ResearchPad - diseases-and-disorders https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Prevention and treatment of autoimmune diseases with plant virus nanoparticles]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15464 Plant viruses are natural, self-assembling nanostructures with versatile and genetically programmable shells, making them useful in diverse applications ranging from the development of new materials to diagnostics and therapeutics. Here, we describe the design and synthesis of plant virus nanoparticles displaying peptides associated with two different autoimmune diseases. Using animal models, we show that the recombinant nanoparticles can prevent autoimmune diabetes and ameliorate rheumatoid arthritis. In both cases, this effect is based on a strictly peptide-related mechanism in which the virus nanoparticle acts both as a peptide scaffold and as an adjuvant, showing an overlapping mechanism of action. This successful preclinical testing could pave the way for the development of plant viruses for the clinical treatment of human autoimmune diseases.

]]>
<![CDATA[A persistent alcohol cue memory trace drives relapse to alcohol seeking after prolonged abstinence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15455 Alcohol use disorder is characterized by a high risk of relapse during periods of abstinence. Relapse is often triggered by retrieval of persistent alcohol memories upon exposure to alcohol-associated environmental cues, but little is known about the neuronal circuitry that supports the long-term storage of alcohol cue associations. We found that a small ensemble of neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of mice was activated during cue-paired alcohol self-administration (SA) and that selective suppression of these neurons 1 month later attenuated cue-induced relapse to alcohol seeking. Inhibition of alcohol seeking was specific to these neurons as suppression of a non–alcohol-related or sucrose SA–activated mPFC ensemble did not affect relapse behavior. Hence, the mPFC neuronal ensemble activated during cue-paired alcohol consumption functions as a lasting memory trace that mediates cue-evoked relapse long after cessation of alcohol intake, thereby providing a potential target for treatment of alcohol relapse vulnerability.

]]>
<![CDATA[Maternal exercise via exerkine apelin enhances brown adipogenesis and prevents metabolic dysfunction in offspring mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15382 The obesity rate is rapidly increasing, which has been attributed to lack of exercise and excessive energy intake. Here, we found a previously unidentified explanation, due to lack of maternal exercise. In this study, healthy maternal mice were assigned either to a sedentary lifestyle or to exercise daily, and fetal brown adipose tissue (BAT) development and offspring metabolic health were analyzed. Compared to the sedentary group, maternal exercise enhanced DNA demethylation of Prdm16 promoter and BAT development and prevented obesity of offspring when challenged with a high-energy diet. Apelin, an exerkine, was elevated in both maternal and fetal circulations due to exercise, and maternal administration of apelin mimicked the beneficial effects of exercise on fetal BAT development and offspring metabolic health. Together, maternal exercise enhances thermogenesis and the metabolic health of offspring mice, suggesting that the sedentary lifestyle during pregnancy contributes to the obesity epidemic in modern societies.

]]>
<![CDATA[Regulation of body length and bone mass by Gpr126/Adgrg6]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbdbd6f98-a28a-4072-b604-d85702d20538

Adhesion GPCR Gpr126/Adgrg6 regulates mouse body length and bone mass by controlling osteoblast differentiation.

]]>
<![CDATA[Novel CD11b+Gr-1+Sca-1+ myeloid cells drive mortality in bacterial infection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9e6a3146-b97c-4dfc-977f-83d101a4408b

We found a new type of white blood cell induced by bacterial infection that has lethal effects on host survival.

]]>
<![CDATA[Deficient histone H3 propionylation by BRPF1-KAT6 complexes in neurodevelopmental disorders and cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6be6dbb7-da44-43fd-927a-26b5d4b433e1

Two lysine acyltransferases govern histone H3 propionylation at lysine 23 in normal and pathological conditions.

]]>
<![CDATA[Necrotizing enterocolitis is preceded by increased gut bacterial replication, Klebsiella, and fimbriae-encoding bacteria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N818bc232-3b49-4a89-b793-cba8d0974642

Metagenomic analysis identifies microbial signatures preceding necrotizing enterocolitis development in premature infants.

]]>
<![CDATA[LncRNA PTPRE-AS1 modulates M2 macrophage activation and inflammatory diseases by epigenetic promotion of PTPRE]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb3be7c08-3669-4bc7-80b7-eb1225adb3f4

PTPRE-AS1 deficiency aggravates pulmonary inflammation but reduces colitis severity by modulating M2 macrophage activation.

]]>
<![CDATA[Sodium rutin ameliorates Alzheimer’s disease–like pathology by enhancing microglial amyloid-β clearance]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8bfe59d5eed0c484b28a2a

Saltified rutin enhances microglial Aβ clearance, providing a potential therapeutic avenue for Alzheimer’s disease treatment.

]]>