ResearchPad - distillation https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Seed germination of <i>Bidens subalternans</i> DC. exposed to different environmental factors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14560 Bidens subalternans DC. is a weed found in several tropical countries such as Brazil. Large number of produced seeds and easy dispersion favor the colonization of agricultural fields by this species. To know the factors that affect the germination of B. subalternans can help to understand its ecology, permitting to develop control strategies. Laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluate how the temperature, photoperiod, burial depth, water deficit, and salt stress affect the seed germination of B. subalternans. The means of the treatments of each experiment were shown in scatter plots with the bars indicating the least significant difference (LSD, p≤0.05). The results showed a germination percentage above 77% for a wide alternating temperature (15/20 C to 30/35 C night/day). The highest germination and uniformity occurred at 25/30°C night/day. Only 11% of the seeds germinated at a temperature of 35/40°C night/day. The deeper burial of seeds reduced their germination. Only 17% of the seeds germinated in darkness conditions. However, in constant light and 12 hours of light/dark conditions the germination percentage was over 96%, confirming the light dependence of the B. subalternans during germination. In constant light and 12 hours of light/dark, the germination was over 96%. B. subalternans seeds showed sensitivity to water and salt stress, and their germination was inhibited under a water potential of -0.4 MPa and 100.09 mM, respectively. The sensitivity of B. subalternans seeds to high temperatures, water stress, and salt stress explains the high frequency of this weed in south-central Brazil. The light and sowing depth showed that burial of seeds by mechanical control is a strategy to reduce the high infestation of B. subalternans.

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<![CDATA[The growing pains of physician-administration relationships in an academic medical center and the effects on physician engagement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6dc9c0d5eed0c48452a138

Background

Physician engagement has become a key metric for healthcare leadership and is associated with better healthcare outcomes. However, engagement tends to be low and difficult to measure and improve. This study sought to efficiently characterize the professional cultural dynamics between physicians and administrators at an academic hospital and how those dynamics affect physician engagement.

Materials and methods

A qualitative mixed methods analysis was completed in 6 weeks, consisting of a preliminary analysis of the hospital system’s history that was used to purposefully recruit 20 physicians across specialties and 20 healthcare administrators across management levels for semi-structured interviews and observation. Participation rates of 77% (20/26) and 83% (20/24) were achieved for physicians and administrators, respectively. Cohorts consisted of equal numbers of men and women with experience ranging from 1 to 35 years within the organization. Field notes and transcripts were systematically analyzed using an iterative inductive-deductive approach. Emergent themes were presented and discussed with approximately 400 physicians and administrators within the organization to assess validity and which results were most meaningful.

Results & discussion

This investigation indicated a professional cultural disconnect was undermining efforts to improve physician engagement. This disconnect was further complicated by a minority (10%) not believing an issue existed and conflicting connotations not readily perceived by participants who often offered similar solutions. Physicians and administrators felt these results accurately reflected their realities and used this information as a common language to plan targeted interventions to improve physician engagement. Limitations of the study included its cross-sectional nature with a modest sample size at a single institution.

Conclusions

A qualitative mixed methods analysis efficiently identified professional cultural barriers within an academic hospital to serve as an institution-specific guide to improving physician engagement.

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<![CDATA[Distillation of the clinical algorithm improves prognosis by multi-task deep learning in high-risk Neuroblastoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c141e9bd5eed0c484d27646

We introduce the CDRP (Concatenated Diagnostic-Relapse Prognostic) architecture for multi-task deep learning that incorporates a clinical algorithm, e.g., a risk stratification schema to improve prognostic profiling. We present the first application to survival prediction in High-Risk (HR) Neuroblastoma from transcriptomics data, a task that studies from the MAQC consortium have shown to remain the hardest among multiple diagnostic and prognostic endpoints predictable from the same dataset. To obtain a more accurate risk stratification needed for appropriate treatment strategies, CDRP combines a first component (CDRP-A) synthesizing a diagnostic task and a second component (CDRP-N) dedicated to one or more prognostic tasks. The approach leverages the advent of semi-supervised deep learning structures that can flexibly integrate multimodal data or internally create multiple processing paths. CDRP-A is an autoencoder trained on gene expression on the HR/non-HR risk stratification by the Children’s Oncology Group, obtaining a 64-node representation in the bottleneck layer. CDRP-N is a multi-task classifier for two prognostic endpoints, i.e., Event-Free Survival (EFS) and Overall Survival (OS). CDRP-A provides the HR embedding input to the CDRP-N shared layer, from which two branches depart to model EFS and OS, respectively. To control for selection bias, CDRP is trained and evaluated using a Data Analysis Protocol (DAP) developed within the MAQC initiative. CDRP was applied on Illumina RNA-Seq of 498 Neuroblastoma patients (HR: 176) from the SEQC study (12,464 Entrez genes) and on Affymetrix Human Exon Array expression profiles (17,450 genes) of 247 primary diagnostic Neuroblastoma of the TARGET NBL cohort. On the SEQC HR patients, CDRP achieves Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) 0.38 for EFS and MCC = 0.19 for OS in external validation, improving over published SEQC models. We show that a CDRP-N embedding is indeed parametrically associated to increasing severity and the embedding can be used to better stratify patients’ survival.

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<![CDATA[Efficient and reproducible experimental infections of rats with Blastocystis spp.]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5bfc6279d5eed0c484ec97f4

Although Blastocystis spp. infect probably more than 1 billion people worldwide, their clinical significance is still controversial and their pathophysiology remains poorly understood. In this study, we describe a protocol for an efficient and reproducible model of chronic infection in rats, laying the groundwork for future work to evaluate the pathogenic potential of this parasite. In our experimental conditions, we were unable to infect rats using vacuolar forms of an axenically cultivated ST4 isolate, but we successfully established chronic infections of 4 week-old rats after oral administration of both ST3 and ST4 purified cysts isolated from human stool samples. The infection protocol was also applied to 4 week-old C57BL/9, BALB/C and C3H mice, but any mouse was found to be infected by Blastocystis. Minimal cyst inoculum required for rat infection was higher with ST3 (105) than with ST4 (102). These results were confirmed by co-housing experiments highlighting a higher contagious potential of ST4 in rats compared to ST3. Finally, experiments mimicking fecal microbiota transfer from infected to healthy animals showed that Blastocystis spp. could easily infect a new host, even though its intestinal microbiota is not disturbed. In conclusion, our results provide a well-documented and robust rat model of Blastocystis chronic infection, reproducing “natural” infection. This model will be of great interest to study host parasite interactions and to better evaluate clinical significance of Blastocystis.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Genotype and Growth Temperature on the Contents of Tannin, Phytate and In Vitro Iron Availability of Sorghum Grains]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989daa2ab0ee8fa60ba6227

Background

It has been predicted that the global temperature will rise in the future, which means crops including sorghum will likely be grown under higher temperatures, and consequently may affect the nutritional properties.

Methods

The effects of two growth temperatures (OT, day/night 32/21°C; HT 38/21°C) on tannin, phytate, mineral, and in vitro iron availability of raw and cooked grains (as porridge) of six sorghum genotypes were investigated.

Results

Tannin content significantly decreased across all sorghum genotypes under high growth temperature (P ≤0.05), while the phytate and mineral contents maintained the same level, increased or decreased significantly, depending on the genotype. The in vitro iron availability in most sorghum genotypes was also significantly reduced under high temperature, except for Ai4, which showed a pronounced increase (P ≤0.05). The cooking process significantly reduced tannin content in all sorghum genotypes (P ≤0.05), while the phytate content and in vitro iron availability were not significantly affected.

Conclusions

This research provides some new information on sorghum grain nutritional properties when grown under predicted future higher temperatures, which could be important for humans where sorghum grains are consumed as staple food.

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<![CDATA[Genome-Wide Immune Modulation of TLR3-Mediated Inflammation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells Differs between Single and Multi-Strain Probiotic Combination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e4ab0ee8fa60b6ac07

Genome-wide transcriptional analysis in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) can aid in elucidating the impact of single versus multi-strain probiotic combinations on immunological and cellular mechanisms of action. In this study we used human expression microarray chips in an in vitro intestinal epithelial cell model to investigate the impact of three probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 (Lh-R0052), Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis R0033 (Bl-R0033) and Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 (Bb-R0071) individually and in combination, and of a surface-layer protein (SLP) purified from Lh-R0052, on HT-29 cells’ transcriptional profile to poly(I:C)-induced inflammation. Hierarchical heat map clustering, Set Distiller and String analyses revealed that the effects of Lh-R0052 and Bb-R0071 diverged from those of Bl-R0033 and Lh-R0052-SLP. It was evident from the global analyses with respect to the immune, cellular and homeostasis related pathways that the co-challenge with probiotic combination (PC) vastly differed in its effect from the single strains and Lh-R0052-SLP treatments. The multi-strain PC resulted in a greater reduction of modulated genes, found through functional connections between immune and cellular pathways. Cytokine and chemokine analyses based on specific outcomes from the TNF-α and NF-κB signaling pathways revealed single, multi-strain and Lh-R0052-SLP specific attenuation of the majority of proteins measured (TNF-α, IL-8, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL10), indicating potentially different mechanisms. These findings indicate a synergistic effect of the bacterial combinations relative to the single strain and Lh-R0052-SLP treatments in resolving toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-induced inflammation in IEC and maintaining cellular homeostasis, reinforcing the rationale for using multi-strain formulations as a probiotic.

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<![CDATA[Whitefly attraction to rosemary (Rosmarinus officinialis L.) is associated with volatile composition and quantity]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf799

Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) is an important insect pest, causing severe damage to agricultural crops. The pest was recorded in a commercial rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, Lamiaceae) field, colonizing rosemary variety (var.) '2', but not '11'. A series of field and controlled laboratory choice bioassays confirmed the observed phenomenon. Mature potted plants of the two varieties were randomly organized in a lemon verbena (Lippia citrodora) and lemon grass (Cymbopogon spp.) fields. Seven days later var. '2' was significantly more colonized by whiteflies than var. '11'. Under lab conditions, whiteflies were significantly more attracted to var. '2' plantlets than to var. '11' following choice bioassays. Furthermore, cotton plants dipped in an essential oil emulsion of var. '2' had significantly greater colonization than cotton plants dipped in the essential oil emulsion of var. '11'. Similar results were obtained in 'plant-plant', 'plant-no plant' as well as, 'essential oil—essential oil' choice bioassay designs. Analyses of the essential oils of the two varieties identified a set of common and unique volatiles in each variety. Among these volatiles were β-caryophyllene and limonene, two compounds known to be associated with plant-insect interactions. The attraction of B. tabaci to pure (>95%) β-caryophyllene and limonene using a range of concentrations was examined in vitro by choice bioassays. The compounds were attractive to the insect at moderate concentration, but not at the lowest or highest concentrations used, where the insect was not attracted or repelled, respectively. Limonene attracted the insects at rates that were 10-fold lower than β-caryophyllene. The results emphasized the role of host plant volatiles in shaping the structure of B. tabaci populations in nature and in agricultural systems, and provided insights into the factors that contribute to the development of insect populations with unique characteristics. The results could also serve for future development of bio-pesticides and in breeding programs.

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<![CDATA[Concerning the matching of magnetic susceptibility differences for the compensation of background gradients in anisotropic diffusion fibre phantoms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5aab0ee8fa60bdf4d3

Artificial, anisotropic fibre phantoms are nowadays increasingly used in the field of diffusion-weighted MRI. Such phantoms represent useful tools for, among others, the calibration of pulse sequences and validation of diffusion models since they can mimic well-known structural features of brain tissue on the one hand, but exhibit a reduced complexity, on the other. Among all materials, polyethylene fibres have been widely used due to their excellent properties regarding the restriction of water diffusion and surface relaxation properties. Yet the magnetic susceptibility of polyethylene can be distinctly lower than that of distilled water. This difference produces strong microscopic, background field gradients in the vicinity of fibre bundles which are not parallel to the static magnetic field. This, in turn, modulates the MRI signal behaviour. In the present work we investigate an approach to reduce the susceptibility-induced background gradients via reducing the heterogeneity in the internal magnetic susceptibility. An aqueous solution of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2·6H2O) is used for this purpose. Its performance is demonstrated in dedicated anisotropic fibre phantoms with different geometrical configurations.

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<![CDATA[Selected Schizosaccharomyces pombe Strains Have Characteristics That Are Beneficial for Winemaking]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da6dab0ee8fa60b93b3f

At present, wine is generally produced using Saccharomyces yeast followed by Oenococus bacteria to complete malolactic fermentation. This method has some unsolved problems, such as the management of highly acidic musts and the production of potentially toxic products including biogenic amines and ethyl carbamate. Here we explore the potential of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe to solve these problems. We characterise an extensive worldwide collection of S. pombe strains according to classic biochemical parameters of oenological interest. We identify three genetically different S. pombe strains that appear suitable for winemaking. These strains compare favourably to standard Saccharomyces cerevisiae winemaking strains, in that they perform effective malic acid deacidification and significantly reduce levels of biogenic amines and ethyl carbamate precursors without the need for any secondary bacterial malolactic fermentation. These findings indicate that the use of certain S. pombe strains could be advantageous for winemaking in regions where malic acid is problematic, and these strains also show superior performance with respect to food safety.

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<![CDATA[Calibration Method of an Ultrasonic System for Temperature Measurement]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989d9e4ab0ee8fa60b6a923

System calibration is fundamental to the overall accuracy of the ultrasonic temperature measurement, and it is basically involved in accurately measuring the path length and the system latency of the ultrasonic system. This paper proposes a method of high accuracy system calibration. By estimating the time delay between the transmitted signal and the received signal at several different temperatures, the calibration equations are constructed, and the calibrated results are determined with the use of the least squares algorithm. The formulas are deduced for calculating the calibration uncertainties, and the possible influential factors are analyzed. The experimental results in distilled water show that the calibrated path length and system latency can achieve uncertainties of 0.058 mm and 0.038 μs, respectively, and the temperature accuracy is significantly improved by using the calibrated results. The temperature error remains within ±0.04°C consistently, and the percentage error is less than 0.15%.

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<![CDATA[The morphogenesis-related NDR kinase pathway of Colletotrichum orbiculare is required for translating plant surface signals into infection-related morphogenesis and pathogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db54ab0ee8fa60bdcfab

Plant infection by pathogenic fungi involves the differentiation of appressoria, specialized infection structures, initiated by fungal sensing and responding to plant surface signals. How plant fungal pathogens control infection-related morphogenesis in response to plant-derived signals has been unclear. Here we showed that the morphogenesis-related NDR kinase pathway (MOR) of the cucumber anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum orbiculare is crucial for appressorium development following perception of plant-derived signals. By screening of random insertional mutants, we identified that the MOR element CoPag1 (Perish-in-the-absence-of-GYP1) is a key component of the plant-derived signaling pathway involved in appressorium morphogenesis. Constitutive activation of the NDR kinase CoCbk1 (Cell-wall-biosynthesis-kinase-1) complemented copag1 defects. Furthermore, copag1 deletion impaired CoCbk1 phosphorylation, suggesting that CoPag1 functions via CoCbk1 activation. Searching for the plant signals that contribute to appressorium induction via MOR, we found that the cutin monomer n-octadecanal, degraded from the host cuticle by conidial esterases, functions as a signal molecule for appressorium development. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling during appressorium development revealed that MOR is responsible for the expression of a subset of the plant-signal-induced genes with potential roles in pathogenicity. Thus, MOR of C. orbiculare has crucial roles in regulating appressorium development and pathogenesis by communicating with plant-derived signals.

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<![CDATA[Experimental demonstration of the possible role of Acanthamoeba polyphaga in the infection and disease progression in Buruli Ulcer (BU) using ICR mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db50ab0ee8fa60bdc07a

The transmission of Buruli ulcer (BU), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), remains puzzling although a number of hypothesis including through bites of infected aquatic insects have been proposed. We report the results of experiments using ICR mice that give credence to our hypothesis that Acanthamoeba species may play a role in BU transmission. We cocultured MU N2 and MU 1615 which expresses red fluorescent protein (RFP) and Acanthamoeba polyphaga (AP), and confirmed infected AP by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining. We tested for viability of MU inside AP and observed strong RFP signals inside both trophozoites and cysts after 3 and 42 days of coculturing respectively. ICR mice were topically treated, either on shaved intact or shaved pinpricked rumps, with one of the following; MU N2 only (2.25 x 106 colony forming units [CFU] / ml), MU N2:AP coculture (2.96 x 104 CFU: 1.6 x 106 cells/ml), AP only (1.6 x 106 cells/ml), PYG medium and sterile distilled water. Both MU N2 only and MU N2:AP elicited reddening on day (D) 31; edema on D 45 and D 44 respectively, and ulcers on D 49 at pinpricked sites only. To ascertain infectivity and pathogenicity of MU N2 only and MU N2:AP, and compare their virulence, the standard mouse footpad inoculation method was used. MU N2:AP elicited reddening in footpads by D 3 compared to D 14 with MU N2 only of the same dose of MU N2 (2.96 x 104 CFU). ZN-stained MU were observed in both thin sectioned and homogenized lesions, and aspirates from infected sites. Viable MU N2 were recovered from cultures of the homogenates and aspirates. This study demonstrates in ICR mice MU transmission via passive infection, and shows that punctures in the skin are prerequisite for infection, and that coculturing of MU with AP enhances pathogenesis.

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<![CDATA[Rodents and humans are able to detect the odour of L-Lactate]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db5cab0ee8fa60be0011

L-Lactate (LL) is an essential cellular metabolite which can be used to generate energy. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that LL is used for inter-cellular signalling. Some LL-sensitive receptors have been identified but we recently proposed that there may be yet another unknown G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) sensitive to LL in the brain. Olfactory receptors (ORs) represent the largest family of GPCRs and some of them are expressed outside the olfactory system, including brain, making them interesting candidates for non-olfactory LL signalling. One of the “ectopically” expressed ORs, Olfr78 in mice (Olr59 in rats and OR51E2 in humans), reportedly can be activated by LL. This implies that both rodents and humans should be able to detect the LL odour. Surprisingly, this has never been demonstrated. Here we show that mice can detect the odour of LL in odour detection and habituation-dishabituation tasks, and discriminate it from peppermint and vanilla odours. Behaviour of the Olfr78 null mice and wildtype mice in odour detection task was not different, indicating that rodents are equipped with more than one LL-sensitive OR. Rats were also able to use the smell of LL as a cue in an odour-reward associative learning task. When presented to humans, more than 90% of participants detected a smell of LL in solution. Interestingly, LL was perceived differently than acetate or propionate—LL was preferentially reported as a pleasant sweet scent while acetate and propionate were perceived as repulsive sour/acid smells. Subjective perception of LL smell was different in men and women. Taken together, our data demonstrate that both rodents and humans are able to detect the odour of LL. Moreover, in mice, LL perception is not purely mediated by Olfr78. Discovery of further LL-sensitive OR might shed the light on their contribution to LL signalling in the body.

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<![CDATA[Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da90ab0ee8fa60b9fd41

A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE). These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications.

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<![CDATA[Effect of Water on Survival and Development of Diapausing Eggs of Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad5ab0ee8fa60bb7bf0

The green mirid bug Apolygus lucorum is a regional pest of multiple crops in northern China, and the survival and development of diapausing eggs during winter plays an important role in the population dynamics of this species. The effect of water on the survival and development of A. lucorum eggs was investigated using laboratory-induced diapause. Diapausing eggs were exposed to various humidity regimes under three conditions: (1) termination of diapause with exposure to warm long-day (WLD) conditions (i.e., 26 ± 1°C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity (RH) under a photoperiod of 16 hours light and 8 hours dark), (2) termination of diapause by chilling at 4°C, or (3) during the post-diapause stage, i.e., from transfer to WLD conditions after chilling, until the hatching of nymphs. The results indicate that water availability is crucial for the post-diapause resumption of development of A. lucorum. However, exposure to excessive moisture was detrimental, as indicated by a decrease in diapause termination rate and a prolonged pre-hatching period of diapausing eggs, compared to limited moisture conditions. This implies that both too dry and too humid environmental conditions would suppress survival and postpone hatching of overwintered A. lucorum eggs, and might explain why this pest has not caused severe damage in either southern or western China where the respective climates are very humid or dry.

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<![CDATA[Effects of Rhamnolipid and Microbial Inoculants on the Vermicomposting of Green Waste with Eisenia fetida]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db52ab0ee8fa60bdc8cd

The effects of adding the biosurfactant rhamnolipid, the lignolytic and cellulolytic fungus Phanerochete chrysosporium, and the free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter chrococcum on vermicomposting of green waste with Eisenia fetida was investigated. The addition of rhamnolipid and/or either microorganism alone or in all combinations significantly increased E. fetida growth rate, the number of E. fetida juveniles and cocoons, the population densities of cellulolytic fungi and Azotobacter bacteria, and cellulase and urease activities in the vermicomposts. The quality of the final vermicompost (in terms of electrical conductivity, nutrient content, C/N ratio, humic acid content, lignin and cellulose contents, and phytotoxicity to germinating seeds) was enhanced by addition of rhamnolipid and/or microorganisms. The physical characteristics of vermicomposts produced with rhamnolipid and/or microorganisms were acceptable for agricultural application. The best quality vermicompost was obtained with the combined addition of P. chrysosporium, A. chrococcum, and rhamnolipid.

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<![CDATA[Non-Invasive Detection of Protein Content in Several Types of Plant Feed Materials Using a Hybrid Near Infrared Spectroscopy Model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989da0cab0ee8fa60b780d7

Near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was applied to construct a hybrid model for the non-invasive detection of protein content in different types of plant feed materials. In total, 829 samples of plant feed materials, which included corn distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ meal, corn gluten meal, distillers’ dried grains (DDG) and rapeseed meal, were collected from markets in China. Based on the different preprocessed spectral data, specific models for each type of plant feed material and a hybrid model for all the materials were built. Performances of specific model and hybrid model constructed with full spectrum (full spectrum model) and selected wavenumbers with VIP (variable importance in the projection) scores value bigger than 1.00 (VIP scores model) were also compared. The best spectral preprocessing method for this study was found to be the standard normal variate transformation combined with the first derivative. For both full spectrum and VIP scores model, the prediction performance of the hybrid model was slightly worse than those of the specific models but was nevertheless satisfactory. Moreover, the VIP scores model obtained generally better performances than corresponding full spectrum model. Wavenumbers around 4500 cm-1, 4664 cm-1 and 4836 cm-1 were found to be the key wavenumbers in modeling protein content in these plant feed materials. The values for the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and the relative prediction deviation (RPD) obtained with the VIP scores hybrid model were 1.05% and 2.53 for corn DDGS, 0.98% and 4.17 for corn germ meal, 0.75% and 6.99 for corn gluten meal, 1.54% and 4.59 for DDG, and 0.90% and 3.33 for rapeseed meal, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that the protein content in several types of plant feed materials can be determined using a hybrid near-infrared spectroscopy model. And VIP scores method can be used to improve the general predictability of hybrid model.

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<![CDATA[Efficacy of fluoride varnishes for preventing enamel demineralization after interproximal enamel reduction. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdcc20

Objectives

To evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively the changes produced to enamel after interproximal reduction and subjected to demineralization cycles, after applying a fluoride varnish (Profluorid) and a fluoride varnish containing tricalcium phosphate modified by fumaric acid (Clinpro White).

Materials and methods

138 interproximal dental surfaces were divided into six groups: 1) Intact enamel; 2) Intact enamel + demineralization cycles (DC); 3) Interproximal Reduction (IR); 4) IR + DC; 5) IR + Profluorid + DC; 6) IR + Clinpro White + DC. IR was performed with a 0.5 mm cylindrical diamond bur. The weight percentage of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P) and fluoride (F) were quantified by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Samples were examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Results

The weight percentage of Ca was significantly higher (p<0.05) in Groups 1, 2 and 5 than Groups 4 and 6. No significant differences were detected in the weight percentage of Ca between Group 3 and the other groups (p>0.05). The weight percentage of P was similar among all six groups (p>0.05). F was detected on 65% of Group 6 surfaces. SEM images of Groups 4 and 6 showed signs of demineralization, while Group 5 did not.

Conclusions

Profluorid application acts as a barrier against the demineralization of interproximally reduced enamel.

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<![CDATA[Pitfalls of DNA Quantification Using DNA-Binding Fluorescent Dyes and Suggested Solutions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989dad2ab0ee8fa60bb6aec

The Qubit fluorometer is a DNA quantification device based on the fluorescence intensity of fluorescent dye binding to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Qubit is generally considered useful for checking DNA quality before next-generation sequencing because it measures intact dsDNA. To examine the most accurate and suitable methods for quantifying DNA for quality assessment, we compared three quantification methods: NanoDrop, which measures UV absorbance; Qubit; and quantitative PCR (qPCR), which measures the abundance of a target gene. For the comparison, we used three types of DNA: 1) DNA extracted from fresh frozen liver tissues (Frozen-DNA); 2) DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver tissues comparable to those used for Frozen-DNA (FFPE-DNA); and 3) DNA extracted from the remaining fractions after RNA extraction with Trizol reagent (Trizol-DNA). These DNAs were serially diluted with distilled water and measured using three quantification methods. For Frozen-DNA, the Qubit values were not proportional to the dilution ratio, in contrast with the NanoDrop and qPCR values. This non-proportional decrease in Qubit values was dependent on a lower salt concentration, and over 1 mM NaCl in the DNA solution was required for the Qubit measurement. For FFPE-DNA, the Qubit values were proportional to the dilution ratio and were lower than the NanoDrop values. However, electrophoresis revealed that qPCR reflected the degree of DNA fragmentation more accurately than Qubit. Thus, qPCR is superior to Qubit for checking the quality of FFPE-DNA. For Trizol-DNA, the Qubit values were proportional to the dilution ratio and were consistently lower than the NanoDrop values, similar to FFPE-DNA. However, the qPCR values were higher than the NanoDrop values. Electrophoresis with SYBR Green I and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) quantification demonstrated that Trizol-DNA consisted mostly of non-fragmented ssDNA. Therefore, Qubit is not always the most accurate method for quantifying DNA available for PCR.

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<![CDATA[Comparison of chemical-use between hydraulic fracturing, acidizing, and routine oil and gas development]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5989db53ab0ee8fa60bdc9aa

The potential hazards and risks associated with well-stimulation in unconventional oil and gas development (hydraulic fracturing, acid fracturing, and matrix acidizing) have been investigated and evaluated and federal and state regulations requiring chemical disclosure for well-stimulation have been implemented as part of an overall risk management strategy for unconventional oil and gas development. Similar evaluations for chemicals used in other routine oil and gas development activities, such as maintenance acidizing, gravel packing, and well drilling, have not been previously conducted, in part due to a lack of reliable information concerning on-field chemical-use. In this study, we compare chemical-use between routine activities and the more closely regulated well-stimulation activities using data collected by the South Coast Air Quality Monitoring District (SCAQMD), which mandates the reporting of both unconventional and routine on-field chemical-use for parts of Southern California. Analysis of this data shows that there is significant overlap in chemical-use between so-called unconventional activities and routine activities conducted for well maintenance, well-completion, or rework. A comparison within the SCAQMD shows a significant overlap between both types and amounts of chemicals used for well-stimulation treatments included under State mandatory-disclosure regulations and routine treatments that are not included under State regulations. A comparison between SCAQMD chemical-use for routine treatments and state-wide chemical-use for hydraulic fracturing also showed close similarity in chemical-use between activities covered under chemical disclosure requirements (e.g. hydraulic fracturing) and many other oil and gas field activities. The results of this study indicate regulations and risk assessments focused exclusively on chemicals used in well-stimulation activities may underestimate potential hazard or risk from overall oil field chemical-use.

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