ResearchPad - diet Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Likely questionnaire-diagnosed food allergy in 78, 890 adults from the northern Netherlands]]> It is challenging to define likely food allergy (FA) in large populations which limited the number of large studies regarding risk factors for FA.ObjectiveWe studied the prevalence and characteristics of self-reported FA (s-rFA) in the large, population-based Dutch Lifelines cohort and identified associated risk factors.MethodsLikely food allergic cases (LikelyFA) were classified based on questionnaire reported characteristics consistent with FA. Subjects with atypical characteristics were classified as Indeterminate. We investigated 13 potential risk factors for LikelyFA such as birth mode and living on a farm and addressed health-related quality of life (H-RQOL).ResultsOf the 78, 890 subjects, 12.1% had s-rFA of which 4.0% and 8.1% were classified as LikelyFA and Indeterminate, respectively. Younger age, female sex, asthma, eczema and nasal allergy increased the risk of LikelyFA (p-value range <1.00*10−250–1.29*10−7). Living in a small city/large village or suburb during childhood was associated with a higher risk of LikelyFA than living on a farm (p-value = 7.81*10−4 and p = 4.84*10−4, respectively). Subjects classified as Indeterminate more often reported depression and burn-out compared to those without FA (p-value = 1.46*10−4 and p = 8.39*10−13, respectively). No association was found with ethnicity, (duration of) breastfeeding, birth mode and reported eating disorder. Mental and physical component scores measuring H-RQOL were lower in both those classified as LikelyFA and Indeterminate compared to those without FA.ConclusionThe prevalence of s-rFA among adults is considerable and one-third reports characteristics consistent with LikelyFA. Living on a farm decreased the risk of LikelyFA. The association of poorer H-RQOL as well as depression and burn-out with questionable self-perceived FA is striking and a priority for future study. ]]> <![CDATA[Fruit and vegetable consumption in Europe according to gender, educational attainment and regional affiliation—A cross-sectional study in 21 European countries]]> The purpose of the present study was to examine fruit and vegetable consumption according to gender, educational attainment and regional affiliation in Europe.DesignCross-sectional study.Setting21 European countries.Participants37 672 adults participating in the 7th round of the European Social Survey.Main outcome measuresFruit and vegetable consumption was measured using two single frequency questions. Responses were dichotomized into low (<once a day) and high (≥once a day) consumption. The association between consumption of fruit and vegetables and gender, educational level, regional affiliation was examined using logistic regression analyses.ResultsOverall, females showed increased odds of consuming fruit (OR 1.71 (95%CI:1.62, 1.79) and vegetable (1.59 (1.51, 1.67)) compared to males and high educated participants showed increased odds of consuming fruit (1.53 (1.43, 1.63)) and vegetables (1.86 (1.74, 2.00)) compared to low educated participants. Our results also showed that participants living in Eastern Europe had the lowest odds of consuming fruit and vegetables, whereas participants from Southern- and Northern Europe had the highest odds of consuming fruit and vegetables, respectively. Results from interaction analyses confirmed the positive association between fruit and vegetable consumption and educational level, although for some European regions, decreased odds of fruit and vegetables was observed among medium educated participants compared to those with low education.ConclusionsOverall, the present study showed that being female and having a high education were associated with increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. However, the direction and strength of these relationships depends on regional affiliations. ]]> <![CDATA[SNP markers for low molecular glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) at the <i>Glu-A3</i> and <i>Glu-B3</i> loci in bread wheat]]> The content and composition of seed storage proteins is largely responsible for wheat end-use quality. They mainly consist of polymeric glutenins and monomeric gliadins. According to their electrophoretic mobility, gliadins and glutenins are subdivided into several fractions. Glutenins are classified as high molecular weight or low molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs and LMW-GSs, respectively). LMW-GSs are encoded by multigene families located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci. We designed a set of 16 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that are able to detect SDS-PAGE alleles at the Glu-A3 and Glu-B3 loci. The SNP markers captured the diversity of alleles in 88 international reference lines and 27 Mexican cultivars, when compared to SDS-PAGE and STS markers, however, showed a slightly larger percent of multiple alleles, mainly for Glu-B3. SNP markers were then used to determine the Glu-1 and Glu-3 allele composition in 54 CIMMYT historical lines and demonstrated to be useful tool for breeding programs to improve wheat end product properties.

<![CDATA[MON-LB108 Measurement Of Carotid Intima,hepatic Steatosis And Inflammatory Markers In Obese Children]]> Measurement of carotid intima,hepatic steatosis and inflammatory markers in obese children. Elevated levels of inflammatory factors and increased mean intimal carotid thickness (IMT) would increase the risk of atherothrombotic events and contribute to the progression of cardiovascular disease in obese children. Objectives: Evaluate inflammatory factors, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic liver steatosis and carotid IMT as an early cardiovascular risk marker. Patients and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional exploratory study. Consider 41 obese children both sexes between 6- 12 years old. Evaluated: anthropometry and determinations of lipid and liver profile, blood glucose, insulin, HOMA, ultrasensitive CRP, fibrinogen. Hepatic ultrasound and measurement of carotid IMT with ESAOTE Mylab 50 Exdicion equipment. . Results: From 41 studied patients, 57% were female. 51% presented MS and 68% elevated triglycerides. CRP> 1 was found in 71% of cases. Hepatic steatosis was observed in 60%, which only 10% had altered transaminases. 12% presented high fibrinogen. Patients with MS had a significant positive difference in the IMTCC (X = 0.41 ± 0.12; p 0.024), HDL (X 37.89 ± 1.72; p 0.004) triglycerides (X 149.42 ± 10.69; p 0.002) in relation to patients without MS. Conclusion: CRP is an inflammatory risk factor associated with elevated BMI and MS. There was a higher prevalence of MS in our study. The increase in the average intimal thickness is significantly related to the presence of MS and RCP>1. The determination of marker molecules of an inflammatory state and measurement of carotid IMT would contribute to the implementation of strategies to prevent cardiovascular, hepatic and metabolic risk since childhood.

<![CDATA[MON-590 Presence of Diabetes Diminishes the Ultimate Weight Loss After Bariatric Surgery]]> Background

Obesity and diabetes as well as their related complications result in both individual and global health burdens. Among patients who present with both obesity and diabetes, bariatric surgery can lead to remission of both these diseases. However, the possible impact of diabetes on the magnitude of weight loss outcomes after bariatric surgery has not been quantified.


To address this question, we extracted data from Michigan Bariatric Surgery Cohort (MI-BASiC) to see whether diabetes at baseline could be a predictor of weight loss outcomes. Consecutive patients 18 years of age or older undergoing gastric bypass (GB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) for obesity at the University of Michigan between January 2008 and November 2013 were included in our retrospective cohort. All patients had either body mass index (BMI) > 40 kg/m2 or BMI 35 – 39.9 kg/m2 with comorbid condition. Firstly, we performed Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) analysis to compare the probability of achieving BMI under 30kg/m2 or achieving excess body weight loss (EBWL) 50% or more for patients with or without diabetes. We then further tested the effect of presence of diabetes for the BMI outcomes across time using Linear Mixed Model (LMM) analysis. Finally, we conducted a LMM analysis to determine if diabetes is a predictor of the future weight loss, percentage of total weight loss or percentage of excess weight loss over 5 years of follow up.


Based on our criteria, 380 patients were included for GB [female 305 (80.3%), mean age 43.6±0.6 years, mean BMI 47.3±0.4kg/m2, diabetes 149 (39.2%), on insulin 45 (11.8%)] and 334 for SG [female 259 (77.5%), mean age 45.3±0.6 years, mean BMI 49.9±0.5kg/m2, diabetes 108 (32.3%), on insulin 29(8.7%)]. From GLMM analysis, the presence of diabetes at baseline did not impact the probability of achieving BMI under 30kg/m2 (p=0.0848), but substantially impacted the probability of achieving 50% or more EBWL (p=0.0021) with individuals without diabetes having a 1.6 (odds ratio 1.56, 95% CL [1.18-2.08]) times higher chance to achieve this threshold. We also showed that individuals with diabetes at baseline had a significant effect to modify BMI points lost, regardless of the surgery type (p=0.0178). The presence of diabetes at baseline diminished weight loss by 1.2 BMI points (95% CL [0.21- 2.20]) which is roughly 10 to 15% of the total BMI points to be lost. LMM analysis further confirmed that after adjusting the time, surgery type, age, gender and baseline weight, there was still a significant difference of absolute weight loss (p=0.0110), percentage of total weight loss (p=0.0089) and percentage of excess weight loss (p=0.0365) between individuals with diabetes versus individuals without diabetes.


In conclusion, our data demonstrate that diabetes diminishes the ultimate weight loss effect of bariatric surgery. Further research is needed to understand why this is the case.

<![CDATA[MON-596 Effects of Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Blockers (ARBs) on the Expression and Secretion of Adiponectin and Leptin in Human White Adipocytes]]> [Introduction]

Adiponectin and leptin are adipokines that are mainly produced in adipocytes and exert various functions. Adiponectin decreases atherosclerosis, oxidative stress, angiogenesis, inflammation, and apoptosis, whereas leptin works oppositely. Angiotensin type-1 receptor (AT1R) blockers (ARBs) are widely used as antihypertensive drugs. Some ARBs are known to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, which is a key regulator of fatty acid metabolism. It is reported that adiponectin secretion increases by pioglitazone, a full agonist of PPARγ, and some ARBs via PPAR γ activation. However, the effects of ARBs on leptin secretion are controversial. The present study aimed to examine the effects of ARBs on the expression and secretion of adiponectin and leptin in human white adipocytes.

[Materials and Methods]

Human white preadipocytes (Promo Cell) were differentiated into mature adipocytes in the medium containing insulin, dexamethasone, thyroxin and isobutylmethylxanthine. Pioglitazone and ARBs including telmisartan, irbesartan, azilsartan, candesartan, losartan, olmesartan and valsartan (1µM) were administered in the culture medium on day 4 and 8. The medium was collected on day 12 and the concentrations of adiponectin and leptin were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Real time PCR was performed to quantitate the mRNA expression of adiponectin and leptin in adipocytes. The experiments were performed in quadruplicate.


Pioglitazone significantly increased adiponectin secretion (386.7 ± 133.7 vs. 7.3 ± 1.9 ng/ml in control) from human adipocytes. Among ARBs, adiponectin secretion significantly increased by telmisartan (136.7 ± 16.3 ng/ml) and irbesartan (69.7 ± 23.1 ng/ml), while the other 5 ARBs did not have any influence on adiponectin secretion. Real-time PCR also showed that mRNA expression increased 5.1-fold, 3.8-fold and 1.5-fold by pioglitazone, telmisartan and irbesartan, respectively. Leptin secretion significantly decreased by pioglitazone (27.7 ± 5.0 vs. 82.5 ± 3.8 ng/ml in control). Among ARBs, only telmisartan (38.7 ± 4.2 ng/ml) decreased leptin secretion. Real-time PCR also showed that mRNA expression decreased to be 0.5-fold and 0.7-fold by pioglitazone and telmisartan, respectively. GW9662, a selective antagonist of PPARγ, potently blocked pioglitazone-induced changes of adiponectin and leptin expression and secretion. On the other hand, GW9662 did not reverse telmisartan and irbesartan induced changes.


The changes in adiponectin and leptin secretion by pioglitazone are via PPARγ activation, while those by telmisartan and irbesartan may occur in PPARγ-independent manner.

<![CDATA[Brazilian vegetarians diet quality markers and comparison with the general population: A nationwide cross-sectional study]]> Vegetarianism is an increasingly common practice worldwide. Despite good evidence from other countries regarding vegetarians’ diet quality, data from the Brazilian population is still scarce.ObjectiveTo characterize the vegetarian Brazilian population and evaluate their diet quality compared to the general Brazilian population.MethodsWe performed a nationwide cross-sectional study using an online self-administered questionnaire, previously validated for the Brazilian population, to evaluate diet quality markers of vegetarians. The invitation to participate in the survey was spread nationwide, aimed at vegetarian communities. Individuals who considered themselves vegetarians and were at least 18 years old were eligible to participate. The results on regular intake and intake adequacy were compared among vegetarians and between genders using the Pearson’s chi-square test. The body mass index (BMI) were analyzed by the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey post-hoc test. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test verified normality. All analyses considered bilateral hypotheses and a significance level of 5% (p <0.05).ResultsBrazilian vegetarians presented better diet quality markers, such as higher regular weekly intake and adequate daily intake of fruits and vegetables, and lower regular intake of soft drinks when compared to the general Brazilian population. Vegetarians also presented a proportionally higher consumption of natural foods and lower consumption of processed foods. Among vegetarians, a higher proportion of vegans showed positive results regarding diet markers analysis, when compared to vegetarians, pesco-vegetarians, and semi-vegetarians.ConclusionsVegetarians showed better results of diet adequacy when compared to the general population in Brazil, and vegans fared better when compared with other vegetarians. Despite the good results found, a large proportion of the participants still did not achieve the fruits and vegetables daily intake, according to the World Health Organization recommendations. ]]> <![CDATA[Risk of colorectal cancer in patients with alcoholism: A nationwide, population-based nested case-control study]]> Colorectal cancer (CRC) is regarded as a multifactorial disease and shares many risk factors with alcoholism. However, the association between alcoholism and CRC remains controversial.ObjectivesIn this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between alcoholism and risk of CRC.MethodsWe performed a large-scale, population-based nested case-control study using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2013, derived from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, and collected data from 2000 to 2013. There were 49,095 diagnosed cases of CRC defined according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Each case was matched with three controls by sex, age, index date of CRC, and annual medical visits; a total of 147,285 controls were identified. Multiple risk factors of CRC in alcoholism cases were investigated using unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis.ResultsAmong 49,095 cases of CRC, alcoholism was associated with a significantly higher risk of CRC (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.631; 95% CI, 1.565–1.699) in multivariate logistic regression, after adjusting other CRC risk factors, and in stratified analysis with multivariate logistic regression. In addition, there was a time-dependent relationship between alcoholism duration and CRC risk in >1 year, > 2 years, >5 years, and > 11 years groups (adjusted ORs, 1.875, 2.050, 2.662 and 2.670; 95% CI, 1.788–1.967, 1.948–2.158, 2.498–2.835, and 2.511–2.989 respectively).ConclusionAn association between alcoholism and risk of CRC was found in this study. Furthermore, patients with longer alcoholism history showed higher likelihood of developing CRC, which indicates a time-dependent relationship between alcoholism exposure and CRC. Further research on colorectal tumorigenesis is needed. ]]> <![CDATA[Oral administration with a traditional fermented multi-fruit beverage modulates non-specific and antigen-specific immune responses in BALB/c mice]]> Fruits have been widely considered as the default “health foods” because they contain numerous vitamins and minerals needed to sustain human health. Fermentation strategies have been utilized to enhance the nutritive and flavor features of healthy and readily consumable fruit products while extending their shelf lives. A traditional fermented multi-fruit beverage was made from five fruits including kiwi, guava, papaya, pineapple, and grape fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae along with lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The immunomodulatory properties of the fermented multi-fruit beverage, in vivo nonspecific and ovalbumin (OVA)-specific immune response experiments using female BALB/c mice were performed. Administration of the fermented multi-fruit beverage reduced the calorie intake, thus resulting in a less weight gain in mice compared to the water (placebo)-fed mice. In the nonspecific immune study model, the fermented multi-fruit beverage enhanced phagocytosis and T cell proliferation but did not affect B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin G (IgG) production. Analysis of cytokine secretion profile also revealed that the fermented multi-fruit beverage enhanced proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and T helper (Th)1-related cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ production, thus creating an immunostimulatory effect. Nonetheless, in the specific immune study model, the results showed that the fermented multi-fruit beverage decreased the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α production in OVA-immunized mice. Moreover, it also caused a decrease in the production of anti-OVA IgG1, which was accompanied by a decrease in Th2-related cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 production and an increase in Th1-related cytokine IFN-γ production, indicating that it may have the potential to shift the immune system from the allergen‐specific Th2 responses toward Th1-type responses. The results indicate that fermented multi-fruit beverage has the potential to modulate immune responses both in a nonspecific and specific manners.

<![CDATA[Digestibility of black soldier fly larvae (<i>Hermetia illucens</i>) fed to leopard geckos (<i>Eublepharis macularius</i>)]]> Black soldier fly (BSF) larvae have been marketed as an excellent choice for providing calcium to reptiles without the need of dusting or gut loading. However, previous studies have indicated that they have limited calcium digestibility and are deficient in fat soluble vitamins (A, D3, and E). In this feeding and digestibility trial, 24 adult male leopard geckos were fed one of three diets for 4 months: 1) whole, vitamin A gut loaded larvae; 2) needle pierced, vitamin A gut loaded larvae; or 3) whole, non-gut loaded larvae. Fecal output from the geckos was collected daily and apparent digestibility was calculated for dry matter, protein, fat, and minerals. There were no differences in digestibility coefficients among groups. Most nutrients were well digested by the leopard geckos when compared to previous studies, with the exception of calcium (digestibility co-efficient 43%), as the calcium-rich exoskeleton usually remained intact after passage through the GI tract. Biochemistry profiles revealed possible deficits occurring over time for calcium, sodium, and total protein. In regards to vitamin A digestibility, plasma and liver vitamin A concentrations were significantly higher in the supplemented groups (plasma- gut loaded groups: 33.38 ± 7.11 ng/ml, control group: 25.8 ± 6.72 ng/ml, t = 1.906, p = 0.04; liver- gut loaded groups: 28.67 ± 18.90 μg/g, control group: 14.13 ± 7.41 μg/g, t = 1.951, p = 0.03). While leopard geckos are able to digest most of the nutrients provided by BSF larvae, including those that have been gut loaded, more research needs to be performed to assess whether or not they provide adequate calcium in their non-supplemented form.

<![CDATA[Multipurpose chemical liquid sensing applications by microwave approach]]> In this work, a novel sensor based on printed circuit board (PCB) microstrip rectangular patch antenna is proposed to detect different ratios of ethanol alcohol in wines and isopropyl alcohol in disinfectants. The proposed sensor was designed by finite integration technique (FIT) based high-frequency electromagnetic solver (CST) and was fabricated by Proto Mat E33 machine. To implement the numerical investigations, dielectric properties of the samples were first measured by a dielectric probe kit then uploaded into the simulation program. Results showed a linear shifting in the resonant frequency of the sensor when the dielectric constant of the samples were changed due to different concentrations of ethanol alcohol and isopropyl alcohol. A good agreement was observed between the calculated and measured results, emphasizing the usability of dielectric behavior as an input sensing agent. It was concluded that the proposed sensor is viable for multipurpose chemical sensing applications.

<![CDATA[Wing morphology predicts individual niche specialization in <i>Pteronotus mesoamericanus</i> (Mammalia: Chiroptera)]]> Morphological variation between individuals can increase niche segregation and decrease intraspecific competition when heterogeneous individuals explore their environment in different ways. Among bat species, wing shape correlates with flight maneuverability and habitat use, with species that possess broader wings typically foraging in more cluttered habitats. However, few studies have investigated the role of morphological variation in bats for niche partitioning at the individual level. To determine the relationship between wing shape and diet, we studied a population of the insectivorous bat species Pteronotus mesoamericanus in the dry forest of Costa Rica. Individual diet was resolved using DNA metabarcoding, and bat wing shape was assessed using geometric morphometric analysis. Inter-individual variation in wing shape showed a significant relationship with both dietary dissimilarity based on Bray-Curtis estimates, and nestedness derived from an ecological network. Individual bats with broader and more rounded wings were found to feed on a greater diversity of arthropods (less nested) in comparison to individuals with triangular and pointed wings (more nested). We conclude that individual variation in bat wing morphology can impact foraging efficiency leading to the observed overall patterns of diet specialization and differentiation within the population.

<![CDATA[MON-600 Hydroethanolic Extract of Lampaya Medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) Decreases Intracellular Triglycerides and Proinflammatory Marker Expression in Fatty Acid-Exposed HepG2 Hepatocytes]]> Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common hepatic chronic disease worldwide. NAFLD is characterized by an abnormal triglyceride (TG) accumulation (steatosis) in the liver, that may lead to hepatic inflammation (1). DGAT2 is a key enzyme that catalyzes the final step of TG synthesis and whose expression is elevated in NAFLD (2). FABP4 is a transporter of intracellular lipids and its levels are related with inflammation, characterized by a high expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β. Palmitic acid (PA, C16:0) and oleic acid (OA; C18:1) are two of the most abundant fatty acids that participate in the formation of TGs in hepatic cells in vivo and in vitro (3). Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) is a small bush that grows in the “Puna atacameña” in the North of Chile. The infusion from leaves and aerial parts of the plant has been used by local ethnic groups to treat and cure inflammatory diseases (4). The aim of this study was to assess in vitro the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Lampaya medicinalis (HEL) against OA/PA-induced steatosis and proinflammatory marker expression in HepG2 hepatocytes.

Methods: HEL (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 μg/mL) cytotoxicity potential (48 h) was evaluated by Trypan blue exclusion. Cells were exposed for 48 h to 1 mM OA/PA (2:1) in the presence or not of 0.01 or 10 μg/mL HEL. Intracellular TGs were assessed with Oil Red O staining and quantified with Nile Red reagent by fluorimetry. mRNA expression of DGAT2, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β was evaluated by qRT-PCR. FABP4 content was assessed by Western blot. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in the culture media were analysed by ELISA.

Results: HEL was not cytotoxic at any concentration assessed (n=4; p>0.05). The increased content of TG induced by OA/PA was reduced in the presence of HEL (n=7; p<0.05), showing a strong consistency with Oil Red O staining. The increase in the protein content of FABP4 as well as the increment in mRNA expression of DGAT2, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β induced by OA/PA were lower in cells co-exposed to HEL (n=6-9; p<0.05). The incubation with HEL+OA/PA reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels in culture media compared to cells exposed to OA/PA alone (n=6-7; p<0.05).

Conclusion: HEL reduces the OA/PA-induced increase in intracellular TG, DGAT2 and proinflammatory cytokine expression and FABP4 content, as well as the levels of secreted proinflammatory cytokines in HepG2 cells. These findings suggest a protective role for HEL against OA/PA-induced steatosis and inflammation, and therefore that Lampaya medicinalis may represent a promising therapeutic tool for pathologies such as NAFLD.

References: (1) Gluchowski L, et al. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;14(6):343-355. (2) Perry, et al. Nature. 2014;510(7503):84-91. (3) Cunningham P, et al. J Nutr. 2009;139(4):636–639. (4) Morales G, et al. Biol Res. 2014;47:6.

<![CDATA[MON-588 Anthropometric Parameters, Body Fat Percentage and Metabolic Profile in Sarcopenic Women with Recommendation for Bariatric Surgery]]> INTRODUCTION: Sarcopenia (SARC) is a musculoskeletal disorder that predisposes several complications, including metabolic ones. Obesity also provides higher risk for metabolic complications, however, there is lack of evidences regarding the association of obesity with SARC on metabolic parameters in non-elderly individuals. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate anthropometric parameters, body fat percentage (BFP) and metabolic parameters in women with and without SARC preceding Bariatric Surgery (BS). METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 60 obese women in the outpatient care in a public Brazilian University Hospital between March to September 2018. Body composition was given by bio-impedance (inbody-370), multifrequency (5, 50, 250Hz) with 12 hours fasting, dominant Handgrip Strength (HS) was evaluated by Jamar dynamometer (3 measurements; 30 sec interval). Were also evaluated fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). SARC was defined by the association of a low muscle mass index (weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass: ASMM/weight x 100%) and decreased HS, using as cutoff points the smallest quintile for each variable. Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation and independent t-test was used for comparison between groups. Statistics were made by SPSS software, 20th version (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). RESULTS: The mean age, weight, body mass index and BFP of sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic women were: 40.75 ± 11 x 39.23 ± 8.92 years old (p=0.665), 102.93 ± 9.58 x 109.19 ± 14.25 Kg (p=0.237), 44.88 ± 2.7 x 42.24 ± 4.79 Kg/m2 and 54.12 ± 1.11 x 51.44 ± 3.43% (p=0.052), respectively. Regarding the laboratory parameters of women with and without SARC: fasting blood glucose 89.25 ± 14.48 x 98.40 ± 27.48 mg/dL (p=0.359), HbA1c 5.83 ± 0.33 x 6.21 ± 1.18% (p=0.185), HOMA-IR 3.61 ± 1.28 x 5.31 ± 4.74 (p=0.160), TC 170.87 ± 39.36 x 180.82 ± 34.51 mg/dL, LDL 94.67 ± 26.63 x 105.60 ± 30.85 mg/dL, HDL 53.37 ± 18.50 x 50.84 ± 10.32 mg/dL, triglycerides 114.12 ± 38.84 x 127.30 ± 75.04 mg/dL and hs-CRP 8.51 ± 6.50 x 7.51 ±6.52 mg/L (p=0.792). CONCLUSION: Women with SARC and recommendation for BS when compared to women without SARC had similar anthropometric, metabolic and BFP parameters.

<![CDATA[MON-607 Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet Modifies Visceral Adipose Tissue Distribution and Taxonomic Composition of Gut Microbiota in Obese Patients with Insulin Resistance Depending on Protein Source]]> Background. Short-term interventions based on very low-calorie ketogenic diets (VLCKDs) and meal replacements may be prescribed to selected overweight or obese patients. Few, inconsistent data are available on protein intake from various sources on body weight, composition of gut microbiota and metabolic outcomes in these patients.

Aim. To compare efficacy, safety and effect on microbiota composition of short-term isocaloric very low-calorie ketogenic diets encompassing whey, vegetable or animal proteins, in obese patients with insulin resistance.

Materials and Methods. 48 obese patients (19 males and 29 females) with HOMA-index ≥ 2.5, age mean: 55.2 years (range: 45-73), BMI mean 35.9 kg/m2 (range: 30.2 - 46.4) were randomly assigned to three isocaloric VLCKD regimens (≤800 kcal/day) containing either whey, plant or animal proteins for 45 days, with assessments of anthropometric indexes, blood and urine chemistry, body composition, muscle strength, taxonomic composition of the gut microbiome.

Results. A significant reduction of body weight, BMI, blood pressure, waist circumference, HOMA index, insulin, total and LDL cholesterol was observed in all the patients, regardless the dietary protein source. Patients fed with whey proteins and vegetable proteins had a more pronounced decrease of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) compared with the group fed with animal proteins. The markers of renal function slightly worsened in the group fed with animal proteins. A decrease in relative abundance of Firmicutes and an increase of Bacteroidetes was observed after VLCKDs. This pattern was less pronounced in patients consuming animal proteins.

Conclusions. VLCKDs lead to significant weight loss and a striking improvement of the metabolic parameters over a short period of time. VLCKDs based on whey or vegetable proteins induce a larger reduction of VAT, have a safer profile and determine a healthier microbiota composition compared to those containing animal proteins.

<![CDATA[MON-594 The Peculiarity of the Gut Microbiota in Patients with Different Phenotypes of Obesity (Pilot Study)]]> Recent studies have shown that obesity is not a homogeneous condition and that there is a subgroup of people with obesity, but without metabolic disturbance. This phenotype of obesity is called “metabolically healthy obesity” (MHO) [1]. More and more data are appearing in the scientific literature, indicating that quantitative and qualitative changes in the gut microbiota (GM) can be a trigger in the development of obesity and metabolic disorders [2]. In order to study the role of GM in the development of various types of obesity, 37 patients were examined, divided into 3 groups: group 1 (n = 11) - healthy people without obesity and overweight (control), group 2 (n = 13) - patients with MHO, group 3 (n = 13) - patients with metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). The basic metabolic parameters were determined for all of them and a quantitative assessment of the condition of the GM was performed using the Real-time PCR method. Results: 1. In people from the control group (group 1) in the GM, compared with formal normative indicators, the number of Lactobacillus spp., Bifidobacterium spp., B. thetaiotaomicron was reduced (p<0.05) and indicators of the total bacterial mass and Enterobacter spp./Citrobacter spp. were increased (p<0.05). 2. In subjects with MHO (group 2), GM changes similar to group 1 were observed. However, in comparison to group 1, Klebsiella spp. and Proteus spp. were recorded in feces in quantities exceeding the formal regulatory. In patients with MUHO (group 3), in addition to changes detected in group 2, C. difficile was found in feces, as well as a significant (p <0.05) decrease in F. prausnitzii and an increase (p <0.05) in the detection frequency of banal E.coli, as well as the more diverse composition of the microbiota. Thus, the data obtained as a result of a pilot study certainly indicate changes in the GM in people with different phenotypes of obesity and in healthy ones. Further study of the GM in patients with various types of obesity, but in a larger groups, is required. Reference: 1) Phillips C.M. Metabolically healthy obesity across the life course: epidemiology, determinants and implications. Ann N.Y. Acad Sci 2017 Mar;139(1):85-100.doi:10.1111/nyas.13230. 2). Giovanna Muscogiuri, Elena Cantone, Sara Cassarano, Dario Tuccinardi, Luigi Barrea, Silvia Savastano, Annamaria Colao & on behalf of the Obesity Programs of nutrition, Education, Research and Assessment (OPERA) group. Gut microbiota: a new path to treat obesity. International Journal of Obesity Supplements 2019 Apr;9(1):10-19. doi: 10.1038/s41367-019-0011-7

<![CDATA[MON-601 Obesity Pharmacotherapy Is Effective in the United States Veterans Affairs Patient Population: A Local and Virtual Cohort Study]]> Background: Overweight and obesity are major health burdens, and the military veteran population may be disproportionately affected. Multiple new pharmacologic agents and combinations have been approved by the FDA for use in medical weight management. Using deidentified records from our local interdisciplinary weight management clinic and a national clinical data repository, we assessed obesity pharmacotherapy use and its real-world effectiveness for weight loss and improvement of comorbid metabolic parameters in this vulnerable population.

Methods: During the initial year of the local weight management clinic, we found over 50 records with monthly followup of lifestyle intervention augmented by obesity pharmacotherapy. In the national clinical data repository, we identified over 2 million records for unique individuals prescribed bupropion-naltrexone, liraglutide, lorcaserin, orlistat, or phentermine-topiramate, and metformin considered as a control prescription. We selected records with detailed documentation of weight trends from 1 year before to 1 year after first prescription date for further analysis.

Results: The most commonly prescribed medications in our local weight management clinic were metformin, liraglutide, orlistat, and combination phentermine/topiramate. On average, we observed −4.0 ± 2.1 kg weight loss over the initial 6-month intervention in records that completed at least 3 visits within this period. In the national database, over 800,000 records for an obesity or control metformin prescription provided adequate weight documentation to compare weight slopes during the year before and after the prescription start date. Records for metformin prescriptions showed −0.04 ± 0.008 kg/week difference in weight slope over one year before versus after the prescription start date. The greatest difference in weight slope was seen with phentermine-topiramate (−0.13 ± 0.03 kg/week), followed by lorcaserin, liraglutide, bupropion-naltrexone, and orlistat.

Conclusions: Our data suggests that veterans with obesity experience weight loss at 1 year follow-up when engaged with our interdisciplinary weight management clinic. Nationally, veterans with obesity experience modest weight loss when prescribed pharmacotherapy. Taken together, our two data sources provide complementary perspectives to help guide obesity pharmacotherapy in veterans with obesity.

<![CDATA[MON-599 Post-Bariatric Hypoglycemia: A Clinical Vignette on an Increasingly Recognized Disease]]> Introduction: Previously referred to as late dumping syndrome, post-bariatric hypoglycemia (PBH) is thought to represent at least 1% of all hospitalizations for hypoglycemia and 10% of all clinically recognized hypoglycemia cases. However, through the advent of CGM and more strict criteria over the last decade these numbers are likely an underestimate. As obesity continues to remain prevalent and with rising bariatric centers to help deal with this epidemic, endocrinologists will play an increasing role in managing PBH patients.

Clinical Case: A 39-year female with a PMH of hypothyroidism and bariatric surgery (BS) in 2009 presented to our ER for a seizure. She has been having seizures nearly every 2 weeks for one year. Neurology started her on Keppra; however, no etiology was identified. EMS had documented a blood glucose of 40 mg/dL; the patient was given an amp of D50 with resolution of neuroglycopenic symptoms. TSH and cortisol levels were within normal range. A sulfonylurea panel in the ED was negative. The patient states the symptoms can occur while fasting but also mainly post-prandial. A 72-hr fast was conducted with the patient nadir POC glucose of 77. Subsequently, the patient had a mixed meal tolerance performed and after 2 hours had a seizure and was found to have a BG of 50 mg/dL with an insulin level of 49 uIU/mL and a c-peptide of 18.8 ng/mL. The patient was diagnosed with PBH, and was discharged with a CGM, started on acarbose and was seen by nutrition to discuss dietary modifications. She is now seen in our clinic with control of her symptoms with the addition of diazoxide.

Conclusion: Altered anatomy after bariatric surgery, particularly after gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy is thought to play a major role in developing PBH. By bypassing normal anatomy, gastric emptying is increased 2–3 x, which leads to a higher and more rapid appearance of glucose in the distal foregut. This subsequently leads to an amplified incretin response leading to a hyperinsulinemic response in patients who have had bariatric surgery; however, for unclear reasons some patients develop an even more amplified hyperinsulinemic response that leads to subsequent hypoglycemia. History of neuroglycopenic symptoms 1–3 hours after eating in a patient who had a gastric bypass > 6–12 months and with relief of symptoms with carbohydrates should raise an endocrinologist’s suspicion of PBH. Fasting hypoglycemia is an atypical feature that should raise one’s suspicion of a broader differential. Altered nutrition habits is the cornerstone of therapy with which the primary aim is to reduce post-prandial glucose spikes in these patients after they eat carbohydrates. These spikes in turn lead to hyperinsulinism leading to subsequent hypoglycemia. Primary diet modifications include controlled carbohydrate consumption of less than 30g per meal, avoiding high glycemic carbs, and always taking in ample fat and proteins with every meal.

<![CDATA[MON-586 Gut Hormones Response to 24-H High Carbohydrate Overfeeding Is a Determinant of Metabolic Adaptation to Carbohydrate Intake in Healthy Individuals]]> Background: We previously demonstrated that short-term (24h) changes in carbohydrate (CARBOX) or fat oxidation rates in response to overfeeding diets with different macronutrient content are highly correlated within an individual, suggesting the existence of human metabolic phenotypes (carbohydrate vs. fat oxidizers). Gut hormones have a role in feeding and substrate oxidation, thus we investigated if the changes in gut hormones concentration during overfeeding diets or fasting explain the degree of metabolic flexibility in healthy humans.Methods: While residing in our clinical research unit, 67 healthy, weight-stable volunteers (37±10y, BMI: 26±4 kg/m2, body fat: 28±10%; mean±SD, 54 men) with normal glucose regulation had 24-h EE measurements in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance (EB, diet: 50% carbohydrate, 20% protein), three overfeeding diets, and fasting in a crossover design. The overfeeding diets (200% of weight-maintaining energy requirements) included diets with 20%-protein [50%-carbohydrate (SOF), 75%-carbohydrate (CNP), and 60%-fat (FNP)]. Metabolic flexibility was determined by the difference between respiratory quotient (RQ) during overfeeding/fasting from EB conditions. Plasma GLP-1, PYY, PP, and total ghrelin concentrations were measured by ELISA after an overnight fast the morning of and after each diet. Results: PYY increased after all overfeeding diets (3.4±13.1, 7.0±16.2, and 7.6±14.4 pg/mL; all p<0.05, SOF, CNP and FNP respectively) and decreased with fasting (-11.6±14.2 pg/mL; p<0.001). GLP-1 increased after fasting (2.7±5.8 pg/mL; p<0.001) and FNP (1.3±4.5 pg/mL; p=0.02) and decreased with CNP (-0.9±6.3 pg/mL; p=0.04). PP only increased after fasting (92.8±133.4 pg/mL; p<0.001), while ghrelin decreased with SOF (-31.3±108 pg/mL; p=0.02) and CNP (-43.1±120 pg/dL; p=0.005) but not with FNP (p=0.51). After adjustment for body composition and other known EE determinants, no hormonal changes were associated with the change in 24-h EE in any diet (all p>0.05); however, during CNP greater decreases in GLP1, PYY, and Ghrelin were associated with less increase in 24-h RQ (all r>0.25; all p<0.05) while greater decrease in PP was associated with larger increase in 24-h RQ (r=-0.31, p=0.01). Specifically, greater increase in CARBOX during CNP was positively associated with the changes in GLP-1 (r=0.30; p=0.02) and Ghrelin (r=0.32, p=0.01). In a linear model, only the change in GLP-1, PP, and Ghrelin concentrations during CNP were independent predictors of the change in RQ [β=0.003; -0.0001; and 0.000006 per 1 pg/mL increase each, p=0.008; 0.02 and 0.02 respectively], after accounting for age and sex. Conclusion: In a carbohydrate rich environment, individuals with normal glucose regulation who maintain GLP-1 and ghrelin levels are better adapted to metabolize this type of diet.

<![CDATA[MON-585 Racial/Ethnic Contribution and Metabolic Factors of NAFLD/NASH in the US Population: Data from NNANES III]]> Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver condition. It is manifested by hepatic steatosis (HS) that can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and even liver failure. Interestingly, it is marked by racial/ethnic disparities, with a high prevalence in Hispanics. We aimed to identify the risk factors for these chronic conditions in the US. To this end, we analyzed data from NHANES III (1988-1994) using multiple or multinomial logistic regression considering the design and sample weight. HS was identified by ultrasound. NAFLD was defined as HS in the absence of viral hepatitis or excessive use of alcohol or hepatotoxic drugs. The NAFLD population was further divided into those with NASH (defined by the HAIR score), or with simple NAFLD. The prevalence of HS was 19.8%, 16.6%, and 27.9%; of NAFLD was 17.8%, 14.7%, and 25.5%; and of NASH was 3.2%, 2.5%, and 5.1% in non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics, respectively. Race/ethnicity was a significant predictor of HS, NAFLD and NASH, with Hispanics having the highest odds for all conditions, and non-Hispanic Blacks having the lowest odds relative to Whites (p<0.05). Other significant risk factors for all three conditions were older age, higher BMI, abnormal levels of C-peptide, and elevated serum glucose and triglycerides (p<0.05). HOMA insulin resistance was associated with HS and NAFLD (p<0.05). While smoking status was not associated with HS (p>0.05), current smokers had lower odds of NAFLD & NASH than non-smokers (p<0.05). Elevation of the liver enzyme aspartate aminotransferase was a significant risk factor of HS, while elevation of the liver enzyme alanine transaminase was a significant risk factor of NAFLD. Elevation in the levels of both liver enzymes was predictive of NASH (p<0.05). Although we included physical activity relative to national recommendation variable and the Healthy Eating Index (a measure of diet quality) in our analyses, neither of these factors was a predictor of any of the liver conditions (p>0.05). Our results showed an independent association between race/ethnicity and HS, NAFLD, and NASH, whereby Hispanics had the highest odds for every condition relative to non-Hispanic Whites. Providers should consider the race/ethnicity of their patients when evaluating the risk for NAFLD and NASH, and also be aware of the other risk factors, such as BMI and levels of C-peptide, glucose, and triglycerides.