 but not with CEA in CRC patients. As for diagnostic efficiency by ROC analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) of serum DANCR was higher than that of CEA and CA199 in CRC group vs. colorectal polyp group. Simultaneous detection of DANCR, CEA and CA199 yielded the highest sensitivity and AUC as compared with either of them alone. Taken together, serum DANCR was up-regulated in CRC patients and high expression of DANCR may prove to be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of CRC.

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<![CDATA[Low efficacy of vaccination against serogroup B meningococci in patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N063b6d00-2073-4190-8d9a-fb913cdb54b6

Abstract

Background: The C5 complement inhibitor eculizumab is first-line treatment in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) going along with a highly increased risk of meningococcal infections. Serogroup B meningococci (MenB) are the most frequently encountered cause for meningococcal infections in Europe. Efficacy of the protein-based MenB-vaccine Bexsero in aHUS has not been determined and testing is only possible in patients off-treatment with eculizumab as a human complement source is required.

Methods: Patients with aHUS were vaccinated with two doses of the protein-based MenB-vaccine Bexsero. Serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers against factor H binding protein (fHbp) of MenB were determined in 14 patients with aHUS off-treatment with eculizumab.

Results: Only 50% of patients showed protective human serum bactericidal antibody (hSBA) titers (≥1:4) against MenB following two vaccinations. Bactericidal antibody titers were relatively low (≤1:8) in three of seven patients with protective titers. While 71% of patients were on immunosuppressive treatment for either thrombotic microangiopathy or renal transplantation at either first or second vaccination, all four patients not receiving any immunosuppressive treatment showed protective bactericidal antibody response. Time between second vaccination and titer measurement was not significantly different between patients with protective titers compared with those with non-protective titers, while time between first and second vaccination was significantly longer in patients with protective titers going along with a tendency for reduction in immunosuppressive treatment.

Conclusions: Efficacy of vaccination against MenB is insufficient in patients with aHUS. Response to vaccination seems to be hampered by immunosuppression. Therefore, implementation of adequate antibiotic prophylaxis seems pivotal.

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<![CDATA[Down-regulation of protease-activated receptor 2 ameliorated osteoarthritis in rats through regulation of MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N23ff7292-a7a0-4903-9f18-e29c0a2bb86e

Abstract

Recently, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) has been proved to be involved in the inflammatory response including osteoarthritis (OA). In the present study, we found that PAR2 antagonist could remarkably improve the pathological condition of OA rats in vivo. In addition, we also found that PAR2 antagonist could suppress the production of inflammatory factors (TNF-α and Cox-2), decrease the levels of MMP-1 and MMP-13, and restrain the levels of P62 proteins and aggravate the expression of LC3-II both in vivo and in vitro. Besides, in vitro, PAR2 antagonist could increase the proliferation and colony formation of chondrocytes induced with IL-1β. Moreover, PAR2 antagonist could decrease the expression of expressions of p-p38, p-IκBα and p-NF-κB in vitro. However, PAR2 agonist exhibited the opposite effects. Furthermore, SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, could remarkably promote the proliferation of chondrocytes induced with IL-1β, could alleviate the production of TNF-α and Cox-2, could down-regulate the protein expressions of MMP-1 and MMP-13, and could decrease the expression of P62 and increase the expressions of LC3-II of chondrocytes induced with IL-1β. Importantly, SB203580 could reverse the effects of PAR2 agonist on the functions of chondrocytes induced with IL-1β. Taken together, the present data suggest that down-regulation of PAR2 can ameliorate OA through inducing autophagy via regulation of MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro, and PAR2 can be considered as a potential candidate to treat OA.

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<![CDATA[Profiles of immune cell infiltration in head and neck squamous carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N03d32820-8e44-4c70-9b42-4321ce290308

Abstract

Tumor immune infiltration cells (TIICs) are highly heterogeneous, not only in different cancer subtypes but also within different cancer regions. We conducted the Cell-type Identification using Estimating Relative Subsets Of RNA Transcripts (CIBERSORT) method. We assessed the relative proportions of 22 TIICs in HNSC using publicly available TCGA transcriptional datasets, analyzed the proportions of TIICs between HNSC tissues and normal tissues, along with accompanying clinicopathological data, and the impact of TIICs on clinical outcome. After the filter criteria, a total of 395 patients were included in the analysis. We found significant differences in naïve B cells, monocytes, resting mast cells, activated mast cells, CD8+ T cells, and M0 macrophages between HNSC tissues and adjacent non-cancer tissues. We also found that some TIIC subgroups were significantly associated with clinical parameters. Moreover, the patients with low Tregs fraction had worse OS and DFS than those with high Tregs fraction. However, low M0 macrophages fraction was associated with better OS and DFS in HNSC patients. Moreover, Tregs and M0 macrophages are likely to be important determinants of prognosis, which may serve as a potential immunotherapy target for HNSC. Then, we screened the immune-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs), performed the GO and KEGG enrichment analysis, constructed the protein–protein interaction network, and screened the prognosis-related hub genes in HNSC. However, further clinical investigation and basic experiments are needed to validate our results, and uncover the molecular mechanisms interlinking TIICs in HNSC and their roles in prognosis and therapy.

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<![CDATA[Immobilized DNA aptamers used as potent attractors for vascular endothelial cell: in vitro study of female rat]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N22bf139b-96b7-4760-8738-29be5d4e06b2

Abstract

Vascular endothelial cells are essential to vascular function and maintenance. Dysfunction of these cells can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease or contribute to tumorigenesis. As such, the therapeutic modulation and monitoring of vascular endothelial cells are of significant clinical interest, and several endothelial-specific ligands have been developed for drug delivery and the monitoring of endothelial function. However, the application of these ligands has been limited by their high cost and tendency to induce immune responses, highlighting a need for alternate methods of targeting vascular endothelial cells. In the present study, we explore the therapeutic potential of DNA aptamers. Using cell-SELEX technology, we identified two aptamers with specific binding affinity for vascular endothelial cells and propose that these molecules show potential for use as new ligands for drug and biomarker research concerning vascular endothelial cells.

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<![CDATA[The prognostic value of lncRNA SNHG4 and its potential mechanism in liver cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N770e8a29-3dfb-46d2-97cb-1775d4d5de37

Abstract

Background and object: Emerging evidence shows that non-coding RNA functions as new gene regulators and prognostic markers in several cancers, including liver cancer. Here, we focused on the small nucleolar RNA host gene 4 (SNHG4) in liver cancer prognosis based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data.

Methods: The expression data and clinical information were downloaded from TCGA. Chi-square tests evaluated the correlation between SNHG4 expression and clinical parameters. Differences in survival between high and low expression groups (optic cutoff value determined by ROC) from Cox regression analysis were compared, and P-value was calculated by a log-rank test. Kaplan–Meier curves were compared with the log-rank test. GSEA and ceRNA network were conducted to explore the potential mechanism.

Results: Data mining of lncRNA expression data for 371 patients with primary tumor revealed overexpression of SNHG4 in liver cancer. High SNHG4 expression was correlated with histological type (P = 0.01), histologic grade (P = 0.001), stage (P = 0.01), T classification (P = 0.004) and survival status (P = 0.013). Patients with high SNHG4 expression had poor overall survival and relapse-free survival compared with those with low SNHG4 expression. Multivariate analysis identified SNHG4 as an independent prognostic factor of poor survival in liver cancer. GSEA revealed related signaling pathway and ceRNA network explored the further mechanism.

Conclusion: High SNHG4 expression is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in liver cancer.

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<![CDATA[Increased serum total bilirubin-albumin ratio was associated with bilirubin encephalopathy in neonates]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7989543a-f545-4f36-81af-b46c74c48fb7

Abstract

We performed the present study to summarize the recent epidemiological characteristics of bilirubin encephalopathy and assess the role of total bilirubin-albumin ratio in the bilirubin encephalopathy. We retrospectively collected clinical data of 669 neonates with hyperbilirubinemia from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between January 2015 and July 2018, including 153 neonates belonged to bilirubin encephalopathy and 516 ones were treated as control group. Compared with the control group, those with bilirubin encephalopathy have higher bilirubin-albumin ratio (13.8 ± 3.6 vs. 10.6 ± 2.5, P=0.000). The direct bilirubin and indirect bilirubin level were higher in the case group than that in the control group (P=0.000). On the contrary, the hemoglobin level was lower in the case group than that in the control group (P=0.004). There were no significant differences in gestational age (P=0.510), gender rate (P=0.313), maternal gestational diabetes ratio (P=0.071), natural childbirth ratio (P=0.686), and meconium delay (P=0.091). The results from univariate regression indicated the total bilirubin/albumin ratio was positively associated with bilirubin encephalopathy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.59–3.14). The total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and indirect bilirubin were also related to encephalopathy. After adjusting some potential cofounding factors, the total bilirubin-albumin was still associated with bilirubin encephalopathy. The higher total bilirubin-albumin ratio increased the risk of bilirubin encephalopathy by 23% (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.16–2.48). Our results indicated that the bilirubin-albumin ratio is associated with bilirubin encephalopathy in neonates, and could be a potential predictor.

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<![CDATA[The role of DOT1L in the proliferation and prognosis of gastric cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8c571c50-4065-4605-8595-5d9cb38319b2

Abstract

Background: Disruptor of telomeric silencing-1-like (DOT1L), a methyltransferase of H3K79, was observed to be amplified and overexpressed in certain malignancies. This work was aimed at investigating the differences in DOT1L expression and its regulatory mechanism in gastric cancer (GC) and healthy samples.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect DOT1L levels in 101 cases of GC and marching adjacent normal tissues. DOT1L was inhibited by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and EPZ5676; a targeting drug. The ability of cells to proliferate were checked by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and clone formation assays, with flow cytometry for observing the cell cycle. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot revealed the gene and protein profiles. Finally, the outcome of EPZ5676 administration was checked on a murine model.

Results: The expression of DOT1L is significantly increased in gastric malignant tumors that is related to the degree of differentiation, lymph node metastasis and TNM staging. DOT1L serves as an independent marker for the prognosis of overall survival (OS) with high levels implying worse prognosis. In addition, DOT1L regulates cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 (CDK4) and CDK6 through H3K79me2, which leads to a change in the cell cycle at G1, thereby affecting the proliferation of tumors in vitro and in vivo.

Conclusions: This is a first clinical demonstration of the applicability of DOT1L overexpression in gastric tumors. The work is suggestive of altered proliferation of cells by DOT1L via regulating cyclins and H3K79 methylation. This indicates the role of DOT1L in the prognosis and possible medical intervention of GC.

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<![CDATA[The role of HOPX in normal tissues and tumor progression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc638654d-59cb-4265-9a9a-263a54a45f49

Abstract

The homeodomain-only protein homeobox (HOPX) as the smallest homeodomain protein, lacks certain conserved residues required for DNA binding. Through our literature search, we reviewed the current understandings of HOPX in normal tissues and tumor progression. HOPX was initially identified as a critical transcription factor in various normal tissues, which interacted with serum response factor (SRF) or other substance to regulate normal physiological function. However, HOPX is at a low expression or methylation level in tumors. These data indicated that HOPX may play a very important role in regulating differentiation phenotype and tumor suppressive function. We predicted the prognosis of HOPX in tumors from TCGA database and discussed the downstream genes of HOPX. To understand how HOPX is involved in the mechanisms between physical and pathological conditions could lead to novel therapeutic strategies for treatment.

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<![CDATA[A susceptibility biomarker identification strategy based on significantly differentially expressed ceRNA triplets for ischemic cardiomyopathy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7173a44c-df6e-4042-bc07-bc884739912f

Abstract

Ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) is a common human heart disease that causes death. No effective biomarkers for ICM could be found in existing databases, which is detrimental to the in-depth study of this disease. In the present study, ICM susceptibility biomarkers were identified using a proposed strategy based on RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq data of ICM and normal samples. Significantly differentially expressed competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) triplets were constructed using permutation tests and differentially expressed mRNAs, miRNAs and lncRNAs. Candidate ICM susceptible genes were screened out as differentially expressed genes in significantly differentially expressed ceRNA triplets enriched in ICM-related functional classes. Finally, eight ICM susceptibility genes and their significantly correlated lncRNAs with high classification accuracy were identified as ICM susceptibility biomarkers. These biomarkers would contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of ICM. The proposed strategy could be extended to other complex diseases without disease biomarkers in public databases.

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<![CDATA[Identification of 13 novel USH2A mutations in Chinese retinitis pigmentosa and Usher syndrome patients by targeted next-generation sequencing]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nce1d38d3-bcf8-4e5f-815d-3b8e91ff0b7d

Abstract

Background: The USH2A gene encodes usherin, a basement membrane protein that is involved in the development and homeostasis of the inner ear and retina. Mutations in USH2A are linked to Usher syndrome type II (USH II) and non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Molecular diagnosis can provide insight into the pathogenesis of these diseases, facilitate clinical diagnosis, and identify individuals who can most benefit from gene or cell replacement therapy. Here, we report 21 pathogenic mutations in the USH2A gene identified in 11 Chinese families by using the targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology.

Methods: In all, 11 unrelated Chinese families were enrolled, and NGS was performed to identify mutations in the USH2A gene. Variant analysis, Sanger validation, and segregation tests were utilized to validate the disease-causing mutations in these families.

Results: We identified 21 pathogenic mutations, of which 13, including 5 associated with non-syndromic RP and 8 with USH II, have not been previously reported. The novel variants segregated with disease phenotype in the affected families and were absent from the control subjects. In general, visual impairment and retinopathy were consistent between the USH II and non-syndromic RP patients with USH2A mutations.

Conclusions: These findings provide a basis for investigating genotype–phenotype relationships in Chinese USH II and RP patients and for clarifying the pathophysiology and molecular mechanisms of the diseases associated with USH2A mutations.

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<![CDATA[Microcystic adnexal carcinoma: report of rare cases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N14d00191-2bcc-4691-a1b4-554af32fa4e0

Abstract

Microcystic adnexal carcinoma (MAC) is a rare, locally aggressive malignant neoplasm that derives from cutaneous eccrine/apocrine glands. MAC is classified as an eccrine/apocrine gland tumor and usually occurs in the skin. Here, we characterized and compared two cases of MAC. One is extremely rare in terms of its occurrence in the tongue. The other occurred in the lip, which is common. Histories of disease, diagnosis, and differentials were reviewed by the attending physicians. Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) slides were evaluated by an experienced pathologist. Immunological markers for malignant eccrine/apocrine gland tumors were used to characterize the tumor’s nature. The examined markers included EMA, CK5/6, CK8/18, CK7, CK20, p63, S-100, Calponin, CD10, MYB, Bcl-2, Her-2, CD34, SMA, p53, CD43, CD117, and Ki-67. Both patients were males, presented with painless lumps in the lower lip and in the tongue, respectively. Both lumps were similar in terms of appearance, being whitish, and infiltrative with irregular borders. Both tumors also had similar histological features with nests of bland keratinocytes, cords, and ductal differentiation filled with Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS)-positive eosinophilic material. In both cases, circular or ovary tumor cells invaded into muscles and nerves. All tumor cells were CK5/6, CK8/18, EMA, and CK7 positive. Particularly, keratinocytes were p63 positive, and paraductal cells were p63, S-100, and SMA positive. Therefore, the rare case of MAC in the tongue appears to derive from the salivary gland.

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<![CDATA[The correlation between trimethylamine N-oxide, lipoprotein ratios, and conventional lipid parameters in patients with unstable angina pectoris]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5f222794-ad69-4a67-9a98-90a3ff55a412

Abstract

Purpose: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is recently the main risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Plasma lipid levels are conventionally used to predict coronary risk, but the correlation between TMAO and plasma lipid levels in unstable angina pectoris (UAP) was unclear. Our objective was to compare the plasma level of TMAO to lipoprotein ratios and conventional lipid parameters in UAP patients. Methods: A total of 114 control participants and 184 UAP patients were enrolled. Demographic characteristics were collected. Plasma levels of TMAO and lipid in all patients were measured and analyzed. The receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC), univariate, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to examine the relationship between TMAO, lipoprotein ratios, conventional lipid parameters, and UAP. Results: The plasma levels of TMAO were remarkably increased in UAP patients (3.28 ± 1.97 µM) compared with control participants (1.52 ± 0.59 µM, P < 0.01). TMAO was significantly correlated with lipid levels in UAP patients. The ROC, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis both showed that the TMAO significantly increased the risk for occurrence of UAP. Conclusions: Our data indicate that the TMAO is superior to lipoprotein ratios and conventional lipid parameters in predicting occurrence of UAP.

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<![CDATA[Multifunctional neuron-specific enolase: its role in lung diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N25ff34de-3419-4d52-8bd8-dfb21fa4f8e3

Abstract

Neuron-specific enolase (NSE), also known as gamma (γ) enolase or enolase-2 (Eno2), is a form of glycolytic enolase isozyme and is considered a multifunctional protein. NSE is mainly expressed in the cytoplasm of neurons and neuroendocrine cells, especially in those of the amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) lineage such as pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, intestine and lung. In addition to its well-established glycolysis function in the cytoplasm, changes in cell localization and differential expression of NSE are also associated with several pathologies such as infection, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and cancer. This article mainly discusses the role and diagnostic potential of NSE in some lung diseases.

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