ResearchPad - disabilities https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[The emergence of social gaps in mental health: A longitudinal population study in Sweden, 1900-1959]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11234 During the recent decades, social inequalities in mental health have increased and are now one of the most persistent features of contemporary society. There is limited knowledge about when this pattern emerged or whether it has been a historically fixed feature. The objective of this study was to assess whether socioeconomic and gender gaps in mental health changed during the period 1900–1959 in Sweden. We used historical micro data which report all necessary information on individuals' demographic characteristics, occupational attainment and mental disorders (N = 2,450) in a Swedish population of 193,893. Changes over time was tested using multilevel Cox proportional hazard models. We tested how gender-specific risks of mental disorder changed and how gender-specific socioeconomic status was related to risks of mental disorder later in life. We found a reversal in gender gaps in mental health during the study period. Women had a lower risk than men in 1900 and higher risks in 1959. For men, we found a negative gradient in SES risks in 1900 and a positive gradient in 1959. For women, we found no clear SES gradient in the risk of mental disorder. These findings suggest that the contemporary patterns in socioeconomic and gender gaps in mental disorder emerged during the 1940s and 1950s and have since then persisted.

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<![CDATA[Supported employment: Meta-analysis and review of randomized controlled trials of individual placement and support]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fe41d5eed0c484e5b7ab

Supported employment is a treatment whereby those with severe mental illness (or other disabilities) receive aid searching for competitive employment and mental health (or other) treatments concurrently. The most popular implementation of supported employment is individual placement and support (IPS). We conducted meta-analytic analyses of the randomized controlled trials of IPS. We found that subjects in IPS, compared to usual treatment conditions, had better vocational outcomes (obtained any competitive employment: RR = 1.63, 95%CI = [1.46, 1.82]; job tenure: d = 0.55, 95%CI = [0.33, 0.79]; job length: d = 0.46, 95%CI = [0.35, 0.57]; income: d = 0.48, 95%CI = [0.36, 0.59]) Non-vocational outcomes estimates, while favoring IPS, included the null (quality of life: d = 0.30, 95%CI = [-0.07, 0.67]; global functioning: d = 0.09, 95%CI = [-0.09, 0.27]; mental health: d = 0.03, 95%CI = [-0.15, 0.21]). Analysis of the expected proportion of studies with a true effect on non-vocational outcomes with d>0.2 showed some reason to expect a possible improvement for quality of life for at least some settings (Prop = 0.57, 95%CI = [0.30, 0.84]).

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<![CDATA[Modelling collective motion based on the principle of agency: General framework and the case of marching locusts]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c76fde8d5eed0c484e5b074

Collective phenomena are studied in a range of contexts—from controlling locust plagues to efficiently evacuating stadiums—but the central question remains: how can a large number of independent individuals form a seemingly perfectly coordinated whole? Previous attempts to answer this question have reduced the individuals to featureless particles, assumed particular interactions between them and studied the resulting collective dynamics. While this approach has provided useful insights, it cannot guarantee that the assumed individual-level behaviour is accurate, and, moreover, does not address its origin—that is, the question of why individuals would respond in one way or another. We propose a new approach to studying collective behaviour, based on the concept of learning agents: individuals endowed with explicitly modelled sensory capabilities, an internal mechanism for deciding how to respond to the sensory input and rules for modifying these responses based on past experience. This detailed modelling of individuals favours a more natural choice of parameters than in typical swarm models, which minimises the risk of spurious dependences or overfitting. Most notably, learning agents need not be programmed with particular responses, but can instead develop these autonomously, allowing for models with fewer implicit assumptions. We illustrate these points with the example of marching locusts, showing how learning agents can account for the phenomenon of density-dependent alignment. Our results suggest that learning agent-based models are a powerful tool for studying a broader class of problems involving collective behaviour and animal agency in general.

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<![CDATA[Development of a psycho-social intervention for reducing psychological distress among parents of children with intellectual disabilities in Malawi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6b2636d5eed0c4842895a3

Background

The burden of intellectual disabilities in low and middle income countries (LMIC) is high and is associated with parental psychological distress. There are few services for children and parents in most developing countries and few interventions have been created that target the psychological issues among parents of such children. This study aimed to develop a contextualized intervention to provide psychological support for parents of children with intellectual disabilities in an African setting.

Methods

Six steps were adopted from the Medical Research Council framework for designing complex interventions. This include: literature review of similar interventions and models, qualitative studies to gain insights of lived experiences of parents of such children, a consensus process with an expert panel of professionals working with children with disabilities and piloting and pre-testing the draft intervention for its acceptability and practicability in this settings.

Results

21 intervention modules were found from a systematic search of the literature which were listed for possible use in our intervention along with four themes from our qualitative studies. An expert panel formed consensus on the eight most pertinent and relevant modules for our setting. This formed the intervention; “Titukulane.” This intervention was piloted and found to have high acceptability and practicability when contextualized in the field.

Conclusion

The use of a systematic framework for designing a complex intervention for supporting the mental health of parents of children with disabilities enables good acceptability and practicability for future use in low resource settings.

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<![CDATA[Systematic review of menstrual hygiene management requirements, its barriers and strategies for disabled people]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c648ccbd5eed0c484c817c7

Background

One quarter of the global population is of menstruating age, yet menstruation is shrouded in discrimination and taboos. Disability also carries stigma, so disabled people may face layers of discrimination when they are menstruating. The objective of the review is to assess the menstrual hygiene requirements of disabled people, the barriers they face, and the available interventions to help them manage their menstruation hygienically and with dignity.

Methods

Eligible studies, gathered across all countries, were identified by conducting searches across four databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Global Health) in May 2017, with alerts set on each database to highlight new titles added until April 2018. Eligible studies incorporated analyses relevant to menstruating disabled people and/or how their carers provide support during their menstrual cycle.

Results

The 22 studies included were published since 1976; the majority after 2010 (n = 12; 55%). One study was a quasi-experiment; all others were observational. Most studies (n = 15; 68%) were from high income countries and most (n = 17; 77%) focused on people with intellectual impairments, so the review findings focus on this group and their carers. Outcomes investigated include choice and preference of menstrual product, ability to manage menstrual hygiene and coping strategies applied. Barriers faced included a lack of standardised guidance for professional carers; a lack of menstruation training, information and support provided to people with intellectual impairments and their carers; a lack of understanding of severity of symptoms experienced by people with intellectual impairments, the high cost of menstrual products and lack of appropriate options for people with physical impairments. Few interventions were found, and strategies for menstrual hygiene management applied by carers of persons with intellectual impairments include limiting the disabled person’s movements when menstruating and suppressing their menstruation.

Conclusions

Little evidence was identified on the requirements of disabled people and their carers in managing their menstruation, and only one intervention, but a range of barriers were identified. This gap in evidence is important, as the consequences of failing to meet menstrual hygiene needs of disabled people includes shame, social isolation, and even sterilisation.

Systematic review registration

PROSPERO CRD42018095497.

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<![CDATA[Participation of children with disabilities in school: A realist systematic review of psychosocial and environmental factors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c59ff09d5eed0c4841359b2

Background

In order to make informed decisions about how best to support children and young people with disabilities, effective strategies that facilitate active and meaningful participation in school are required. Clinical factors, diagnosis or impairments somewhat helpful in determining what should be provided in interventions. However, clinical factors alone will not offer a clear view of how to support participation. It is helpful then to look at wider psychosocial and environmental factors. The aim of this review was to synthesise evidence of psychosocial and environmental factors associated with school participation of 4–12 year old children with disabilities to inform the development of participation-fostering interventions.

Methods

A systematic search and synthesis using realist methods was conducted of published research. Papers had to include consideration of psychosocial and/or environment factors for school participation of children with disabilities. The review was completed in accordance with the Realist and Meta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards (RAMESES) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Papers were identified via Boolean search of the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, PhycINFO and ERIC (January 2006-October 2018). Appraisal focussed on contributions in terms of whether the articles are appropriate for the review (relevance) and research quality (rigour). Data were analyzed using content and thematic analysis methods using a realist framework. A narrative synthesis of results was reported.

Results and implications

We identified 1828 papers in the initial search. Seventy two papers were included in the final synthesis. Synthesis of findings led to three overarching mechanisms representing psychosocial factors for children (1) identity (2) competence and (3) experience of mind and body. Environmental aspects (context) compromised five interrelated areas: (1) structures and organization, (2) peers, (3) adults, (4) space and (5) objects. Our synthesis provides insights on how professionals may organize efforts to improve children’s participation. Consideration of these findings will help to proactively deal with suboptimal participation outcomes. Development of theoretically determined assessments and interventions for management of school participation are now required.

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<![CDATA[The lost children: The underdiagnosis of dyslexia in Italy. A cross-sectional national study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c521831d5eed0c484797709

Background

Developmental dyslexia is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders affecting children, but prevalence data on this condition are poor. The objective of the present study is to determine the prevalence of dyslexia in Italy in an unselected school population, using clearly defined diagnostic criteria and methods.

Methods

Cross-sectional study carried out in nine Italian Regions: two located in Northern Italy (Friuli Venezia Giulia and Veneto), three in Central Italy (Marche, Lazio and Umbria) and four in Southern Italy (Abruzzo, Molise, Puglia and Sardegna). Three consecutive levels of screening were carried out: the first two at school, to screen the population and identify children with suspect dyslexia; the last in centers with multi-professional staff specialized in learning disabilities to confirm the diagnosis. The key outcome measure is the prevalence of dyslexia, defined as the ratio between the number of children confirmed positive at the third level of screening and the total number of children enrolled in the study.

Results

We finally recruited 11094 children aged 8–10 years, of which 9964 constituted the final working sample after applying exclusion criteria and including only children who received parents’ consent to participate. The prevalence of dyslexia in the whole sample was 3.5% (95% CI 3.2–3.9%), with little differences between Northern, Central and Southern Italy (respectively 3.6%, 3.2% and 3.7%). In almost two out of three children with dyslexia the disorder had not been previously diagnosed.

Conclusions

This study confirms that in primary school children at the age of 8–10 years in Italy dyslexia is widely underestimated. Reliable data on dyslexia prevalence are needed to allocate necessary human and financial resources both to Health Services and Schools, ensuring timely support to children and families.

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<![CDATA[Oral health status of the disabled compared with that of the non-disabled in Korea: A propensity score matching analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c46658fd5eed0c484519c96

Background

There are many types of disabilities, and each type has a variety related to socioeconomic factors. Such factors affect to many health problems of the disabled. However, surveys of the oral health status of the disabled in Korea are rare.

Objective

The purpose of this study was to estimate oral health disparity through comparing oral health status of the disabled to the non-disabled, adjusted for the net effect of the disability on oral health status.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted among the disabled in urban and suburban areas in Korea from June to September 2016. People with physical, mental, and multiple disabilities took part in this survey. The clinical examinations were carried out by trained dentists. Statistical analysis was performed to quantify the association between oral health and socioeconomic status after restricting the analysis using a propensity score matching method.

Results

The disabled had more DMFT, DT, and MT, fewer FT, and fewer teeth than the non-disabled based on entire groups (P<0.01). No difference in the ratio of periodontitis was observed. The subjects with mental disabilities (MD) scored 3.09 (95% CI, 1.07–8.97), and those with multiple disabilities scored 4.37 (95% CI, 1.16–16.37) for edentulous status. The MD had an odds ratio of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.03–1.74), and those with multiple disabilities had an odds ratio of 1.75 (95% CI, 1.11–2.76) for the DMFT index.

Conclusions

These results represent poor oral health status of the disabled compared to the non-disabled. Consequentially, we can verify that not only the existence of disability but also the type of disability has a decisive effect on oral health condition. This comparison is necessary to widen our approach to evaluate the actual status condition of the disabled.

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<![CDATA[Out-of-pocket expenditures and care time for children with Down Syndrome: A single-hospital study in Mexico City]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c40f7d7d5eed0c484386ac2

Aim

To examine the burden of out-of-pocket household expenditures and time spent on care by families responsible for children with Down Syndrome (DS).

Methods

A cross-sectional analysis was performed after surveying families of children with DS. The children all received medical care at the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gomez (HIMFG), a National Institute of Health. Data were collected on out-of-pocket household expenditures for the medical care of these children. The percentage of such expenditure was calculated in relation to available household expenditure (after subtracting the cost of food/housing), and the percentage of households with catastrophic expenditure. Finally, the time spent on the care of the child was assessed.

Results

The socioeconomic analysis showed that 67% of the households with children with DS who received medical care in the HIMFG were within the lower four deciles (I-IV) of expenses, indicating a limited ability to pay for medical services. Yearly out-of-pocket expenditures for a child with DS represented 27% of the available household expenditure, which is equivalent to $464 for the United States dollars (USD). On average, 33% of families with DS children had catastrophic expenses, and 46% of the families had to borrow money to pay for medical expenses. The percentage of catastrophic expenditure was greater for a household with children aged five or older compared with households with younger children. The regression analysis revealed that the age of the child is the most significant factor determining the time spent on care.

Conclusions

Some Mexican families of children with DS incur substantial out-of-pocket expenditures, which constitute an economic burden for families of children who received medical care at the HIMFG.

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<![CDATA[Mortality, disability, and healthcare expenditure of patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis in Korea: A nationwide population-based study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c3e4f99d5eed0c484d772af

Background

We investigated the mortality and disability rate, as well as the healthcare expenditure, for patients with newly diagnosed seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who were followed-up for up to 10 years, compared to the general population in Korea.

Methods

We conducted a nationwide population-based study using a National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort of the Korean population, consisting of 1 million individuals who submitted medical care claims between 2002 and 2013. RA was identified using as the International Classification of Diseases code M05 (seropositive RA), with prescription of any disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD). Our analysis was based on the data of 1655 patients with incident seropositive RA and 8275 non-RA controls. The controls were matched to the RA cohort by sex, age at the time of diagnosis, duration of follow-up, geographic region, type of social security, and household income.

Results

The most commonly used conventional synthetic DMARDs were hydroxychloroquine (71.30%) and methotrexate (69.5%), with adalimumab being the most commonly used biologic DMARD (2.54%). The mortality rate was significantly higher in the RA than the control group (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.64) in the first 10 years after diagnosis. Specifically, mortality due to infectious diseases (IRR 4.41, 95% CI 1.60–12.17) and pneumonia (IRR 3.92, 95% CI 1.46–10.53) was significantly higher in the RA than control group. The disability rate was higher in the RA than control group over the first 10 years of the disease (IRR 2.27, 95% CI 1.77–2.92), which was attributed to a higher incidence of physical disability (IRR 3.81, 95% CI 2.81–5.15). Annual health expenditure was greater for the RA than the control group.

Conclusions

Therefore, the rate of mortality and disability, as well as healthcare expenditure, are higher for patients with RA over the first 10 years of the disease onset, than the general population of Korea. The use of claim data has limited the quality of information and there is a limit to the observation period, and we expect the prospective national-wide multicenter cohort for longer period to overcome these limitations.

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<![CDATA[Trend analysis of leprosy in Morocco between 2000 and 2017: Evidence on the single dose rifampicin chemoprophylaxis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c25454fd5eed0c48442c4b1

Background

Morocco has achieved the goal of leprosy elimination as a public health problem several years ago (less than 1 case/ 10 000 habitant). The aim of this study was to analyze trends of leprosy detection during the last 17 years taking into consideration the implementation of single dose rifampicin chemoprophylaxis (SDRC) started in 2012.

Methodology

Time series of leprosy cases detected at national level between 2000 and 2017. Variable collected for each year were leprosy per 100000 H, age category, gender, origin, regions, grade of disabilities and clinical forms. The detection time series was assessed by Joinpoint Regression Analysis. Annual percentage changes (APCs) were estimated to identify the years (joinpoint) when significant changes occurred in the trend. We therefore examined trends in leprosy detection according to epidemiological variables.

Findings

Joinpoint regression showed a reduction in the detection rate between 2000 and 2017. The APC for the period 2012–2017 (-16.83, 95% CI: -29.2 to -2.3, p <0.05) was more pronounced than that of the previous period 2000–2012 (- 4.68, 95% CI: -7.3 to -2.0, p <0.05); with a significant break in the same joinpoint year SDRC implementation. In stratified analysis, case detection decreased, but not significantly, after the joinpoint years in men, children, multi-bacillary cases, grade 0–1 disabilities, rural and urban cases and in ten regions.

Conclusions

Leprosy detection was declining over years with a significant reduction by 16% per year from 2012 to 2017. SDRC may reduce leprosy detection over the years following its administration.

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<![CDATA[Developing key performance indicators for guaranteeing right to health and access to medical service for persons with disabilities in Korea: Using a modified Delphi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141ed3d5eed0c484d286ad

Recently, the Act on Guarantee of Right to Health and Access to Medical Service for Persons with Disabilities was implemented to legally define the health care system for persons with disabilities (PWDs) and the guarantee of access to medical care in Korea. This study aimed to develop specific goals and performance indicators to establish a system to guarantee right to health and access to medical service for PWDs. The first procedure was the establishment of the performance indicators, and the second was the content validity verification of the established performance indicators. To establish the performance indicators, we used the policy indicators of the government to improve the health of the Korean people. The indicators that needed to be newly developed were established based on literature review and expert consultation. Three Delphi surveys were conducted to verify the content validity of the established performance indicators. The content validity index (CVI) was obtained for the importance and possibility of the performance indicators. The indicators using the existing policy indicators are “proportion of public health centers” and “rate of health checkup of PWDs,” and newly developed indicators are “establishment of facilities for PWDs in health care facilities (buildings and personnel)” and “diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in early childhood (average age and awareness).” The final performance indicators consist of a total of six areas, 22 sub-areas, and 40 individual indicators. The final performance indicators in this study can be used as basic data for continuously identifying the health status of PWDs in Korea and establishing the national policy for their health promotion. This study is also expected to serve as a framework to guarantee the right to health and access to medical service for PWDs rather than simply containing declarative content.

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<![CDATA[De novo mutations in the GTP/GDP-binding region of RALA, a RAS-like small GTPase, cause intellectual disability and developmental delay]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ae490d5eed0c484589f74

Mutations that alter signaling of RAS/MAPK-family proteins give rise to a group of Mendelian diseases known as RASopathies. However, among RASopathies, the matrix of genotype-phenotype relationships is still incomplete, in part because there are many RAS-related proteins and in part because the phenotypic consequences may be variable and/or pleiotropic. Here, we describe a cohort of ten cases, drawn from six clinical sites and over 16,000 sequenced probands, with de novo protein-altering variation in RALA, a RAS-like small GTPase. All probands present with speech and motor delays, and most have intellectual disability, low weight, short stature, and facial dysmorphism. The observed rate of de novo RALA variants in affected probands is significantly higher (p = 4.93 x 10−11) than expected from the estimated random mutation rate. Further, all de novo variants described here affect residues within the GTP/GDP-binding region of RALA; in fact, six alleles arose at only two codons, Val25 and Lys128. The affected residues are highly conserved across both RAL- and RAS-family genes, are devoid of variation in large human population datasets, and several are homologous to positions at which disease-associated variants have been observed in other GTPase genes. We directly assayed GTP hydrolysis and RALA effector-protein binding of the observed variants, and found that all but one tested variant significantly reduced both activities compared to wild-type. The one exception, S157A, reduced GTP hydrolysis but significantly increased RALA-effector binding, an observation similar to that seen for oncogenic RAS variants. These results show the power of data sharing for the interpretation and analysis of rare variation, expand the spectrum of molecular causes of developmental disability to include RALA, and provide additional insight into the pathogenesis of human disease caused by mutations in small GTPases.

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<![CDATA[Impaired cognitive modification for estimating time duration in Parkinson’s disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1c0aecd5eed0c484426ea3

Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with various cognitive impairments. However, the nature of cognitive modification in patients with PD remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we examined whether patients with PD could correct and maintain subjective time duration and line length estimation. After training sessions, in which participants repeatedly memorized either a duration or a length, we compared a learning performance in 20 PD patients with 20 healthy controls. In the case of duration in the PD patients, the learned durations immediately returned to baseline of pre-training within a few minutes. However, the patients’ ability to learn length estimation remained unimpaired. In contrast, healthy controls were able to retain the learned duration and length estimations. Time compression in PD's internal clock may become entrained to their altered duration estimation even after learning of accurate time duration. These deficits may be associated with disrupting cognitive modification in PD.

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<![CDATA[Vibrant symbiosis: Achieving reciprocal science outreach through biological art]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ae428d5eed0c48458904a

Scientific outreach efforts traditionally involve formally trained scientists teaching the general public about the methods, significance, and excitement of science. We recently experimented with an alternative “symbiotic outreach” model that prioritizes building a reciprocal relationship between formally trained and “outsider” scientists to facilitate active two-way communication. Herein, we present the results of our outreach effort involving college students and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities working together to make biological and multimedia art. By discussing the steps others can take to cultivate reciprocal outreach within their local communities, we hope to lower the barrier for widespread adoption of similar approaches and ultimately to decrease the gap between formally trained scientists and the general public.

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<![CDATA[Dyslexia on a continuum: A complex network approach]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c215194d5eed0c4843fade4

We investigated the efficacy of graph-theoretic metrics of task-related functional brain connectivity in predicting reading difficulty and explored the hypothesis that task conditions emphasizing audiovisual integration would be especially diagnostic of reading difficulty. An fMRI study was conducted in which 24 children (8 to 14 years old) who were previously diagnosed with dyslexia completed a rhyming judgment task under three presentation modality conditions. Regression analyses found that characteristic connectivity metrics of the reading network showed a presentation modality dependent relationship with reading difficulty: Children with more segregated reading networks and those that used fewer of the available connections were those with the least severe reading difficulty. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a lack of coordinated processing between the neural regions involved in phonological and orthographic processing contributes towards reading difficulty.

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<![CDATA[A comparison of surgical outcomes between pre-and full-term patients with exotropia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141eadd5eed0c484d27ba2

Purpose

To compare the surgical outcomes between pre- and full-term patients with exotropia and to examine the factors associated with surgical outcomes.

Methods

This retrospective study included 48 pre- and 432 full-term patients with basic-type exotropia who underwent unilateral or bilateral lateral rectus muscle (ULR or BLR) recession. Preoperative characteristics and surgical outcomes were compared between the pre- and full-term infants. Additionally, factors affecting the surgical outcomes were evaluated in all patients.

Results

The preoperative characteristics were significantly different between the pre- and full-term groups in terms of neurodevelopmental disabilities (p = 0.020). There were no significant differences between the pre- and full-term groups in terms of the success, overcorrection, and recurrence rates after the mean follow-up period of 34.6 ± 13.9 months (p = 0.697). The major cause of surgical failure was recurrence in both groups. Pre-term birth was not a risk factor for overcorrection and recurrence. However, regardless of the pre- or full-term birth status, the presence of neurodevelopmental disabilities significantly affected final overcorrection (p = 0.004).

Conclusions

Pre-term patients with exotropia showed similar surgical outcomes to full-term controls. The presence of neurodevelopmental disabilities was a risk factor for final overcorrection.

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<![CDATA[Employment predictors of exit from work among workers with disabilities: A survival analysis from the household income labour dynamics in Australia survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141f12d5eed0c484d29857

Objectives

Across high-income countries, unemployment rates among workers with disabilities are disproportionately high. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of employment associated with dropping out of work and assess whether these were different for workers with versus without disabilities.

Methods

Using a longitudinal panel study of working Australians (2001 to 2015), the current study estimated Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models to identify predictors of leaving employment, including psychosocial job quality, employment arrangement, and occupational skill level. Effect modification by disability status of the relationship between employment-related factors and exit from the labour market were assessed by including interaction terms and assessing model fit with a likelihood ratio test. Models were adjusted for a range of socio-demographic and health related factors.

Results

Compared to those without disability, those with disability had a greater risk of leaving employment (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.35, p<0.001). Other predictors of exit from work included low-skilled occupation (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.29, p = 0.001), being in a job with low psychosocial job quality (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.19, p = 0.007), and casual, labour hire or fixed-term contract employment (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.48 to 1.69, p<0.001). There was no effect modification by disability status.

Conclusions

More research is needed to understand the experiences of workers with disabilities who stay in and leave employment.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of autism spectrum disorder surveillance status based on two different diagnostic schemes: Findings from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program, 2012]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0ae458d5eed0c4845896c5

For the first time, the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network (ADDM) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported prevalence estimates based on two different diagnostic schemes in the 2014 surveillance period. Results found substantial agreement between surveillance case status based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fourth Edition–Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria and DSM-5 criteria ASD (kappa = 0.85). No study has replicated this agreement in another independent sample of surveillance records. The objectives of this study were to (1) replicate agreement between surveillance status based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and DSM-5 criteria for ASD, (2) quantify the number of children who met surveillance status based on only DSM-IV-TR criteria and only DSM-5 criteria for ASD, and (3) evaluate differences in characteristics of these latter two groups of children. The study sample was 8-year-old children who had health and education records reviewed for ASD surveillance in metropolitan Atlanta, GA in the 2012 surveillance year. Results found substantial agreement between child’s surveillance status using DSM-IV-TR criteria and DSM-5 criteria for ASD (kappa = 0.80). There were no differences in child race/ethnicity, child sex, or intellectual disability between surveillance status defined by DSM-IV-TR criteria and that defined by DSM-5 criteria. Children who met surveillance status based on DSM-IV-TR criteria, but not DSM-5 criteria, were more likely to have developmental concerns and evaluations in the first three years. Children who met surveillance status based on DSM-5 criteria, but not DSM-IV-TR criteria, were more likely to have been receiving autism-related services or previously diagnosed with ASD. These results suggest that surveillance status of ASD based on DSM-5 criteria is largely comparable to that based on DSM-IV-TR criteria, and identifies children with similar demographic and intellectual characteristics.

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<![CDATA[Accessible mathematics videos for non-disabled students in primary education]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c084215d5eed0c484fcbb5e

Our work applies Universal Design criteria for producing and using Mathematics videos for primary education students, at a time when many countries are shifting towards inclusive education policies. We have focused on how the accessibility criteria used for students with visual impairments might affect non-disabled students. For this, we reviewed applicable Universal Design principles as well as best practices in multimedia learning. We took into account the roles, procedures, tools and standards involved in the multimedia lifecycle. We then undertook an experiment consisting of producing two videos about prime numbers with the same pedagogical contents; one video was accessible for students with visual impairments and the other one was not accessible to them. We conducted a trial in real world school settings with 228 non-disabled children, who were randomly assigned a version, either accessible or not accessible, and were then asked to take a test to measure objective aspects of their learning concerning retention and transfer as well as several subjective aspects, including the attractiveness of the videos. Results indicate that there were no significant differences in the scores obtained by students using either video, although the group who watched the accessible video obtained higher score medians in the retention questions. Moreover, students found the accessible video significantly more attractive (p = 0.042). Our study provides recommendations for different stakeholders and stages within the process of producing multimedia mathematics materials that are accessible to primary students with visual impairments, as well as evidence demonstrating that everybody can benefit from the recommendations for developing good quality, accessible multimedia material.

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