ResearchPad - diplopoda https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Subterranean biodiversity and depth distribution of myriapods in forested scree slopes of Central Europe]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9853 The shallow underground of rock debris is a unique animal refuge. Nevertheless, the research of this habitat lags far behind the study of caves and soil, due to technical and time-consuming demands. Data on in scree habitat from eleven localities in seven different geomorphological units of the Czech and Slovak Republics were processed. Based on previous studies, as well as knowledge of cave and soil fauna, it was hypothesised that the occurrence of a varied and peculiar fauna would show a pattern of depth distribution with variations due to local specificities. From 2005–2016 (at least one year on each site), macrofauna was collected via sets of three long-term exposed subterranean traps consisting of 110 cm long perforated tube, with ten cups located in a gradient at 5–95 cm below the soil surface. In total, 14 symphylans (not identified to species level), 271 centipedes (23 spp.) and 572 millipedes (32 spp.) were sampled. The overall depth distribution of centipedes and millipedes appeared to have relatively similar pattern, with both groups being found at all depth levels. Nevertheless, this pattern depends on locations. The depth distribution trend lines are mostly in the form of an asymmetric ‘U’, with decreased abundance until the middle of the gradient, followed by increase in the deepest levels. Epigeic species were sporadically distributed along the whole depth gradient, but concentrated at the soil surface, while some subterranean species, such as the centipede and the millipedes , and , were recorded in the deepest parts of the gradient. This characterises the debris community as a mixture of soil and subterranean species with an absence of species exclusively found in caves. The use of different fixation methods in traps had a significant and selective impact on samples; millipedes were either attracted by ethylene glycol or repelled by formaldehyde. Centipedes were also captured more frequently in ethylene glycol; however, the species composition varied in each of the fixatives. Depth distribution of myriapods was similar in both fixative solutions. Traps with these fixatives could be recommended for similar ecological studies.

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<![CDATA[Sexual size and shape dimorphism in <i/> Daday, 1889 (, )]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N15d55356-314e-4d26-a228-ab274639df27 Until now, morphological trait variation has been investigated in several millipede species using geometric morphometrics. The present study is the first attempt to explore sexual shape and size dimorphism (SShD and SSD) of morphological structures in . We here analyse antennal, head, and leg SShD and SSD in Daday, 1889. Our results show that SSD exists in all of the analysed structures, while SShD is present only in the legs. In comparison with females, males possess longer and wider legs, as well as longer antennae and a shorter head. Contrary to previous findings in some , in SSD of the antennae and legs varies more than SShD in these morphological structures.

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<![CDATA[No Tömösváry organ in flat backed millipedes (, )]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbb17270b-5ccc-4ebe-8bce-5ada6702d0d2 The Tömösváry organ is a sensory structure of the head in myriapods and some other terrestrial arthropods. Due to its variable shape, size, and position in millipedes () the Tömösváry organ is commonly used as diagnostic character in taxonomic descriptions and often included in phylogenetic analyses. For the , the largest millipede order, the Tömösváry organ is inconsistently stated as being either absent or present as a pear-shaped pit covered by a membrane or cuticular disc. In order to resolve this inconsistency, we investigated the morphology of the presumable Tömösváry organ in four polydesmidan species based on paraffin-histology, semi-thin sections and micro-computed tomography. Our results unambiguously favor the view that the articulation of the cephalic tentorium with the head capsule was misidentified as the Tömösváry organ in previous studies, and thus that the Tömösváry organ indeed is absent in the . The pear-shaped pit proved to represent the distal roundish expansion of the incisura lateralis, to which – similarly as in julidan millipedes – the tentorial transverse bar is articulated. The absence of the Tömösváry organ in the does not affect the topology of the interrelationships among the millipede orders retrieved in previous cladistic analyses based on morphology. As a character shared by and Juliformia, however, absence of a Tömösváry organ in favors the optimization of its presence in nematophoran millipedes as a reversal. Further studies are needed to clarify whether among chilognathan millipedes a Tömösváry organ really exists in taxa such as , and whether the Tömösváry organs are homologous across millipedes.

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<![CDATA[Diversity, distribution patterns, and fauno-genesis of the millipedes () of mainland China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1422f9f6-c724-4a5b-9342-959a2fee5c76 Based on all available information, 339 species from 71 genera, 26 families, and eleven orders of have hitherto been recorded from mainland China, the fauna thus being very rich, albeit far from completely known, comprising various zoogeographic elements and populating very different environments. Diplopods mainly occur in various woodlands, in caves, and high in the mountains. Most species (> 90 %, usually highly localised, including 160 cavernicoles), 18 genera, and one family are strictly endemic to continental China. Mapping not only the horizontal, but also the vertical distributions of in China shows the bulk of the fauna to be expectedly restricted to forested lowland and mountain biomes or their remnants. Yet some , , , , and even seem to occur only in the subalpine to alpine environments and thus may provisionally be considered as truly high-montane. The long-acknowledged notions of China being a great biogeographic zone transitional between the Palaearctic and Oriental regions generally find good support in millipede distributions, in particular at the higher taxonomic levels (generic, familial, and ordinal). While the Palaearctic/Holarctic components expectedly dominate the fauna of the northern parts of the country, the Oriental ones prevail in its south and along the Pacific coast. Both realms are increasingly mixed and intermingled towards China’s centre. However, in addition to the above traditional views, based on distribution patterns alone, southern China seems to harbour a rather small, but highly peculiar faunal nucleus or origin centre of its own, whence Himalaya, Myanmar, Thailand, Indochina and/or Taiwan could have become populated by younger lineages. The millipede fauna of continental China is thus a tangled mixture of zoogeographic elements of various origins and ages, both relict and more advanced. The few anthropochores must have been the latest faunal “layer” to populate China.

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<![CDATA[Diversity and distribution of the millipedes () of Georgia, Caucasus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5127c07a-0e03-4f6f-96f9-5d649636c67f The diplopod fauna of Georgia, Transcaucasia, is very rich given the country’s relatively small territory; it presently comprises 103 species from 44 genera, 12 families, and 7 orders. Most of the known from Georgia (86 species, or 83%) demonstrate Caucasian distribution patterns, 36 and 46 species, as well as 8 and 9 genera being endemic or subendemic to the country, respectively. A single Holarctic family, (order ), contains 44 Caucasian species and 20 genera, of which 27 species and 14 genera are endemic or subendemic to Georgia. Likewise, all species from the orders , , and , as well as most species of and are native, also endemic or subendemic to the Caucasus, but the genera and families they represent are widely distributed at least across the Euro-Mediterranean Realm. Most of the presumed troglobionts in the Caucasus appear to be confined to western Georgia’s karst caves (14 species, 5 genera). Within Georgia, the fauna of the western part (= Colchis) is particularly rich and diverse, while that of the central and eastern parts of the country grows increasingly depauperate inland following the gradual climatic aridisation from west (Black Sea coast) to east (Armenia and Azerbaijan). The vertical distribution of the in Georgia, as well as the Caucasus generally, shows the bulk of the fauna restricted to forested lowland to mountain biomes or their remnants. Only very few and species seem to occur solely in the subalpine to alpine environments and thus may provisionally be considered as high-montane elements. Ongoing and future research on the millipedes of the Caucasus, especially in cave and montane environments, will undoubtedly allow for many more novelties and details of the diversity and distribution of Georgia’s to be revealed or refined.

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<![CDATA[The millipedes collected by the Museum "La Specola" on Madagascar 1989/1991, with the description of three new species of giant pill-millipedes (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Arthrosphaeridae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N01e9d872-ee95-46a9-81c5-edfb751d9123

Abstract

A large collection of millipedes (Diplopoda) from Madagascar, belonging to the Museum “La Specola” in Florence, Italy were investigated. The collection includes three new species of the giant pill-millipede genus Zoosphaerium Pocock, 1895 which are described here as Zoosphaerium mangabe Wesener, sp. nov., Z. bartolozzii Anilkumar & Wesener, sp. nov., and Z. taitii Anilkumar & Wesener, sp. nov., all belonging to the Z. coquerelianum species group. The latter two are currently only known from a single site. Other specimens belonging to eight orders (Polyxenida, Sphaerotheriida, Polyzoniida, Siphonophorida, Chordeumatida, Polydesmida, Spirobolida, and Spirostreptida) are listed. Three tropical tramp species, Pseudospirobolellus avernus (Butler, 1876), Glyphiulus granulatus Gervais, 1847, and Chondromorpha xanthotricha (Attems, 1898) are recorded for the first time from Madagascar. New locality data is provided for Zoosphaerium neptunus (Butler, 1872), Z. villosum Wesener & Sierwald, 2005, Z. blandum (de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897), Sphaeromimus musicus (de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897), Rhinotus purpureus (Pocock, 1894), Hylekobolus andasibensis Wesener, 2009, Aphistogoniulus infernalis Wesener, 2009, Ostinobolus rufus Wesener, 2009, Ostinobolus subterraneus Wesener, 2009, Dactylobolus bivirgatus (Karsch, 1881), and Eumekius antimena (de Saussure & Zehntner, 1901).

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<![CDATA[Some new or poorly-known Zephroniidae (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida) from Vietnam]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1c33df72-dbf1-4a33-8fe7-cbacb3918d00

Abstract

Three new species of the giant pill-millipede family Zephroniidae are described from southern Vietnam: Sphaerobelum pumatensesp. nov., Sphaeropoeus honbaensissp. nov. and Sphaeropoeus bidoupensissp. nov. Two species, Sphaerobelum bicorne Attems, 1938 and Sphaeropoeus maculatus (Verhoeff, 1924), are redescribed, the former from new material, the latter from type material with lectotype designation. A new transfer is proposed: Zephronia manca Attems, 1936, to the genus Sphaeropoeus Brandt, 1833, giving the new combination, Sphaeropoeus manca (Attems, 1936) comb. nov.

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<![CDATA[Intraspecific variation and phylogeography of the millipede model organism, the Black Pill Millipede Glomerismarginata (Villers, 1789) (Diplopoda, Glomerida, Glomeridae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c96bf32d5eed0c4848b5f2a
Abstract

The Black Pill Millipede, Glomerismarginata, is the best studied millipede species and a model organism for Diplopoda. Glomerismarginata is widespread, with numerous colour morphs occurring across its range, especially in the south. This study investigates whether colour morphs might represent cryptic species as well as the haplotype diversity and biogeography of G.marginata. The results of the COI barcoding fragment analysis include 97 G.marginata, as well as 21 specimens from seven potentially related species: G.intermedia Latzel, 1884, G.klugii Brandt, 1833 (G.undulata C.L. Koch, 1844), G.connexa Koch, 1847, G.hexasticha Brandt, 1833, G.maerens Attems, 1927, G.annulata Brandt, 1833 and G.apuana Verhoeff, 1911. The majority of the barcoding data was obtained through the German Barcode of Life project (GBOL). Interspecifically, G.marginata is separated from its congeners by a minimum uncorrected genetic distance of 12.9 %, confirming its monophyly. Uncorrected intraspecific distances of G.marginata are comparable to those of other widespread Glomeris species, varying between 0–4.7%, with the largest genetic distances (>2.5 %) found at the Mediterranean coast. 97 sampled specimens of G.marginata yielded 47 different haplotypes, with identical haplotypes occurring at large distances from one another, and different haplotypes being present in populations occurring in close proximity. The highest number of haplotypes was found in the best-sampled area, western Germany. The English haplotype is identical to northern Spain; specimens from southern Spain are closer to French Mediterranean specimens. Analyses (CHAO1) show that approximately 400 different haplotypes can be expected in G.marginata. To cover all haplotypes, it is projected that up to 6,000 specimens would need to be sequenced, highlighting the impossibility of covering the whole genetic diversity in barcoding attempts of immobile soil arthropod species.

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